rattus rattus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
N. N. Nisa ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
M. Romman ◽  
R. Parvez ◽  

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
S. N. Das ◽  
H. Ullah ◽  
W. A. Panhwar ◽  
S. Ahmed ◽  

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 285-292
V. Rajamannar ◽  
R. Govindarajan ◽  
R. Krishnamoorthi ◽  
Ashwani Kumar ◽  
P. Philip Samuel

The species composition and host preference of medically important fleas monitored in urban, semi-urban, and rural revealed 412(65%) and 222(35%) fleas. From urban and rural habitats 90 and 345 fleas were collected respectively. There was a significant difference between urban and rural habitats in flea abundance. From rodents and domestic animals 209 (33%) Xenopsylla cheopis, 203 (32%) X. astia and 222 (35%) Ctenocephalides felis fleas were recorded. Fleas were predominantly found on Rattus rattus 45(83.3%) and Canis familiaris 31(83.8%). Among the habitats, there was no significant difference in rodent flea positivity and dog/cat flea positivity.

Fanohinjanaharinirina Rasoamalala ◽  
Mamionah N J Parany ◽  
Soloandry Rahajandraibe ◽  
Malala N Rakotomanga ◽  
Tojo Ramihangihajason ◽  

Abstract Rickettsioses are among emerging infectious diseases around the world. In Madagascar, little information is available regarding Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) diversity and their potential impacts on public health. In fact, molecular screening of ectoparasites of mammals reported the presence of three species, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, and Rickettsia felis. The present study aims to investigate the diversity of Rickettsia in small mammals and associated ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) using a molecular approach. In September and December 2016, fieldworks were undertaken in two districts of Madagascar to capture small mammals using standard traps (Tomahawk and Sherman traps) and collect associated ectoparasites. In total, 12 taxa of ectoparasites (5 flea and 7 tick species) were collected from 89 individuals of four species of terrestrial small mammals. Rickettsia spp. were molecularly identified in one specimen of Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae), one specimen of Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) as well as four specimens of Ixodes cf. colasbelcouri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). This study showed the presence of three phylogenetically distinct taxa of Rickettsia in small mammals and their ectoparasites. The current study broadens our knowledge on the diversity of Rickettsia in the Central Highlands of Madagascar and highlights for the first time the presence of Ri. felis in R. rattus and in tick, I. cf. colasbelcouri in Madagascar. Additional studies are needed to have exhaustive information on Rickettsia in small mammals and their ectoparasites, to determine their pathogenicity as well as their potential effects on public health in order to update the national policy for the control of emerging infectious diseases in Madagascar.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Miguel Ibañez-Álvarez ◽  
Pol Farràs Santasusana ◽  
Juan Antonio Calleja ◽  
Carlos Rouco ◽  
Matthew Brolly ◽  

Invasive rodents have a detrimental impact on terrestrial ecosystem functioning, this is often exacerbated on small islands. Rat eradication campaigns are often used to deal with this environmental perturbation given their classification as invasive species. Studies assessing the effects of rodent control at ecosystem scale are scarce and thus little is known about the subsequent functional response of vegetation subsequent to rat control. In this work, we use remote sensing to assess the effects of black rat (Rattus rattus) eradication on Mediterranean vegetation productivity in the Sa Dragonera Islet, Mallorca (Spain). Rats feed on seeds, sprouts, and leaves of woody vegetation and hence we expect primary production to increase nine years after the rodenticide campaign. The Break Detection approach for additive season and trend (BFAST method) was adopted to examine changes in vegetation density before and after the eradication campaign in Sa Dragonera Islet (Balearic Islands), using a temporal series of monthly NDVI data extracted from Landsat imagery. The same temporal trends were examined for a control zone where no rat eradication took place, in order to control for weather-driven changes. The results of this study revealed changes across the 21-year monthly NDVI time series. However, the dates, magnitude, and trend of these changes could not be explicitly attributed to the action of rats, when compared to the historical changes on the islet and the changes found to co-occur within the control zone. These finding could, perhaps, be explained by the high resilience of Mediterranean shrubs to browsing including that of rat invasion. However, the results from the study appear to show that rat damage on specific plant species, with little contribution to global NDVI values, would be overshadowed by the effects of broader environmental factors in this remote sensing approach. The results suggest that the current passive restoration scheme imposed following eradication is not sufficient for effective ecosystem restoration.

Gabriele Baptista Haine ◽  
Samarah Hamidi El Ghandour ◽  
Sâmia Ahmad El Ghandour ◽  
Andersom Ricardo Fréz

Background: Aconitum napellus is a classic resource of complementary medicine for the treatment of patients exhibiting neurological symptoms of anxiety. Aim: To assess the action of homeopathic medicine Acon in the treatment of generalized anxiety in an experimental model using rats. Methods: 48 adult (two to three months old) male Wistar rats (Rattus rattus) were randomly divided in six groups (n= 8/treatment) and given the following treatments by gastric tube along 10 days: 1) control (diazepam 1 mg/kg/day); 2) negative control (0.15 mL saline solution/day); 3) ACH6 (0.15 mL Acon (6cH/day); 4) ACH12 (0.15 mL Acon 12cH/day); 5) ACH30 (0.15 mL Acon 30cH/day); and 6) ALC30 (0.15 mL 30% cereal alcohol/day). Behavioral effects were blindly and randomly assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test. Results: Acon in dilutions 12cH and 30cH exhibited possible anxiolytic effects on the central nervous system (CNS) since they increased the number of entries in the EPM open arms (12cH and 30cH) and the permanence time in the EPM open arms (30cH only). In the open field test the homeopathic preparations did not show effects on the locomotor system of rats. Conclusion: Dilutions 12cH and 30cH of Acon exhibited anxiolytic effects on the CNS in an animal experimental model.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sebastián Cordero ◽  
Francisca Gálvez ◽  
Francisco E. Fontúrbel

