human genetics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 953
Anna Jaruga ◽  
Jakub Ksiazkiewicz ◽  
Krystian Kuzniarz ◽  
Przemko Tylzanowski

Many complex molecular interactions are involved in the process of craniofacial development. Consequently, the network is sensitive to genetic mutations that may result in congenital malformations of varying severity. The most common birth anomalies within the head and neck are orofacial clefts (OFCs) and prognathism. Orofacial clefts are disorders with a range of phenotypes such as the cleft of the lip with or without cleft palate and isolated form of cleft palate with unilateral and bilateral variations. They may occur as an isolated abnormality (nonsyndromic—NSCLP) or coexist with syndromic disorders. Another cause of malformations, prognathism or skeletal class III malocclusion, is characterized by the disproportionate overgrowth of the mandible with or without the hypoplasia of maxilla. Both syndromes may be caused by the presence of environmental factors, but the majority of them are hereditary. Several mutations are linked to those phenotypes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the genetics of those phenotypes and describe genotype–phenotype correlations. We then present the animal models used to study these defects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nina Pereza ◽  
Rifet Terzić ◽  
Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska ◽  
Olivera Miljanović ◽  
Ivana Novaković ◽  

Introduction: In this study we aimed to perform the first research on the current state of compulsory basic and clinical courses in genetics for medical students offered at medical faculties in six Balkan countries with Slavic languages (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia).Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from June to September 2021. One representative from each country was invited to collect and interpret the data for all medical faculties in their respective country. All representatives filled a questionnaire, which consisted of two sets of questions. The first set of questions was factual and contained specific questions about medical faculties and design of compulsory courses, whereas the second set of questions was more subjective and inquired the opinion of the representatives about mandatory education in clinical medical genetics in their countries and internationally. In addition, full course syllabi were analysed for course aims, learning outcomes, course content, methods for student evaluation and literature.Results: Detailed analysis was performed for a total of 22 medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina (6), Croatia (4), Montenegro (1), North Macedonia (3), Serbia (6), and Slovenia (2). All but the two medical faculties in Slovenia offer either compulsory courses in basic education in human genetics (16 faculties/courses) or clinical education in medical genetics (3 faculties/courses). On the other hand, only the medical faculty in Montenegro offers both types of education, including one course in basic education in human genetics and one in clinical education in medical genetics. Most of the basic courses in human genetics have similar aims, learning outcomes and content. Conversely, clinical courses in medical genetics are similar concerning study year position, number of contact hours, ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) and contents, but vary considerably regarding aims, learning outcomes, ratio of types of classes, teaching methods and student evaluation.Conclusion: Our results emphasise the need for future collaboration in reaching a consensus on medical genetics education in Balkan countries with Slavic languages. Further research warrants the analysis of performance of basic courses, as well as introducing clinical courses in medical genetics to higher years of study across Balkan countries.

2022 ◽  
Maria Sindeeva ◽  
Nikolay Chekanov ◽  
Manvel Avetisian ◽  
Nikita Baranov ◽  
Elian Malkin ◽  

Interpretation of non-coding genomic variants is one of the most important challenges in human genetics. Machine learning methods have emerged recently as a powerful tool to solve this problem. State-of-the-art approaches allow prediction of transcriptional and epigenetic effects caused by non-coding mutations. However, these approaches require specific experimental data for training and can not generalize across cell types where required features were not experimentally measured. We show here that available epigenetic characteristics of human cell types are extremely sparse, limiting those approaches that rely on specific epigenetic input. We propose a new neural network architecture, DeepCT, which can learn complex interconnections of epigenetic features and infer unmeasured data from any available input. Furthermore, we show that DeepCT can learn cell type-specific properties, build biologically meaningful vector representations of cell types and utilize these representations to generate cell type-specific predictions of the effects of non-coding variations in the human genome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. e51
Ji-Hye Oh ◽  
Hee-Jo Nam ◽  
Hyun-Seok Park

This study explored the trends of Genomics & Informatics during the period of 2003-2018 in comparison with 11 other scholarly journals: BMC Bioinformatics, Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB, BMC Systems Biology, Journal of Computational Biology, Briefings in Bioinformatics, BMC Genomics, Nucleic Acids Research, American Journal of Human Genetics, Oncogenesis, Disease Markers, and Microarrays. In total, 22,423 research articles were reviewed. Content analysis was the main method employed in the current research. The results were interpreted using descriptive analysis, a clustering analysis, word embedding, and deep learning techniques. Trends are discussed for the 12 journals, both individually and collectively. This is an extension of our previous study (PMCID: PMC6808643).

