knowledge and beliefs
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2022 ◽  
Wenwen Chen ◽  
Ashley Flanagan ◽  
Pria MD Nippak ◽  
Michael Nicin ◽  
Samir K Sinha

BACKGROUND Geriatric care professionals were forced to rapidly adopt the use of telemedicine technologies to ensure the continuity of care for their older patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little current literature that describes how telemedicine technologies can best be employed to meet the needs of geriatric care professionals in providing care to frail older patients and their caregivers, and families. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to identify the benefits and challenges geriatric care professionals face when using telemedicine technologies with frail older patients, their caregivers, and families, and how to maximize the benefits of this method of providing care. METHODS We conducted a mixed methods study that recruited geriatric care professionals to complete an online survey regarding their personal demographics and experiences with using telemedicine and participate in a semi-structured interview. Interview responses were analyzed using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS We obtained quantitative and qualitative data from 30 practicing geriatric care professionals (22 geriatricians, 5 geriatric psychiatrists, and 3 geriatric specialist nurses) recruited from across the Greater Toronto Area. Analysis of interview data identified 5 CFIR contextual barriers (Complexity, Design quality and packaging, Patient needs and resources, Readiness for implementation, and Culture) and 13 CFIR contextual facilitators (Relative Advantage, Adaptability, Tension for Change, Available Resources, Access to Knowledge, Network and Communications, Compatibility, Knowledge and Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, Champions, External Agents, Executing, and Reflecting and Evaluating). The CFIR concept of External Policy and Incentives was found to be a neutral construct. CONCLUSIONS This is the first known study to use the CFIR to develop a comprehensive narrative to characterize the experiences of geriatric care professionals using telemedicine technologies in providing care. Overall, telemedicine can significantly enable most of the geriatric care that is traditionally provided in person, but is less useful in providing specific aspects of geriatric care to frail older patients and their caregivers, and families.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Olaf von dem Knesebeck ◽  
Sarah Koens ◽  
Ingmar Schäfer ◽  
Annette Strauß ◽  
Jens Klein

Background: Knowledge and beliefs about health and health care are part of the general concept of health literacy. Studies demonstrated that large parts of the population report inadequate health literacy. There are only few studies specifically addressing public knowledge and beliefs about emergency care. We examine magnitude and social variations of public knowledge about emergency care in Germany.Methods: Analyses make use of a telephone survey conducted in Hamburg, Germany. Random sample consisted of 1,207 adult respondents. We asked whether the respondents know various emergency care services. Moreover, capabilities of dealing with an emergency case were assessed. Sex, age, education, and migration background were introduced as predictors into regression models.Results: 98% of the respondents stated to know the rescue service, while 74% knew the medical on call service and 49% were aware of an emergency practice nearby. About 71% of the interviewees said it was easy for them to find out whom to turn to in a case of a medical emergency. Fewer respondents found it easy to evaluate when to use emergency medical services and to evaluate whether a health problem is a medical emergency. Knowledge and capabilities were positively associated with education and negatively related to migration background.Conclusions: This study indicates a lack of public knowledge about emergency care and social inequalities in public knowledge according to education and migration status. Findings suggest that interventions are needed to improve public knowledge and that considering social inequalities should be a basic principle for such interventions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 187-207
Tânia Moço Morgado ◽  
Tiago Oliveira Costa ◽  
Odete Lomba de Araújo ◽  
Rosa Gomes da Silva

Mental health literacy (MHL) was originally defined as knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management, and prevention. More recently, this concept has evolved to a more positive perspective by adding the focus on knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health. Higher levels of MHL have a positive influence on several domains. Therefore, MHL programs should be provided in different contexts across the lifespan. Mental health is now a major public health issue in modern societies, and higher levels of MHL can prevent and mitigate the impact of mental illness. For clinical practice, the authors recommend the use of the assertiveness, clear language, and positivity (ACP) model in MHL programs and strategies that encourage the implementation of these and other programs in different settings, as well as more research.

2022 ◽  
pp. 54-107
Cristina Vaz de Almeida

People seek to solve problems, either through cognitive or emotional means or both, including behavioral ones. Health professionals have a specific mission to care and heal and they do so through their skills, behaviors, knowledge, and beliefs. To fulfill this mission of promoting satisfactory results in health relationships, the therapeutic relationship can be approached in several ways and based on different models. If there are trends of great centralization of consultation in the health profession, an effort has been made for patient-centered decision. The path of this relationship in health allows for a mutually beneficial interaction with commitment and better health results. Without wishing to be exhaustive and knowing that many models are left out, the authors explore the evolution of models applied to health throughout history.

