socially constructed
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2022 ◽  
Siddharth Vedula ◽  
Jeffrey G. York ◽  
Michael Conger ◽  
Elizabeth Embry

A growing body of scholarship studies the emergence of moral markets—sectors offering market-based solutions to social and environmental issues. To date, researchers have largely focused on the drivers of firm entry into these values-laden sectors. However, we know comparatively little about postentry dynamics or the determinants of firm survival in moral markets. This study examines how regional institutional logics—spatially bound, socially constructed meaning systems that legitimize specific practices and goals within a community—shape firm survival in emerging moral markets. Using a unique panel of firms entering the first eight years of the U.S. green building supply industry, we find that (1) a regional market logic amplifies the impacts of market forces by increasing the positive impact of market adoption and the negative impact of localized competition on firm survival, (2) a regional proenvironmental logic dampens the impacts of adoption and competition on firm survival, and (3) institutional complexity—the co-occurrence of both market and proenvironmental logics in a region—negates the traditional advantages of de alio (diversifying incumbent) firms, creating an opportunity for de novo (entrepreneurial entrant) firms to compete more effectively. Our study integrates research on industry emergence, institutional logics, and firm survival to address important gaps in our knowledge regarding the evolution and growth of environmental entrepreneurship in moral markets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Aida Goga ◽  
Ardita Prendi ◽  
Brunilda Zenelaga

The totalitarian socialist regime, which was installed in Albania in 1945, lasting until 1990, was expressed and articulated as a consistent effort led to modernism or civilization, as a kind of “social engineering” incarnated to the inner individual and society dimensions. Fighting old and traditional mentality, the totalitarian socialist countries created the infrastructure for spreading the model of the “new man” according to new principles, aiming to make everyday life productive and disciplined. Under the implementation of the “new man” approach, especially the image of woman was reconstructed. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the ideal of the “new man” and “new woman” were socially constructed and how they have influenced the everyday life of people, under the totalitarian socialist regime, referring to the case of the Albania. 18 in depth semi structured interviews with woman and men from 55 until 85 years old have been conducted and the poetry and text songs of that time have been explored. The research showed that through the trinomen “education-work-tempering”, the “new man” and “new woman” was socially constructed. People’s social status, during the socialist regime in Albania influences their perceptions and their attachment to the “new man” and “new woman” portraits   Received: 4 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022

2022 ◽  
pp. 153-170
Sinem Bal

The EU's extra-territorial, value-driven practices are often conceptualized as normative power. However, the diffusion of norms is strongly contested in terms of human rights. This is particularly true of gender equality, which the EU uses as a conditionality tool to promote human rights, consolidate democracy, and develop a well-functioning fair market economy in other countries. Using a feminist lens and drawing on the literature and official documents, this chapter questions the balance between these three aims and the extent that Europe's normative power can mainstream gender norms in Western Balkan countries. Backsliding of equality patterns and the EU's exclusive concern on producing instruments to encourage women's labour market participation indicate that it promotes more market-engaged gender equality norms instead of creating normative change in socially constructed roles in Western Balkan countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 167-181
Izabela Penha de Oliveira Santos ◽  
Ana Paula Fracalanza ◽  
Robert Coates ◽  
Jeroen Warner

Frequent cases of water scarcity in Brazil reveal a water governance and administration crisis. During the water crisis (2013-2016), the São Paulo Metropolitan Region experienced a disaster scenario. This article analyses how it was constituted as a socially constructed disaster episode. A case study was carried out in the Novo Recreio neighbourhood (Guarulhos, SP) through ethnographic observations, interviews, and newspaper articles. The results were analysed based on the Pressure and Release Model (PAR). It was concluded that the water crisis period in SPMR has disproportionately affected the Guarulhos population, especially in Novo Recreio. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that public policies and the neighbourhood's territorial formation are related to its population's current frail living conditions and increased socio-environmental vulnerability in the face of continuous water scarcity, thus corroborating the social construction of the risk of water scarcity.

Diana Lanzarote Fernández

This paper explores, through a qualitative methodology and an ethnographic approach, the experience of lesbian motherhood, recognizing it as a genuine kinship experience, associated with the care and the time spent together. It is interpreted as a form of the “mutuality of being” in Sahlins, where the biological becomes a metaphor of something that is experienced as a process. In addition, the exercise and visibility of lesbian motherhood is socially constructed, putting into discussion myths about lesbian identity and, at the same time, actively participating in social change, perceived as a long durée process, gradually moving away from static forms of kinship and social relations, towards a vision not necessarily individualistic (based on the “freedom to choose”) rather a process-like and dynamic one. Este artículo explora, a través de una metodología cualitativa, la experiencia de la maternidad lesbiana, reconociéndola como experiencia genuina de formas de parentesco asociada al cuidado y al tiempo transcurrido con el otro, lo que se interpreta como una forma de la mutualidad del ser en Sahlins, donde lo biológico deviene metáfora de algo que se vive como proceso. Además, el ejercicio y visibilidad de maternidad lesbiana se construye socialmente, poniendo en discusión mitos sobre la identidad lesbiana y a su vez, participando activamente en el cambio social percibido como un proceso de larga duración, de paulatino alejamiento de formas estáticas del parentesco y las relaciones sociales hacia una visión no necesariamente individualista (fundada en la “libertad de elegir”) pero sí procesual y dinámica de los mismos.

