equilibrium composition
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2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (11) ◽  
pp. 825-831
I. A. Rybenko ◽  
E. V. Protopopov

One of the promising directions in metallurgy is the use of iron-containing waste, such as converter production sludge, iron-containing concentrates, rolling scale, iron ore processing waste and others. Development of new resource-saving technologies using such waste requires preliminary research and accumulation of information in the field of iron recovery. The paper considers the processes of iron recovery from oxides under various conditions. The authors used the method of thermodynamic modeling based on the search for the entropy maximum. The thermodynamic modeling tool was TERRA software package created at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. TERRA complex is designed to calculate the thermodynamic properties and composition of the phases of equilibrium state of arbitrary systems with chemical and phase transformations. Using this software package, studies of the processes of iron recovery by various reducing agents (carbon, manganese, and silicon) in model thermodynamic systems were carried out, and optimal conditions for temperature and consumption of reducing agents were determined. The paper presents the results of a study of processes in the metal-slag system in equilibrium. The analysis of the metal-slag system equilibrium state was carried out for the temperature range of 1773 - 1973 K with different amounts of slag. Boundaries of the areas of redox processes were determined and the influence of metal components on conditions for iron oxides recovery from slag to metal was evaluated. The dependences of the system equilibrium composition on temperature at different ratios of metal and slag were obtained, as well as the optimal conditions for iron recovery.

Aurélie Baliarda ◽  
Michèle Winkler ◽  
Laurent Tournier ◽  
Colin Tinsley ◽  
Stéphane Aymerich

Interspecific interactions within biofilms determine relative species abundance, growth dynamics, community resilience, and success or failure of invasion by an extraneous organism. However, deciphering interspecific interactions and assessing their contribution to biofilm properties and function remain a challenge. Here, we describe the constitution of a model biofilm composed of four bacterial species belonging to four different genera (Rhodocyclus sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Kocuria varians, and Bacillus cereus), derived from a biofilm isolated from an industrial milk pasteurization unit. We demonstrate that the growth dynamics and equilibrium composition of this biofilm are highly reproducible. Based on its equilibrium composition, we show that the establishment of this 4-species biofilm is highly robust against initial, transient perturbations but less so towards continuous perturbations. By comparing biofilms formed from different numbers and combinations of the constituent species and by fitting a growth model to the experimental data, we reveal a network of dynamic, positive, and negative interactions that determine the final composition of the biofilm. Furthermore, we reveal that the molecular determinant of one negative interaction is the thiocillin I synthesized by the B. cereus strain, and demonstrate its importance for species distribution and its impact on robustness by mutational analysis of the biofilm ecosystem.

Игорь Геннадьевич Донской

В статье исследуется зависимость стационарной температуры слоевого горения биомассы от скорости подачи и удельного расхода воздушного дутья. Для этого стационарное уравнение теплового баланса вместе с простейшим уравнением кинетики для химической реакции решается в широком диапазоне параметров. Для численного решения вводится ряд допущений (узкая зона реакции, преимущественный отвод теплоты путем лучистой теплопроводности, равновесный состав продуктов окисления). Результаты расчетов дают граничные значения расходных и стехиометрических параметров, при которых возможно устойчивое горение. The article investigates the dependence of the stationary combustion temperature of layer combustion of biomass on the feed rate and specific consumption of air blast. For this, the stationary heat balance equation, together with the simplest kinetic equation for a chemical reaction, is solved over a wide range of parameters. For a numerical solution, a number of assumptions are introduced (a narrow reaction zone, preferential heat removal by radiant heat conduction, equilibrium composition of oxidation products). The calculation results give the boundary values of the consumption and stoichiometric parameters at which stable combustion is possible.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6564
Robert Kaczmarczyk

