age determination
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Stefania De Simone ◽  
Elena Giacani ◽  
Maria Antonella Bosco ◽  
Simona Vittorio ◽  
Michela Ferrara ◽  

Background:The timing of wounds production is a significant issue in forensic pathology. Although various methods have been evaluated, obtaining an accurate dating of lesions is still a challenge. The pathologist uses many parameters to value wound age, such as histological and immunohistochemical. In recent years, there have been many studies regarding the use of miRNAs in wound-age estimation; indeed, miRNAs have multiple potential uses in forensic pathology.Scope:This review aims to verify the efficacy and feasibility of miRNAs as a tool for determining the timing of lesions.Materials and Methods:The authors conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed was used as a search engine to find articles published between January, 1st 2016 and October, 1st 2021, to evaluate the current state of the art regarding wound-age estimation.Results:A total of 256 articles were collected; after screening according to PRISMA guidelines, the systematic review included 8 articles. The studies included in this review were all Original articles evaluating the use of biomarkers for wound-age determination.Discussion and Conclusion:The literature review showed that analysis of miRNA is an innovative field of study with significant potentiality in forensic pathology. There are few studies, and almost all of them are at an early stage. The challenge is to understand how to standardize the samples' selection to obtain reliable experimental data. This observation represents a necessary prerequisite to planning further clinical trials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-18
Gerhard Franz ◽  
Masafumi Sudo ◽  
Vladimir Khomenko

Abstract. We determined 40Ar/39Ar ages of buddingtonite, occurring together with muscovite, with the laser-ablation method. This is the first attempt to date the NH4-feldspar buddingtonite, which is typical for sedimentary–diagenetic environments of sediments, rich in organic matter, or in hydrothermal environments, associated with volcanic geyser systems. The sample is a hydrothermal breccia, coming from the Paleoproterozoic pegmatite field of the Korosten Plutonic Complex, Volyn, Ukraine. A detailed characterization by optical methods, electron microprobe analyses, backscattered electron imaging, and IR analyses showed that the buddingtonite consists of euhedral-appearing platy crystals of tens of micrometers wide, 100 or more micrometers in length, which consist of fine-grained fibers of ≤ 1 µm thickness. The crystals are sector and growth zoned in terms of K–NH4–H3O content. The content of K allows for an age determination with the 40Ar/39Ar method, as well as in the accompanying muscovite, intimately intergrown with the buddingtonite. The determinations on muscovite yielded an age of 1491 ± 9 Ma, interpreted as the hydrothermal event forming the breccia. However, buddingtonite apparent ages yielded a range of 563 ± 14 Ma down to 383 ± 12 Ma, which are interpreted as reset ages due to Ar loss of the fibrous buddingtonite crystals during later heating. We conclude that buddingtonite is suited for 40Ar/39Ar age determinations as a supplementary method, together with other methods and minerals; however, it requires a detailed mineralogical characterization, and the ages will likely represent minimum ages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 222-228
Anne Berg Breen ◽  
Harald Steen ◽  
Are Pripp ◽  
Ragnhild Gunderson ◽  
Hilde Kristine Sandberg Mentzoni ◽  

Background and purpose — Skeletal maturity is a crucial parameter when calculating remaining growth in children. We compared 3 different methods, 2 manual and 1 automated, in the radiological assessment of bone age with respect to precision and systematic difference. Material and methods — 66 simultaneous examinations of the left hand and left elbow from children treated for leg-length discrepancies were randomly selected for skeletal age assessment. The radiographs were anonymized and assessed twice with at least 3 weeks’ interval according to the Greulich and Pyle (GP) and Sauvegrain (SG) methods by 5 radiologists with different levels of experience. The hand radiographs were also assessed for GP bone age by use of the automated BoneXpert (BX) method for comparison. Results — The inter-observer intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.96 for the GP and 0.98 for the SG method. The inter- and intra-observer standard error of the measurement (SEm) was 0.41 and 0.32 years for the GP method and 0.27 and 0.21 years for the SG method with a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the methods and between the experienced and the less experienced radiologists for both methods (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). In 25% of the assessments the discrepancy between the GP and the SG methodwas > 1 year. There was no systematic difference comparing either manual method with the automatic BX method. Interpretation — With respect to the precision of skeletal age determination, we recommend using the SG method or preferably the automated BX method based on GP assessments in the calculation of remaining growth.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Barbara Gmińska-Nowak ◽  
Achyut Tiwari ◽  
Tomasz Ważny