Seed dispersal is a critical process for plant reproduction and regeneration. Successful recruitment depends on pre- and post-dispersal processes that complete a seed’s journey until becoming a new plant. However, anthropogenic stressors may disrupt the seed dispersal process at some stages, collapsing plant regeneration and hampering its long-term persistence. The Chilean palm tree Jubaea chilensis is the southernmost and the only non-tropical palm species, which currently relies on the scatter-hoarding rodent Octodon degus for seed dispersal. We assessed seed fate by measuring predation and dispersal rates through experimental fieldwork in the Palmar de Ocoa site (located within La Campana National Park) and the Palmar El Salto. We also used previous reports on seed harvest and seedling herbivory to depict the whole J. chilensis seed dispersal process and assess the relative importance of different anthropogenic pressures. We asked the following questions: (1) What is the effect of human harvesting on J. chilensis recruitment? (2) Do native and exotic rodents predate J. chilensis seeds in the same way? and (3) Does post-dispersal herbivory matter? We found that J. chilensis fruits are harvested for human consumption, reducing pre-dispersal available seeds by removing about 23 tons per season. Then, post-dispersal seeds at the Ocoa palm grove are heavily predated by exotic (Rattus rattus) and native (Octodon spp.) rodents; only 8.7% of the seeds are effectively dispersed by Octodon degus. At Palmar El Salto, 100% of the seeds were predated by Rattus rattus, precluding further analysis. Finally, 70% of the seedlings were consumed by exotic herbivores (mainly rabbits), resulting in a success rate of 1.81%. Only 7.9% of the surviving seedlings become infantile plants (4 year-old). Our assessment suggests that J. chilensis has aging populations with very few young individuals in disturbed sites to replace the old ones. For those reasons, we suggest increasing its conservation category to critically endangered as land-use change is rapidly fragmenting and shrinking the extant J. chilensis populations. We urge to take urgent actions to protect this relict palm, which otherwise may go extinct in the next decades.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (6) ◽  
pp. 42-48
Dinka Grubišić ◽  
Ivan Juran ◽  
Mirjana Brmež ◽  
Maja Šurlog ◽  
Viktorija Sever ◽  

Glodavci su važni štetnici uskladištenih poljoprivrednih proizvoda. Uz zadovoljenje osnovnih prehrambenih potreba, štetne vrste u skladištima nalaze povoljne uvjete za razvoj i razmnožavanje te zaštitu od prirodnih neprijatelja. Najštetnije vrste glodavaca u skladištima Republike Hrvatske jesu štakori vrsta Rattus norvegicus i Rattus rattus te domaći miš Mus musculus. Osim što se hrane uskladištenim proizvodima, rasipaju ih, onečišćuju urinom, izmetom, dlakom i slinom, navedene vrste rezervoari su zoonozama koje utječu na zdravlje ljudi, te domaćih i divljih životinja. U Republici Hrvatskoj u populacijama sitnih glodavaca dokazani su uzročnici Lajmske borelioza, trihineloze, leptospiroze, Q groznice i hemoragijske vrućice s bubrežnim sindromom. Utvrđene su i višestruke infekcije glodavaca uzročnicima zoonoza. Redovito praćenje brojnosti glodavaca važno je u svrhu pravovremenog suzbijanja te smanjenja materijalnih gubitaka, ali i u svrhu sprječavanja pojave epidemija zoonoza. Uz preventivne mjere koje podrazumijevaju održavanje higijene prostora te održavanje infrastrukture, čime sprječavamo privlačenje i nastanjivanje glodavaca u skladištima, provodi se i kontinuirana deratizacija koja uključuje primjenu mehaničkih, fizikalnih i kemijskih mjera zaštite.

2021 ◽  
Grace Laura Paske

<p>Introduced species, such as Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus,have contributed to the extinction of many native animals and plants in New Zealand(NZ). Current strategies exist to monitor, manage and eradicate pest species. However, these haven’t always been completely successful and tools to detect small or invading densities remain to be developed. One possible new method to address this problem is the application of chemical attractants (lures). Recently, a major urinary protein (MUP) has been shown in male miceto act as a sexual attractant. MUPs modulate the release of volatile attractants and have potential to act as attractants themselves. Our aim was to determine if a similar MUP(s) and associated volatiles are present in the urine of rats, with the prospect of creating a chemical lure to use in rat detection and eradication. Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, potential volatiles in rat urine have been identified. Analysis of rat urine by gel electrophoresis has shown MUPs present in both sexes. A 22.4 kDa MUP in Rattus norvegicushas been synthesised and expressed in E.coliusing recombinant DNA technology. Preliminary steps have been made towards the production of a MUP based on ship rat DNA sequence. Future behavioral trials are needed to investigate whether the synthesised protein, in the presence or absence of the urinary-derived volatiles, is a sexual attractant.</p>

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