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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 281-286
Venkateshwarla Rama Raju

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a highly effective treatment for motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Sub thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a therapeutic surgical procedure for reducing the symptoms Parkinson’s and restoring and increasing the motor functioning. However, precise intraoperative edge or perimeter detection of STN remains a procedural challenge. In this study, we present the micro electrode signals recordings (MER) of STNs and local field potentials (LFPs) were acquired from deep brain stimulation macro electrodes during trajectory towards STN, in Parkinson patients. The frequency versus intensity atlas of field potential activity was obtained and further than investigated in distinct sub band’s, to explore whether field potentials activity can be employed for STN edge detection. STN perimeter detections by means of L F Ps were evaluated to edge predictions by way of the functional stereotactic DBS neurosurgeon, based on micro electrode derived, single unit recordings (M E R – S N A of S T Ns). The findings show variation amongst M E R – S N A and macro electrode L F P-signals gathering through MER-system pertaining to the d o r s a l S T N b o r d e r of -1.00±0.85mm plus -0.42±1.08 mm in the and frequencies, correspondingly. For these sub band`s, root mean square of the voids was found to be 1.27milli meters and 1.07milli meters. The Assessment of other sub band`s didn`t set a limit for differentiating the posterior (c a u d a l) point of sub-thalamic nuclei. We may infer that In conclusion, macro electrode signal acquisitions of STNs derived L F P gatherings might offer an unconventional methodology in the direction of m e r – s n a, for detecting the aimed target subthalamic nucleus borders during DBS-surgery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 118095-118105
Luan Ramalho Pinheiro ◽  
Giovanna Diniz Della Croce ◽  
Francielle Dutra Aguiar ◽  
Bruna de Oliveira Thomasi ◽  
Thaís Mirelli Rêgo Bezerra ◽  

Leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted by different parasite species of the genus Leishmania, while malaria, by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium sp. These diseases affect tropical and subtropical regions, where about half of the world's population live. However, leishmaniasis and malaria are considered neglected diseases because these regions are poor, and consequently have precarious essential sanitation networks. In response to the lack of vaccines and effective medical measures, some natural and synthetic medicines are used as forms of treatment, such as quinoline derivatives necessary to treat malaria. Even so, the parasites have shown resistance to forms of treatment, which makes needed the constant development of new drugs with potential against them. Quinoline derivatives, chloroquine analogues, have potential activity for the diseases of interest, while anilines are molecules used in nucleophilic reactions on different substrates. Therefore, the work consisted of exploring the synthesis between these two compounds through subsequent reactions involving the formation of intermediates that resulted in the products of interest. Twelve novel derivatives with potential leishmanicidal and antimalarial biological activity were synthesized. The molecules produced were purified and rightly characterized by several methods, such as mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Carbon (13C) and Hydrogen (1H). Also, were obtained the melting points of the synthesized molecules. Finally, all products were sent for biological tests against the parasites, getting highly effective results for the protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7622
Youghourta Belhocine ◽  
Seyfeddine Rahali ◽  
Hamza Allal ◽  
Ibtissem Meriem Assaba ◽  
Monira Galal Ghoniem ◽  

The encapsulation mode of dexamethasone (Dex) into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), as well as its potential as an inhibitor of the COVID-19 main protease, were investigated using density functional theory with the recent dispersion corrections D4 and molecular docking calculations. Independent gradient model and natural bond orbital approaches allowed for the characterization of the host–guest interactions in the studied systems. Structural and energetic computation results revealed that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played significant roles in the stabilization of the formed Dex@β-CD complex. The complexation energy significantly decreased from −179.50 kJ/mol in the gas phase to −74.14 kJ/mol in the aqueous phase. A molecular docking study was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone against the COVID-19 target protein (PDB ID: 6LU7). The dexamethasone showed potential therapeutic activity as a SARS CoV-2 main protease inhibitor due to its strong binding to the active sites of the protein target, with predicted free energy of binding values of −29.97 and −32.19 kJ/mol as calculated from AutoDock4 and AutoDock Vina, respectively. This study was intended to explore the potential use of the Dex@β-CD complex in drug delivery to enhance dexamethasone dissolution, thus improving its bioavailability and reducing its side effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (11) ◽  
pp. 2387-2393
Ali AL-Samydai ◽  
Maha N Abu Hajleh ◽  
Amal Akour ◽  
Naeem Shalan ◽  
Nisrein Jaber ◽  

Purpose: To evaluate the anti-SARS CoV-2 effect of Coenzyme Q 10, Ubiquinol-10, and idebenone, which have beneficial therapeutic applications against diverse virus types, using molecular docking approach.Methods: The potential activity of Coenzyme Q10, Ubiquinol-10, and Idebenone against viral infections was explored through the collection of data from relevant literature, and by modelling these compounds virtually, using in silico investigation methods.Results: Coenzyme Q10 and ubiquinol-10 showed significant docking performance. They interacted with numerous amino acid residues of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 ACE2 (7C8J), Alpha thrombin (1AE8), TYRO (4TS1) protein targets sides, SARS-coronavirus Orf7a accessory protein (1XAK), TNF (1RJ8), and Cytokine/receptor (1I1R).Conclusion: The findings of our study showed promising inhibitory activities of the selected compounds against the main proteases of SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, these compounds have theoretical effects on inhibiting the viral entry, reproduction, and ultimately the prevention and/or treatment of the SARSCoV2 infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 8324-8334