Gönpa Gang is an example of the traditional Buddhist architecture of Upper Mustang. It is also the first monument in Upper Mustang to be studied using the dendrochronological dating method. The gönpa is a two-story building of imposing size, made from simple elements of Tibetan architecture, namely masonry walls, timber posts, and beams. A total of 14 samples were collected from elements on both the ground and the first floor. The limited number of samples results from the cultural and religious character of the object under study. Only the elements consistent with the structure and the space arrangement, interpreted as original features, were examined. Microscopic observation and the analysis of the anatomical features of all 14 samples resulted in the identification of Himalayan pine (blue pine), Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. Intra-annual density fluctuation, false rings, and missing rings were detected. From 14 samples collected in Gönpa Gang, 18 series were worked out. Thus, 15 series from 12 samples were synchronized and used for the development of the mean chronology, UMGG_m, with a total length of 160 rings. The chronology covers the period from 1524 to 1683. Examination of the Gang Gönpa wood resulted in the age determination of 13 elements. The results were compared with architectural stratification by Harrison and historical data from written sources. The timber used in the gönpa comes from the Southern Mustang area. The examined wood demonstrates a correlation with the timber used in the Upper Mustang historical buildings further north.

2022 ◽  
pp. 85-91
E. V. Krukovich ◽  
G. O. Momot ◽  
E. A. Osipenko

The article highlights one of the current issues of pediatrics - the study of the dynamics of Physical Development (PD) in children and adolescents. The numerous methods of assessment are used. The methods contain one-dimensional, two-dimensional and / or trimeric indicators. They do not fully give an idea of the level of the child's PD and do not reflect the patterns of his growth and development. In some cases, a pediatrician at the outpatient stage requires a comprehensive assessment of PD including age determination and compliance of biological age with the real age, determination of the PD harmony, somatotype determination, assessment of the direction of growth and development along with the calculation of indexes, functional state assessment, assessment of the degree of fat deposition or bioimpedance measurement, which allows determining the risk group. The assessment of PD indicators must be carried out according to regional tables.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Mahanta Putul ◽  
Ranjumoni Konwar ◽  
Malamoni Dutta ◽  
Bharati Basumatary ◽  
Madhab Chandra Rajbongshi ◽  

Background and Objectives. In the biological age determination of a person’s teeth at adolescence, the third molar (M3) or wisdom tooth development is considered a dependable method used over the years. The present research intended to evaluate the age from the eruption status of M3 and analyze and equivalence with a different quadrant of the jaws. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was undertaken with 1060 Assamese individuals (642 males and 418 females) aged 14–26 years and was subjected to a clinical, dental, and general physical examination from January 2014 to December 2018. The data were statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The significant differences among variables were tested using the chi-square test and Student’s t -test, considering a p value < 0.05 as significant. Results. The carried-out research showed no eruption (NE) status of M3 with an overall mean (±SD) age at 17.39 (±2.273) years, although a significantly lower age among males with a mean age of 16.92 (±2.138) years ( p value < 0.001) was observed. The mean age (overall) for the complete eruption (CE) was observed at 20.33 (±2.566) years, which was seen earlier in males. The mandibular M3 appears earlier compared to the maxillary M3. The third molar eruption (TME) on both left and right quadrants of the jaw was observed substantially earlier in the lower jaw, compared to the upper jaw ( p value < 0.025). The earliest CE of M3 was marked at 15 years. The differences in the frequencies of TME in different chronological age groups were found significant ( p value < 0.001). A significant association between gender and TME ( p value < 0.045) in the current study is worth noting. Conclusion. Thus, determined by TME as a valid method, age can be used for various purposes to establish a person’s identity. Dental age estimated using third molar eruption status has a weighty association with chronological age. Thus, it should be utilized to determine the likely age of an individual.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Christoph Gauert ◽  
Armin Zeh