Steam methane (CH4–H2O) reforming in the presence of a catalyst, usually nickel, is the most common technology for generating synthesis gas as a feedstock in chemical synthesis and a source of pure H2 and CO. What is essential from the perspective of further gas use is the parameter describing a ratio of equilibrium concentration of hydrogen to carbon monoxide H/C=xH2/xCO. The parameter is determined by operating temperature and the initial ratio of steam concentration to methane SC= xH2O0/xCH40. In this paper, the author presents a thermodynamic analysis of the effect of green hydrogen addition to a fuel mixture on the steam methane reforming process of gaseous phase (CH4/H2)–H2O. The thermodynamic analysis of conversion of hydrogen-enriched methane (CH4/H2)–H2O has been performed using parametric equation formalism, allowing for determining the equilibrium composition of the process in progress. A thermodynamic condition of carbon precipitation in methane reforming (CH4/H2) with the gaseous phase of H2O has been interpreted. The ranges of substrate concentrations creating carbon deposition for temperature T = 1000 K have been determined, based on the technologies used. The results obtained can serve as a model basis for describing the properties of steam reforming of methane and hydrogen mixture (CH4/H2)–H2O.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1567
Mohammad Rezaei Ardani ◽  
Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul Hamid ◽  
Dominic C. Y. Foo ◽  
Abdul Rahman Mohamed

Titanium hydride (TiH2) is one of the basic materials for titanium (Ti) powder metallurgy. A novel method was proposed to produce TiH2 from the reduction of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with magnesium hydride (MgH2) in the hydrogen (H2) atmosphere. The primary approach of this process is to produce TiH2 at a low-temperature range through an efficient and energy-saving process for further titanium powder production. In this study, the thermodynamic assessment and technoeconomic analysis of the process were investigated. The results show that the formation of TiH2 is feasible at low temperatures, and the molar ratio between TiCl4 and metal hydride as a reductant material has a critical role in its formation. Moreover, it was found that the yield of TiH2 is slightly higher when CaH2 is used as a reductant agent. The calculated equilibrium composition diagrams show that when the molar ratio between TiCl4 and metal hydrides is greater than the stoichiometric amount, the TiCl3 phase also forms. With a further increase in this ratio to greater than 4, no TiH2 was formed, and TiCl3 was the dominant product. Furthermore, the technoeconomic study revealed that the highest return on investment was achieved for the production scale of 5 t/batch of Ti powder production, with a payback time of 2.54 years. The analysis shows that the application of metal hydrides for TiH2 production from TiCl4 is technically feasible and economically viable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (9) ◽  
pp. 1365-1377
E. G. Tarakanova ◽  
V. D. Maiorov ◽  
I. S. Kislina

G.V. Belov

The article considers the possibility of using the Ipopt optimization package for the calculating the phase and equilibrium compositions of a multicomponent heterogeneous thermodynamic system. Two functions are presented for calculating the equilibrium composition and properties of complex thermodynamic systems, written in the Julia programming language. These functions are the key ones in the program integrated with the IVTANTERMO database on thermodynamic properties of individual substances and used for conducting test calculations. The test calculations showed that Ipopt package allows determining the phase and chemical compositions of simple and complex thermodynamic systems with a fairly high speed. Using the JuMP modeling language significantly simplifies the preparation of the initial data for the Ipopt package, therefore the functions presented in this article are very compact. It is shown how the Ipopt package can be used when the temperature of the thermodynamic system is unknown. The approach proposed in this work is applicable both for analyzing the equilibrium of individual chemical reactions and for calculating the equilibrium composition of complex chemically reacting systems. The simplicity of the proposed functions allows their easy integrating into application programs, embedding them into more complex applications, using them in combination with more complex models (real gas, nonideal solutions, constrained equilibria), and, if necessary, modifying them. It should be noted that the versatility of the JuMP modeling language makes it possible to replace the Ipopt package with another one without significant modification of the program text

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (14) ◽  
pp. 4332
Fatemeh Kenari ◽  
Szilárd Molnár ◽  
Pál Perjési

