binding modes
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2022 ◽  
Leiye Yu ◽  
Licong He ◽  
Bing Gan ◽  
Rujuan Ti ◽  
Qingjie Xiao ◽  

As a critical sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays an essential role in immune and vascular systems. There are five S1P receptors, designated as S1PR1-5, encoded in the human genome, and their activities are governed by endogenous S1P, lipid-like S1P mimics, or non-lipid-like therapeutic molecules. Among S1PRs, S1PR1 stands out due to its non-redundant functions, such as the egress of T and B cells from the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues, making it a potential therapeutic target. However, the structural basis of S1PR1 activation and regulation by various agonists remains unclear. Here we reported four atomic resolution cryo-EM structures of Gi-coupled human S1PR1 complexes: bound to endogenous agonist d18:1 S1P, benchmark lipid-like S1P mimic phosphorylated Fingolimod ((S)-FTY720-P), or non-lipid-like therapeutic molecule CBP-307 in two binding modes. Our results revealed the similarities and differences of activation of S1PR1 through distinct ligands binding to the amphiphilic orthosteric pocket. We also proposed a two-step "shallow to deep" transition process of CBP-307 for S1PR1 activation. Both binding modes of CBP-307 could activate S1PR1, but from shallow to deep transition may trigger the rotation of the N-terminal helix of Gαi and further stabilize the complex by increasing the Gαi interaction with the cell membrane. We combine with extensive biochemical analysis and molecular dynamic simulations to suggest key steps of S1P binding and receptor activation. The above results decipher the common feature of the S1PR1 agonist recognition and activation mechanism and will firmly promote the development of therapeutics targeting S1P receptors.

Mark A. Nakasone ◽  
Karolina A. Majorek ◽  
Mads Gabrielsen ◽  
Gary J. Sibbet ◽  
Brian O. Smith ◽  

AbstractUbiquitin (Ub) chain types govern distinct biological processes. K48-linked polyUb chains target substrates for proteasomal degradation, but the mechanism of Ub chain synthesis remains elusive due to the transient nature of Ub handover. Here, we present the structure of a chemically trapped complex of the E2 UBE2K covalently linked to donor Ub and acceptor K48-linked di-Ub, primed for K48-linked Ub chain synthesis by a RING E3. The structure reveals the basis for acceptor Ub recognition by UBE2K active site residues and the C-terminal Ub-associated (UBA) domain, to impart K48-linked Ub specificity and catalysis. Furthermore, the structure unveils multiple Ub-binding surfaces on the UBA domain that allow distinct binding modes for K48- and K63-linked Ub chains. This multivalent Ub-binding feature serves to recruit UBE2K to ubiquitinated substrates to overcome weak acceptor Ub affinity and thereby promote chain elongation. These findings elucidate the mechanism of processive K48-linked polyUb chain formation by UBE2K.

Rafat Milad Mohareb ◽  
Noha M. Asaad Bagato ◽  
Ibrahim Taha Radwan

Background: Cancer is a disease illustrated by a shift in the controlled mechanisms that control both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is regarded as a prime health problem worldwide, leading cause of human death-rate exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Many reported work was concerned with the discovery of new antitumor compounds this encourage us to synthesis new anticancer agents. Objective: In this work, we are aiming to synthesize target molecules from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds through many heterocyclization reactions. Method: The reaction of either 4-methylaniline (1a) or 1-naphthylamine (1b) with diethyl malonate (2) gave the anilide derivatives 3a and 3b, respectively. The latter products underwent a series of heterocyclization reactions to give the pyridine, pyran andthiazole derivatives which confirmed with the required spectral data. Results: Thein-vitro antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against four cancer cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, SF-268 and WI 38 as normal cell line were screened and the data revealed that compounds 11a, 18b, 18c and 20d showed high antitumor activity and 20dindividualize with potential antitumor activity towards cell lines with lowest cytotoxicity effect. Both EGFR and PIM-1 enzyme inhibition were investigated for the compound 20d and his inhibition effect was promising for each enzyme showing IC50=45.67 ng and 553.3 ng for EGFR and PIM-1, respectively. Conclusion: Molecular docking results of compound 20d showed a strong binding interactions on both enzymes, where, good binding modes obtained on case of EGFR, which closely similar to the binding mode of standard Erlotinib. While, 20d showed complete superimposition binding interactions with VRV-cocrystallized ligand of PIM-1 that may expounds the in-vitro antitumor activity.