The about 2055-Ma-old mafic to ultramafic Uitkomst Complex in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa hosts the low-grade-large-tonnage Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, Nkomati. The complex is regarded to represent a satellite to the Bushveld Complex and a feeder to an eroded magmatic reservoir in the southeast. Aeromagnetic surveys and previous drilling indicated an overall northwestern-downdip extension of the complex, but the question is to what extent and in which expression can the complete intrusion be found under cover in the northwest? Answering this, a mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological investigation of a borehole intersection of the whole complex at Little Mamre was carried out, using petrography, XRF, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS U–Pb analyses of zircons for age determination. Although the total thickness of the rock units is larger than to the southeast, emplacement, litho- and mineral chemistry trends, expression of alteration mineralogy and style of sulphide mineralisation are similar. The amount of sulphide mineralisation is on average less than in the southeast. The upper ultramafic unit contains, more frequently, pegmatoidal sections, and the Chromitiferous Harzburgite unit has less massive chromitite layers than the southeastern parts of the complex, whereas the gabbro(-norite) units contain more interstitial liquid with late-stage minerals. The findings confirm that the anvil-shaped intrusion in cross section continues with increased thickness towards northwest at a shallow dip; although approaching the deeper part of the igneous reservoir, mineral compositions are partially more evolved. The overall mineralogical consistency downdip supports a situation of multiple magma replenishment along a flat-lying, northwest–southeast trending conduit, resulting in an evolved cumulus mineral assemblage in the upper part.

A.V. Rasskazova ◽  
V.A. Zheyfer ◽  
O.I. Mazurok

The paper presents the results of the anthropological study of a mass grave located in the grounds of the kremlin of Pereslavl-Zalessky (European Russia). It has been preliminary dated to the 13th — first half of the 14th century. This study is aimed at craniological investigation and establishing anthropological connections of the Medieval population of Pereslavl-Zalessky, as well as clarification of the circumstances of appearance of the mass burial within the town territory with the aid of anthropological methods. The human remains were analyzed to identify the number of individuals and to determine their sex and age. Determination of sex and age and recording of injuries were carried out on the craniological material. The craniological program was used to study 28 male and 16 female skulls. A canonical discriminant analysis was used for the intergroup analysis. The mass burial contained separated bones of 80 adults and 19 children. It was possible to identify 30 males and 24 females. The male component of the group was represented by virtually all age groups. The female part comprised mainly women aged 20–35. Therefore, the interred were placed in the grave spontaneously, considerably later after their death; the bodies had time to decompose completely. Eleven instances of skull injuries without signs of necrotic process and healing were recorded. The location and characteristics of the burial and presence of several instances of fatal lacerated wounds indicate that the city residents died in the course of a military clash. Therefore, the studied series represents a time slice of the population of the medieval city. The canonical discriminant analy-sis on the craniological series of 53 revealed that the studied series is distinct from the territorially and chronologically close series of Yaroslavl and Kostroma Krivichs. It also showed that the formation of the population of Pereslavl-Zalessky was strongly influenced by the migration of the Ilmen Slovens and Smolensk-Polotsk Krivichs. Among the specifics of the Pereslavl series, also noteworthy is the strong influence of southern Russian migrants. On the contrary, the influence of the Finno-Ugric morphological component on the urban population of the 13th–14th centuries was very insignificant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Christiane Scheffler ◽  
Alan D. Rogol ◽  
Mirela Iancu ◽  
Tomasz Hanc ◽  
Annang Giri Moelyo ◽  

Twenty-one scientists met for this year’s virtual conference on Auxology held at the University Potsdam, Germany, to discuss child and adolescent growth during times of fear and emotional stress. Growth within the broad range of normal for age and sex is considered a sign of good general health whereas fear and emotional stress can lead to growth faltering. Stunting is a sign of social disadvantage and poor parental education. Adverse childhood experiences affect child development, particularly in families with low parental education and low socioeconomic status. Negative effects were also shown in Indian children exposed prenatally and in early postnatal life to the cyclone Aila in 2009. Distrust, fears and fake news regarding the current Corona pandemic received particular attention though the effects generally appeared weak. Mean birth weight was higher; rates of low, very and extremely low birth weight were lower. Other topics discussed by the participants, were the influences of economic crises on birth weight, the measurement of self-confidence and its impact on growth, the associations between obesity, peer relationship, and behavior among Turkish adolescents, height trends in Indonesia, physiological neonatal weight loss, methods for assessing biological maturation in sportsmen, and a new method for skeletal age determination. The participants also discussed the association between acute myocardial infarction and somatotype in Estonia, rural-urban growth differences in Mongolian children, socio-environmental conditions and sexual dimorphism, biological mortality bias, and new statistical techniques for describing inhomogeneity in the association of bivariate variables, and for detecting and visualizing extensive interactions among variables.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document