Ars Aeterna ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 42-56
Augustín Sokol ◽  
Jozefa Pevčíková

Abstract Howard Phillips Lovecraft is widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of modern horror fiction and one of the main pioneers of the genre in its current form. One of the less discussed attributes of his work is his use of animal symbolism, despite how common it is, and serves several important functions. We will examine the different forms of animal symbolism in Lovecraft’s writing, their use and their respective functions. Our main goal will be to examine how animal symbolism in Lovecraft’s work was influenced by cultural and mythological sources and his own opinions towards different creatures and what they represent, in which case we will examine how his knowledge and beliefs may have influenced his depiction of animals. Our focus will be on the depiction of cats, dogs, snakes, aquatic, and amphibious animals as these play a significant role Lovecraftian fiction. We will also examine how animal symbolism connects to the key themes in cosmic horror, such as its negation of anthropocentrism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 946-946
Ashley Shaw ◽  
Samantha Fikru ◽  
Jannette Berkley-Patton ◽  
Chris Goode ◽  
Jaime Perales ◽  

Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that up to half of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases are a result of modifiable risk factors related to poor diet such as blood pressure and diabetes, disproportionately affecting African Americans. Adherence to brain healthy diets remains low among African Americans. Therefore, it is important to understand needs, preferences, and barriers to inform intervention designs aimed to reduce AD risk among African Americans. Using a qualitative community-based research approach, we conducted six semi-structured focus group discussions (n= 30) to explore older African American experiences with brain healthy diets, preferences, and barriers to eating healthy. Secondly, we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of collecting biomarkers of health status and dietary behaviors among African Americans. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes and biomarkers of health status were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We identified four themes: “Knowledge and Beliefs about Brain Healthy Diets,” “Eating Practices,” “Ways to Improve Dietary Practices,” and “Preferences for Enhancing Awareness about Brain Healthy Diets.” Themes indicated that older African Americans are receptive to healthy dietary consumption but perceived lack of education, cost, access, and perception of losing one’s culture as barriers to adherence. A total of 87.5% of participants completed biomarker assessments and 82% tested positive for 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor. Our study identified ways to enhance brain healthy dietary practices to reduce dementia risk. Also, our study demonstrated feasibility and acceptability in collecting AD related biomarkers in the African American community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (11) ◽  
pp. 203-209

News about acts of terrorism has colored many media. Terrorism has been identified with taboo activities in actions that often threaten the peace and tranquility of the community, which always threaten and cause many casualties. One of the media that reports on terrorism are the online news portal Of the many reports that exist, the researcher tries to examine how the media, especially online portals, report the reality of terrorism events using the SYMLOG (method of discourse analysis A System for the Multiple Level Observation of Groups). Critical discourse is a series of knowledge and beliefs that are constructed by certain communities in discourse (in this case terrorism discourse) with the hope that their goals can be achieved. Behind the choice of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and texts hidden ideology and power. Based on this background, the problems in this research are formulated, namely: (1) How is the construction of terrorism discourse using the SYMLOG model in thenews media (2) How is the linguistic representation in the discourse of terrorism in thenews media The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach. Then the type of research used in this research is descriptive research. The primary data in this study is the entire research subject studied. In this case, the researcher took 10 news stories on related to terrorism. The researcher acts as the main instrument in this research. The data collection technique used in this research is to use documentation, listening techniques, and recording. Based on the results of the study, it was found that the construction of the SYMLOG model of terrorism discourse in thenews media used the form of verbal behavior, pro values, contra values, setbacks, conflicts, sympathy, achievements. Linguistic representations in the discourse of terrorism in thenews media are at the level of verbs, clauses, sentences, adjective phrases, verb phrases, noun words, and noun phrases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Staci L Benoit ◽  
Rachel F. Mauldin

Abstract Background Social media use has become a mainstay of communication and with that comes the exchange of factual and non-factual information. Social media has given many people the opportunity to speak their opinions without repercussions and create coalitionS of like-minded people. This also has led to the development of a community know as anti-vaxxers or vaccine deniers. This research explores the extent to which vaccine knowledge has reached on social media. Methods This cross sectional research explored the relationship between the spread of information regarding vaccines in relation to social media use. A sample of 2515 people over the age of 18 around the world completed the survey via a link distributed on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. A series of questions on vaccine knowledge and beliefs were compounded to create an individual’s “knowledge score” and a “belief score”. Knowledge scores were ranked from low knowledge to high knowledge with increasing scores. Belief scores were ranked from belief in myths to disbelief in myths with higher scores. This score was then analysed, using a Welch test and post hoc testing when applicable, across demographics and questions relating to social media use. Results Significant relations were found in both the knowledge and belief categories, many of which were similar findings between the two. North Americans had significantly lower knowledge and belief scores compared to all other continents. While the majority of people primarily use Facebook, Twitter users were significantly more knowledgeable. It was also found that higher education was correlated with higher knowledge and belief scores. Conclusions Overall, these correlations are important in determining ways to intervene into the anti-vax movement through the use of social media. Cross demographics were not analysed in this study but could be in future studies. To better understand the social media exposures related to vaccine information a follow up structured interview research study would be beneficial. Note that due to the cross sectional nature of this study, causal relationships could not be made.

2021 ◽  
Blair Daniel Northcott

<p>Nature of Science (NOS) is a core part of science education. Extensive effort has gone into establishing educationally appropriate NOS tenets, teaching practices and assessments tools. However, while previous research has identified the importance of prior knowledge in science education, there is limited research that investigates students’ prior knowledge and beliefs about NOS. This information is critical in identifying what teachers need to target in order develop informed NOS beliefs amongst students. In this study the NOS beliefs of year 11 secondary school students in New Zealand were explored using a mixed methods approach. Factor analysis of the students’ (N=502) NOS questionnaire responses revealed that students’ conceptions of NOS differed from the constructs identified in the NOS literature. Coding of the purposively selected sample of student interviews (n=22) revealed a naïve realist model of science was common. This model along with the alternative constructs provided insights into students’ NOS conceptions. The findings were used to develop a model that could help teachers’ better identify explicit and implicit teaching practices to help students develop more appropriate NOS models.</p>

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