2022 ◽  
Lalehan Özalp ◽  
İlkay Küçükgüzel ◽  
Ayşe Ogan

Abstract Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is promising for designing novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as they lack side-effects associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Azole compounds are nitrogen-containing heterocycles and have a wide use in medicine and are considered as promising compounds in medicinal chemistry. Various computer-aided drug design strategies are incorporated in this study. Structure-based virtual screening was performed employing various docking programs. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the selectivity of each program. Furthermore, scoring power of Autodock4 and Autodock Vina was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Pharmacophore models were generated and Güner-Henry score of the best model was calculated as 0.89. Binding modes of the final 10 azole compounds were analyzed and further investigation of the best binding (-8.38 kcal/mol) compound was performed using molecular dynamics simulation, revealing that furazan1224 (ZINC001142847306) occupied the binding site of the substrate, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) and remained stable for 100 ns. Continuous hydrogen bonds with amino acids in the active site supported the stability of furazan1224 throughout the trajectory. Pharmacokinetic profile showed that furazan1224 lacks the risks of inhibiting cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme and central nervous system-related side-effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yasir Nazir ◽  
Hummera Rafique ◽  
Sadia Roshan ◽  
Shazia Shamas ◽  
Zaman Ashraf ◽  

Tyrosinase and its related proteins are responsible for pigmentation disorders, and inhibiting tyrosinase is an established strategy to treat hyperpigmentation. The carbonyl scaffolds can be effective inhibitors of tyrosinase activity, and the fact that both benzoic and cinnamic acids are safe natural substances with such a scaffolded structure, it was speculated that hydroxyl-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives may exhibit potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. These moieties were incorporated into new chemotypes that displayed in vitro inhibitory effect against mushroom tyrosinase with a view to explore antimelanogenic ingredients. The most active compound, 2-((3-acetylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl(E)-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate (5c), inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 0.0020 ± 0.0002   μ M , while 2-((3-acetylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (3c) had an IC50 of 27.35 ± 3.6   μ M in comparison to the positive control arbutin and kojic acid with a tyrosinase inhibitory activity of IC50 of 191.17 ± 5.5   μ M and IC50 of 16.69 ± 2.8   μ M , respectively. Analysis of enzyme kinetics revealed that 5c is a competitive and reversible inhibitor with dissociation constant (Ki) value 0.0072 μM. In silico docking studies with mushroom tyrosinase (PDB ID 2Y9X) predicted possible binding modes in the enzymatic pocket for these compounds. The orthohydroxyl of the cinnamic acid moiety of 5c is predicted to form hydrogen bond with the active site side chain carbonyl of Asn 260 (2.16 Å) closer to the catalytic site Cu ions. The acetyl carbonyl is picking up another hydrogen bond with Asn 81 (1.90 Å). The inhibitor 5c passed the panassay interference (PAINS) alerts. This study presents the potential of hydroxyl-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acids and could be beneficial for various cosmetic formulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Hani A. Alhadrami ◽  
Wesam H. Abdulaal ◽  
Hossam M. Hassan ◽  
Nabil A. Alhakamy ◽  
Ahmed M. Sayed

E. coli is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes different human infections. Additionally, it resists common antibiotics due to its outer protective membrane. Natural products have been proven to be efficient antibiotics. However, plant natural products are far less explored in this regard. Accordingly, over 16,000 structures covering almost all African medicinal plants in AfroDb in a structural-based virtual screening were used to find efficient anti-E. coli candidates. These drug-like structures were docked into the active sites of two important molecular targets (i.e., E. coli’s Ddl-B and Gyr-B). The top-scoring hits (i.e., got docking scores < −10 kcal/mol) produced in the initial virtual screening (0.15% of the database structures for Ddl-B and 0.17% of the database structures for Gyr-B in the database) were further refined using molecular dynamic simulation-based binding free energy (ΔG) calculation. Anthraquinones were found to prevail among the retrieved hits. Accordingly, readily available anthraquinone derivatives (10 hits) were selected, prepared, and tested in vitro against Ddl-B, Gyr-B, multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli, MRSA, and VRSA. A number of the tested derivatives demonstrated strong micromolar enzyme inhibition and antibacterial activity against E. coli, MRSA, and VRSA, with MIC values ranging from 2 to 64 µg/mL. Moreover, both E. coli’s Ddl-B and Gyr-B were inhibited by emodin and chrysophanol with IC50 values comparable to the reference inhibitors (IC50 = 216 ± 5.6, 236 ± 8.9 and 0.81 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.5 µM for Ddl-B and Gyr-B, respectively). All of the active antibacterial anthraquinone hits showed low to moderate cellular cytotoxicity (CC50 > 50 µM) against human normal fibroblasts (WI-38). Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) experiments were carried out to reveal the binding modes of these inhibitors inside the active site of each enzyme. The findings presented in this study are regarded as a significant step toward developing novel antibacterial agents against MDR strains.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 710
Gustavo D. Campagnaro ◽  
Hamza A. A. Elati ◽  
Sofia Balaska ◽  
Maria Esther Martin Abril ◽  
Manal J. Natto ◽  