Several biological effects of chalcones have been reported to be associated with their thiol reactivity. In vivo, the reactions can result in the formation of small-molecule or protein thiol adducts. Both types of reactions can play a role in the biological effects of this class of compounds. Progress of the reaction of 4-methyl- and 4-methoxychalcone with glutathione and N-acetylcysteine was studied by the HPLC-UV-VIS method. The reactions were conducted under three different pH conditions. HPLC-MS measurements confirmed the structure of the formed adducts. The chalcones reacted with both thiols under all incubation conditions. The initial rate and composition of the equilibrium mixtures depended on the ratio of the deprotonated form of the thiols. In the reaction of 4-methoxychalcone with N-acetylcysteine under strongly basic conditions, transformation of the kinetic adduct into the thermodynamically more stable one was observed. Addition of S-protonated N-acetylcysteine onto the polar double bonds of the chalcones showed different degrees of diastereoselectivity. Both chalcones showed a Michael-type addition reaction with the ionized and non-ionized forms of the investigated thiols. The initial reactivity of the chalcones and the equilibrium composition of the incubates showed a positive correlation with the degree of ionization of the thiols. Conversions showed systematic differences under each set of conditions. The observed differences can hint at the difference in reported biological actions of 4-methyl- and 4-methoxy-substituted chalcones.

2021 ◽  
Rohin Naveena-Chandran ◽  
Farrukh Hamza ◽  
Gibran Hashmi ◽  
Jason Rogers ◽  

Flow assurance is a vital challenge that affects the viability of an asset in all oil producing environments. A proper understanding of asphaltene precipitation leading to deposition lends itself to reliable completions planning and timely remediation efforts. This ultimately dictates the production life of the reservoir. The Wireline Formation Tester (WFT) has traditionally aided the understanding of asphaltene composition in reservoir fluids through the collection of pressurized fluid samples. Moreover, the use of Downhole Fluid Analysis (DFA) during a fluid pumpout has augmented the understanding of soluble asphaltenes under in-situ flowing conditions. However, an accurate and representative measurement of Asphaltene Onset Pressure (AOP) has eluded the industry. Traditionally, this measurement has been determined post-acquisition through different laboratory techniques performed on a restored fluid sample. Although sound, there are inherent challenges that affect the quality of the results. These challenges primarily include the need to restore samples to reservoir conditions, maintaining samples at equilibrium composition, and the destruction of fluid samples through inadvertent asphaltene precipitation during transporting and handling. Hence, there is a need for WFT operations to deliver a source of reliable analysis, particularly in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) reservoirs, to avoid costly miscalculations. A premiere industry method to determine AOP under in-situ producible conditions is presented. Demonstrated in a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) reservoir, this novel technique mimics the gravimetric and light scattering methods, where a fluid sample is isothermally depressurized from initial reservoir pressure; simultaneously, DFA monitors asphaltene precipitation from solution and a high-precision pressure gauge records the onset of asphaltene precipitation. This measurement is provided continuously and in real time. An added advantage is that experiments are performed individually after obtaining a pressurized sample in distinct oil zones. Therefore, the execution of this downhole AOP experiment is independent of an already captured fluid sample and does not impact the quality of any later laboratory-based analysis. Once the measurements are obtained, these can be utilized in flow assurance modeling methods to describe asphaltene precipitation kinetics, and continuity of complex reservoirs. For the first time in literature, this study applies these modeling methods in combination with the AOP data acquired from a downhole WFT This approach has the potential to create a step change in reservoir analysis by providing AOP at the sand-face, along with insight that describe performance from asphaltene precipitation. The results of which have tremendous economic implications on production planning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jiri Orava ◽  
Shanoob Balachandran ◽  
Xiaoliang Han ◽  
Olga Shuleshova ◽  
Ebrahim Nurouzi ◽  

AbstractA combination of complementary high-energy X-ray diffraction, containerless solidification during electromagnetic levitation and transmission electron microscopy is used to map in situ the phase evolution in a prototype Cu-Zr-Al glass during flash-annealing imposed at a rate ranging from 102 to 103 K s−1 and during cooling from the liquid state. Such a combination of experimental techniques provides hitherto inaccessible insight into the phase-transformation mechanism and its kinetics with high temporal resolution over the entire temperature range of the existence of the supercooled liquid. On flash-annealing, most of the formed phases represent transient (metastable) states – they crystallographically conform to their equilibrium phases but the compositions, revealed by atom probe tomography, are different. It is only the B2 CuZr phase which is represented by its equilibrium composition, and its growth is facilitated by a kinetic mechanism of Al partitioning; Al-rich precipitates of less than 10 nm in a diameter are revealed. In this work, the kinetic and chemical conditions of the high propensity of the glass for the B2 phase formation are formulated, and the multi-technique approach can be applied to map phase transformations in other metallic-glass-forming systems.

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