Scorodocarpus borneensis, an indigenous tree from Kalimantan, was used traditionally. This forest plant is from the genus Olacaceae with a unique characteristic of their bark that smells like onions. The scientific information about the potential activity of this plant was very limited. In this study, the chemical compounds and potential activities of S. borneensis were reviewed in this article. The information was collected from several databases, such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, DOAJ, and Elsevier. Chemical compounds of S. borneensis were dominated by the volatile compound. That species has several activities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Lian Chen ◽  
Huiping Yu ◽  
Yupeng Huang ◽  
Hongyan Jin

Usually, heart failure occurs when heart-related diseases are developed and continue to deteriorate veins and arteries. Heart failure is the final stage of heart disease, and it has become an important medical problem, particularly among the aging population. In medical diagnosis and treatment, the examination of heart failure contains various indicators such as electrocardiogram. It is one of the relatively common ways to collect heart failure or attack related information and is also used as a reference indicator for doctors. Electrocardiogram indicates the potential activity of patient’s heart and directly reflects the changes in it. In this paper, a deep learning-based diagnosis system is presented for the early detection of heart failure particularly in elderly patients. For this purpose, we have used two datasets, Physio-Bank and MIMIC-III, which are publicly available, to extract ECG signals and thoroughly examine heart failure. Initially, a heart failure diagnosis model which is based on attention convolutional neural network (CBAM-CNN) is proposed to automatically extract features. Additionally, attention module adaptively learns the characteristics of local features and efficiently extracts the complex features of the ECG signal to perform classification diagnosis. To verify the exceptional performance of the proposed network model, various experiments were carried out in the realistic environment of hospitals. Influence of signal preprocessing on the performance of model is also discussed. These results show that the proposed CBAM-CNN model performance is better for both classifications of ECG signals. Likewise, the CBAM-CNN model is sensitive to noise, and its accuracy is effectively improved as soon as signal is refined.

Yulin Zou ◽  
Wei Fang

: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogens and implicated in a wide range of infections. It is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality and has already posed a great burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus strains have already generated resistance to almost all available antibiotics, due to which the World Health Organization stratified S. aureus as a high tier priority II pathogen. Glycosides, the secondary metabolites of many plants in nature, possess a variety of pharmacological properties, including antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The structural and mechanistic diversity make glycosides useful weapons against S. aureus. This review summarizes the recent studies on naturally-derived glycosides and provides a comprehensive summary regarding the status of the resources and the anti-S. aureus potential.

Cheng-Jiao Yao ◽  
Yi-lin Li ◽  
Meng-Jun Pu ◽  
Li-Hong Luo ◽  
Qin Xiong ◽  

: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a leading cause of infections in human being and is usually associated with a multidrug-resistant profile, represents a significant health threat and public burden globally. The limited options of effective antibiotics motivate the search for novel anti-MRSA agents. Aminoglycoside antibiotics have been extensively applied in the medical field due to their desirable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, especially for systemic infections caused by Gram-negative organisms. Recent studies demonstrated that aminoglycosides also possessed potential activity against MRSA, so aminoglycosides may be useful weapons to fight against MRSA. The present work aims to summarize the current scenario of aminoglycosides with anti-MRSA potential, covering articles published between 2010 and 2020. The structure-activity relationship and the mechanism of action are also discussed for the further rational design of novel potential drug candidates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (5) ◽  
pp. 700-704
Mohammed Saeed Alkaltham ◽  
Khizar Hayat ◽  
Mohammed Asif Ahmed ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah ◽  
Rokayya Sami ◽  

Saffron (Crocus sativus L) has been widely used for many therapeutic purposes such as a pain reliever, inflammation cure due to the highly bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activities. The effect of boiling time (5, 10, and 15 min) was investigated on the bioactive compounds of saffron samples from different origins (Spain, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan). Depending on the origin of the saffron sample, the extraction time showed a different effect on their total polyphenol content (TPC). The highest TPC was noted in saffron from Spain boiled for 10 min (45.01 mg GAE/g DW), followed by the sample from Saudi Arabia (44.03 mg GAE/g DW) and Afghanistan (43.54 mg GAE/g DW) boiled for 15 min, respectively. The Spanish saffron extracted for 10 min significantly (p < 0.05) exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) (12.26 mg CE/g DW), while the Saudi saffron extracted for 5 min (6.06 mg CE/g DW) showed the lowest range among all the samples. There were no significant differences among the reducing power of Saudi Arabian saffron extracted for 10 min, and Spanish saffron extracted for 5 and 15 min, respectively. The reducing power of saffron samples echoed the results of the TPC and TFC. 1,2-DHB (dihydroxy benzene), chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid are increased upon the increase of boiling time in Saudi Arabian saffron samples. In a word, 10 min and 15 min boiling times achieved the best extraction for Spanish saffron followed by Saudi and Afghani saffron samples, respectively.

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