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 142-150
A. N. Volkov ◽  
L. V. Nacheva

Cytogenetics is an essential part of human genetics which studies the structure of chromosomes and their collection which is called karyotype. Cytogenetic techniques are employed while interrogating DNA organisation and compaction. Analysis of the chromosomal structure contributes to uncovering the molecular basis of various cellular processes in normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, spectrum and frequency of chromosome abnormalities serves as an indicator of mutagenic effects. Cytogenetic techniques became indispensable for discovering the genetic causes of human diseases at different stages of ontogenesis. Genetic abnormalities are a common cause of impaired reproductive function, abnormal pregnancy, and neonatal malformations. Genetic screening for chromosomal abnormalities and congenital anomalies is a powerful tool for reducing the genetic load in human populations as well as disease, psychological and social burden on families and societies. This paper begins the cycle of lectures on molecular basis of human cytogenetics, cytogenetic techniques, and the corresponding research and clinical applications. The lecture is primarily aimed at biomedical students and physicians who often have an unmet need to analyse and interpret the results of cytogenetic analyses.

2021 ◽  
Ping Li ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Wenlong Shen ◽  
Shu Shi ◽  
Zhihu Zhao

Human genetics has been proposed to play an essential role in inter-individual differences in respiratory virus infection occurrence and outcomes. To systematically understand human genetic contributions to respiratory virus infection, we developed the database dbGSRV, a manually curated database that integrated the host genetic susceptibility and severity studies of respiratory viruses scattered over literatures in PubMed. At present, dbGSRV contains 1932 records of genetic association studies relating 1010 unique variants and seven respiratory viruses, manually curated from 168 published articles. Users can access the records by quick searching, batch searching, advanced searching and browsing. Reference information, infection status, population information, mutation information and disease relationship are provided for each record, as well as hyper links to public databases in convenient of users accessing more information. In addition, a visual overview of the topological network relationship between respiratory viruses and associated genes is provided. Therefore, dbGSRV offers a promising avenue to facilitate researchers to dissect human factors in respiratory virus infection, define novel drug targets, conduct risk stratification of population and develop personalized medicine approaches. Database URL:

2021 ◽  
Damianos Melidis ◽  
Christian Landgraf ◽  
Anja Schoener-Heinisch ◽  
Gunnar Schmidt ◽  
Sandra von Hardenberg ◽  

Since next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become widely available, large gene panels containing up to several hundred genes can be sequenced cost-efficiently. However, the interpretation of the often large numbers of sequence variants detected when using NGS is laborious, prone to errors and often not comparable across laboratories. To overcome this challenge, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) introduced standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequencing variants. Further gene- and disease-specific refinements regarding hereditary hearing loss have been developed since then. With more than 200 genes associated with hearing disorders, the manual inspection of possible causative variants is especially difficult and time consuming. We developed an open-source bioinformatics tool GenOtoScope, which automates all ACMG/AMP criteria that can be assessed without further individual patient information or human curator investigation, including the refined loss of function criterion (“PVS1”). Two types of interfaces are provided: (i) a command line application to classify sequence variants in batches for a set of patients and (ii) a user-friendly website to classify single variants. We compared the performance of our tool with two other variant classification tools using two hearing loss data sets, which were manually annotated either by the ClinGen Hearing Loss Gene Curation Expert Panel or the diagnostics unit of our human genetics department. GenOtoScope achieved the best average accuracy and precision for both data sets. Compared to the second-best tool, GenOtoScope improved accuracy metric by 25.75% and 4.57% and precision metric by 52.11% and 12.13% on the two data sets respectively. The web interface is freely accessible. The command line application along with all source code, documentation and example outputs can be found via the project GitHub page.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (25) ◽  
pp. 2621-2631
Elisa ten Hacken ◽  
Catherine J. Wu

Abstract Rapid advances in large-scale next-generation sequencing studies of human samples have progressively defined the highly heterogeneous genetic landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). At the same time, the numerous challenges posed by the difficulties in rapid manipulation of primary B cells and the paucity of CLL cell lines have limited the ability to interrogate the function of the discovered putative disease “drivers,” defined in human sequencing studies through statistical inference. Mouse models represent a powerful tool to study mechanisms of normal and malignant B-cell biology and for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Advances in genetic engineering technologies, including the introduction of conditional knockin/knockout strategies, have opened new opportunities to model genetic lesions in a B-cell–restricted context. These new studies build on the experience of generating the MDR mice, the first example of a genetically faithful CLL model, which recapitulates the most common genomic aberration of human CLL: del(13q). In this review, we describe the application of mouse models to the studies of CLL pathogenesis and disease transformation from an indolent to a high-grade malignancy (ie, Richter syndrome [RS]) and treatment, with a focus on newly developed genetically inspired mouse lines modeling recurrent CLL genetic events. We discuss how these novel mouse models, analyzed using new genomic technologies, allow the dissection of mechanisms of disease evolution and response to therapy with greater depth than previously possible and provide important insight into human CLL and RS pathogenesis and therapeutic vulnerabilities. These models thereby provide valuable platforms for functional genomic analyses and treatment studies.

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