2021 ◽  
pp. 147447402110650
Siew Ying Shee

This paper develops a more-than-representational approach to consumer agency in food biopolitics that is sensitive to people’s everyday eating experiences. In recent years, studies of food biopolitics have engaged with questions of agency by examining how socially constructed ideas of ‘good’ eating and citizenship are engaged on the ground. Yet, there remain opportunities to depart from the evaluative mind as a dominant site of ethical self-formation, and engage with the body as a site of political action and agency. In this paper, I argue that people’s sense of citizen selves has long been, and continue to be, organised across the interplay of material, discursive, and visceral spaces of eating. I develop this argument by drawing on a critical analysis of historical and contemporary news forums related to public eating in Singapore. For many consumers, their disdain for certain food—ranging from the erstwhile state-vaunted meal plans to leftover food on public dining tables—express an embodied agency in negotiating the technocratic designs of citizenship. In developing a visceral biopolitics of eating, this paper aims to expand understandings of consumers’ capacity in negotiating the ethical tensions between hegemonic imaginings of ‘good’ citizens and the everyday pleasures of eating. Approaching consumer agency this way orientates critical yet oft-overlooked attention to the body’s capacity to act, and possibly effect change, within the broader workings of dietary bio-power.

Kybernetes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Cem Sen ◽  
Korhan Arun ◽  
Olcay Okun

PurposeThis paper articulates a multi-contextual and dynamic system for memory research in relation to multi-cultural organizations (MCOs) by a qualitative research method.Design/methodology/approachFace-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of 30 national officers in North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to illuminate how the construction of organizational memory (OM) can then be compared and contrasted across different cultures.FindingsThe findings show that OM still mostly resides in individuals with the social transfer. However, even if, cultural aspects define what should be stored, time and purpose, the static memory of individuals becomes dynamic OM that is represented and interpreted in an organization's practices, policies and learning.Originality/valueThe primary contribution is to attempt to dissolve the seeming assumption of dialectical metaphoric perspectives of OM between different but related sub-communities of practice and outcomes. Consequently, socially constructed and individual memory models are necessary to integrate different metaphors according to the multi-context theory, which extends the understanding of the diversity between the cultural backgrounds of individuals and groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 474
Edinólia Lima Portela