Toxoplasma gondii is unable to synthesize purines de novo, instead salvages them from its environment, inside the host cell, for which they need high affinity carriers. Here, we report the expression of a T. gondii Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter, Tg244440, in a Trypanosoma brucei strain from which nucleobase transporters have been deleted. Tg244440 transported hypoxanthine and guanine with similar affinity (Km ~1 µM), while inosine and guanosine displayed Ki values of 4.05 and 3.30 µM, respectively. Low affinity was observed for adenosine, adenine, and pyrimidines, classifying Tg244440 as a high affinity oxopurine transporter. Purine analogues were used to probe the substrate-transporter binding interactions, culminating in quantitative models showing different binding modes for oxopurine bases, oxopurine nucleosides, and adenosine. Hypoxanthine and guanine interacted through protonated N1 and N9, and through unprotonated N3 and N7 of the purine ring, whereas inosine and guanosine mostly employed the ribose hydroxy groups for binding, in addition to N1H of the nucleobase. Conversely, the ribose moiety of adenosine barely made any contribution to binding. Tg244440 is the first gene identified to encode a high affinity oxopurine transporter in T. gondii and, to the best of our knowledge, the first purine transporter to employ different binding modes for nucleosides and nucleobases.

Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Nolan File ◽  
Joseph Carmicheal ◽  
Alexey V. Krasnoslobodtsev ◽  
Nicole C. Japp ◽  
Joshua J. Souchek ◽  

SERS immunoassay biosensors hold immense potential for clinical diagnostics due to their high sensitivity and growing interest in multi-marker panels. However, their development has been hindered by difficulties in designing compatible extrinsic Raman labels. Prior studies have largely focused on spectroscopic characteristics in selecting Raman reporter molecules (RRMs) for multiplexing since the presence of well-differentiated spectra is essential for simultaneous detection. However, these candidates often induce aggregation of the gold nanoparticles used as SERS nanotags despite their similarity to other effective RRMs. Thus, an improved understanding of factors affecting the aggregation of RRM-coated gold nanoparticles is needed. Substituent electronic effects on particle stability were investigated using various para-substituted thiophenols. The inductive and resonant effects of functional group modifications were strongly correlated with nanoparticle surface charge and hence their stability. Treatment with thiophenols diminished the negative surface charge of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles, but electron-withdrawing substituents limited the magnitude of this diminishment. It is proposed that this phenomenon arises by affecting the interplay of competing sulfur binding modes. This has wide-reaching implications for the design of biosensors using thiol-modified gold surfaces. A proof-of-concept multiplexed SERS biosensor was designed according to these findings using the two thiophenol compounds with the most electron-withdrawing substitutions: NO2 and CN.

2022 ◽  
Lucianna H. Santos ◽  
Thales Kronenberger ◽  
Renata G Almeida ◽  
Elany Barbosa da Silva ◽  
Rafael E O Rocha ◽  

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 urgently demands novel direct antiviral treatments. The main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) are attractive drug targets among coronaviruses due to their essential role in processing the polyproteins translated from the viral RNA. In the present work, we virtually screened 688 naphthoquinoidal compounds and derivatives against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-four derivatives were selected and evaluated in biochemical assays against Mpro using a novel fluorogenic substrate. In parallel, these compounds were also assayed with SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. Four compounds inhibited Mpro with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 0.41 μM and 66 μM. In addition, eight compounds inhibited PLpro with IC50 ranging from 1.7 μM to 46 μM. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest stable binding modes for Mpro inhibitors with frequent interactions with residues in the S1 and S2 pockets of the active site. For two PLpro inhibitors, interactions occur in the S3 and S4 pockets. In summary, our structure-based computational and biochemical approach identified novel naphthoquinonal scaffolds that can be further explored as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.

Karla Arlen Ortiz ◽  
Oscar A. Jaramillo-Quintero ◽  
Edgar Alvarez-Zauco ◽  
Marina Elizabeth Rincón González

Abstract Self-assembly of organic molecules is a promising method for generating multilayer systems for fabrication of functional devices. In particular, fullerene (C60) and porphyrin molecules offer a variety of binding modes, including π-π interactions, dipole electrostatic attraction, and hydrogen bonding, to tailor the charge separation and charge recombination limiting device performance. Here, we investigate multilayer systems obtained by the sequential physical vapor deposition of C60 and tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) layers, focusing on the effect of the interfaces on the charge transfer processes. Absorbance spectra indicate noncovalent-like π-stacking, with the increment of fullerene interfaces shifting the porphyrin Soret band toward the blue. Similarly, surface photovoltage measurements in the multilayer systems show that as the number of interfaces increases, so does the photogeneration of charge. Charge separation follows carrier generation given that the recombination time, associated to trap states, decreases. This behavior indicates that the Donor-Acceptor nature of the fullerene-porphyrin bilayer system is conserved, and even enhanced, in the multilayer film, and that the number of interfaces aid to the formation of selective paths for charge carrier collection, demonstrating its potential in optoelectronic devices.

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