Estudo qualitativo que se utiliza de dados quantitativos, inicialmente realiza reflexão sobre o fenômeno juventude, a partir da visão de estudiosos preocupados com a problemática. Ressalta a visão sociológica do conceito advogada por Bourdieu (1983), Margulis e Urresti, (1996), Sposito (2000, 2002), passando pela defesa de Peralva (1997) e Dayrell (2007). Confirma que, juventude é um conceito socialmente construído, portanto, influenciado por condições materiais, históricas e políticas. Situa a juventude pesquisada como parte daquela que pertence aos estratos sociais mais baixos, evidenciando assim a conjuntura e dados que se articulam com o referencial discutido, o qual fornece elementos para localizá-la como uma entre as várias juventudes existentes no contexto estudado, com o fito de identificar a condição juvenil dos egressos do ProJovem em estudo. Objetiva ainda apurar as implicações do programa no que se refere à continuação dos estudos e ao acesso às oportunidades de trabalho, finalidades estabelecidas pelo ProJovem, para os jovens que o frequentam. Em relação à metodologia deste trabalho, participaram da pesquisa 74 egressos, e foram realizados grupos focais e aplicação de questionário como instrumental de pesquisa. O resultado do estudo conclui que os jovens pesquisados não dispõem de moratória social, mas carregam em si a condição de juventude construída em torno deles e que, a despeito de inúmeras variáveis contextuais, o ProJovem contribuiu para que os egressos prosseguissem os estudos, embora estejam inseridos em trabalho considerados de menor valor social.Palavras-chave: Condição de juventude; Construto social; Prosseguimento da escolarização.Youth Youths: from the contours about the concept to the implications of a socio-educational programABSTRACTQualitative study that uses quantitative data, reflects on the phenomenon of youth, from the perspective of scholars concerned with the issue. It highlights the sociological view of the concept advocated by Bourdieu (1983), Margulis; Urresti, (1996), Sposito (2000/2002), passing through the defense of Peralva (1997) and Dayrell (2007). It confirms that youth is a socially constructed concept, therefore, influenced by material, historical and political conditions. It places the researched youth as the part that belongs to the lowest social strata, thus evidencing the situation and data that articulate with the discussed framework, which provides elements to locate it as one among the various youths existing in the studied context, with the aim of identifying the youth condition of the ProJovem graduates under study. It also aims to investigate the implications of the program with regard to the continuation of studies and access to work opportunities, purposes established by ProJovem, for the young people who attend it. Regarding the methodology of this work, 74 graduates participated in the research, and focus groups and a questionnaire were applied as research tools. The result of the study concludes that the young people surveyed do not have a social moratorium, but carry within themselves the condition of youth built around them and that, despite numerous contextual variables, PROJOVEM contributed to the graduates continuing their studies, even though they are inserted in work considered of lesser social value.Keywords: Status of youth; Social construct; Continuation of schooling.Juventud Juventudes: de los contornos del concepto a las implicaciones de un programa socioeducativoRESUMENEstudio cualitativo que utiliza datos cuantitativos, inicialmente reflexiona sobre el fenómeno de la juventud, desde la perspectiva de los estudiosos preocupados com el tema. Enfatiza la visión sociológica del concepto defendida por Bourdieu (1983), Margulis; Urresti, (1996), Sposito (2000/2002), pasando por la defensa de Peralva (1997) y Dayrell (2007). Confirma que la juventud es un concepto construido socialmente, por lo tanto, influenciado por las condiciones materiales, históricas y políticas. Sitúa a los jóvenes investigados como parte de aquellos que pertenecen a los estratos sociales más bajos, evidenciando así la situación y los datos que se articulan con el tema discutido, lo que brinda elementos para ubicarlos como um grupo a más entre los diversos jóvenes existentes en el contexto estudiado, con el fin de identificar la condición juvenil de los egresados del Projovem en estudio. También tiene como objetivo investigar las implicaciones del programa en cuanto a la continuación de estudios y el acceso a oportunidades laborales, fines establecidos por el ProJovem, para los jóvenes que de él participan. En cuanto a la metodología de este trabajo, 74 egresados participaron de la investigación, y se aplicaron grupos focales y un cuestionario como herramientas de investigación. El resultado del estudio concluye que los jóvenes estudiados no tienen una moratoria social, sino que llevan consigo la condición de juventud construida en torno a ellos y que, a pesar de numerosas variables contextuales, el ProJovem contribuyó para que los egresados continuaran sus estudios, a pesar de estar inseridos en trabajos considerados de menor valor social.  Palabras clave: Situación de la juventud; Construcción social; Búsqueda de la escolarización.

2021 ◽  
Alauna Safarpour ◽  
David Lazer ◽  
Jennifer Lin ◽  
Caroline H Pippert ◽  
James Druckman ◽  

In a few short years, the scholarly approach known as Critical Race Theory (CRT) went from a relatively obscure academic framework to the new front in the American culture wars. CRT has made its way to the front pages of newspapers, cable news show’s primetime specials, Presidential executive orders, and a slate of laws and regulations dictating how history can be taught in public schools. Critical Race Theory1 is an academic movement of scholars who investigate and seek to change the existing power dynamic between race and racism in society.CRT began in the 1970s among legal scholars and has since influenced other fields such as sociology, education, and ethnic studies. CRT consists of several basic tenants or themes, although substantial individual variation exists across scholars. Among these is the notion that race is socially constructed (there is no biological basis for what we think of as race), the idea that racism is normalized as part of everyday society (it is entrenched in modern institutions and policies and can be difficult to combat), and the idea that the dominant group have little incentive to eliminate racism because the current racial hierarchy serves important material and psychological needs. Other themes in CRT include the idea of intersectionality which argues that belonging to multiple oppressed groups is a distinctive experience that is more than just the sum of its parts.

2021 ◽  
Daniel Beßler ◽  
Robert Porzel ◽  
Mihai Pomarlan ◽  
Abhijit Vyas ◽  
Sebastian Höffner ◽  

In this paper, we present foundations of the Socio-physical Model of Activities (SOMA). SOMA represents both the physical as well as the social context of everyday activities. Such tasks seem to be trivial for humans, however, they pose severe problems for artificial agents. For starters, a natural language command requesting something will leave many pieces of information necessary for performing the task unspecified. Humans can solve such problems fast as we reduce the search space by recourse to prior knowledge such as a connected collection of plans that describe how certain goals can be achieved at various levels of abstraction. Rather than enumerating fine-grained physical contexts SOMA sets out to include socially constructed knowledge about the functions of actions to achieve a variety of goals or the roles objects can play in a given situation. As the human cognition system is capable of generalizing experiences into abstract knowledge pieces applicable to novel situations, we argue that both physical and social context need be modeled to tackle these challenges in a general manner. The central contribution of this work, therefore, lies in a comprehensive model connecting physical and social entities, that enables flexibility of executions by the robotic agents via symbolic reasoning with the model. This is, by and large, facilitated by the link between the physical and social context in SOMA where relationships are established between occurrences and generalizations of them, which has been demonstrated in several use cases in the domain of everyday activites that validate SOMA.

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