transcriptional analysis
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Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Dóra Romhányi ◽  
Kornélia Szabó ◽  
Lajos Kemény ◽  
Endre Sebestyén ◽  
Gergely Groma

An increasing amount of evidence indicates the critical role of the cutaneous nervous system in the initiation and maintenance of psoriatic skin lesions by neurogenic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms affecting cutaneous neurons are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we reanalyzed a psoriatic RNA sequencing dataset from published transcriptome experiments of nearly 300 individuals. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we associated several hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) to nervous system development and functions. Since neuronal projections were previously reported to be affected in psoriasis, we performed an in-depth analysis of neurite formation-related process. Our in silico analysis suggests that SEMA-PLXN and ROBO-DCC-UNC5 regulating axonal growth and repulsion are differentially affected in non-lesional and lesional skin samples. We identified opposing expressional alterations in secreted ligands for axonal guidance signaling (RTN4/NOGOA, NTNs, SEMAs, SLITs) and non-conventional axon guidance regulating ligands, including WNT5A and their receptors, modulating axon formation. These differences in neuritogenesis may explain the abnormal cutaneous nerve filament formation described in psoriatic skin. The processes also influence T-cell activation and infiltration, thus highlighting an additional angle of the crosstalk between the cutaneous nervous system and the immune responses in psoriasis pathogenesis, in addition to the known neurogenic pro-inflammatory mediators.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Dongdong Chang ◽  
Cong Wang ◽  
Zia Ul Islam ◽  
Zhisheng Yu

Abstract Background Bioconversion of levoglucosan, a promising sugar derived from the pyrolysis of lignocellulose, into biofuels and chemicals can reduce our dependence on fossil-based raw materials. However, this bioconversion process in microbial strains is challenging due to the lack of catalytic enzyme relevant to levoglucosan metabolism, narrow production ranges of the native strains, poor cellular transport rate of levoglucosan, and inhibition of levoglucosan metabolism by other sugars co-existing in the lignocellulose pyrolysate. The heterologous expression of eukaryotic levoglucosan kinase gene in suitable microbial hosts like Escherichia coli could overcome the first two challenges to some extent; however, no research has been dedicated to resolving the last two issues till now. Results Aiming to resolve the two unsolved problems, we revealed that seven ABC transporters (XylF, MalE, UgpB, UgpC, YtfQ, YphF, and MglA), three MFS transporters (KgtP, GntT, and ActP), and seven regulatory proteins (GalS, MhpR, YkgD, Rsd, Ybl162, MalM, and IraP) in the previously engineered levoglucosan-utilizing and ethanol-producing E. coli LGE2 were induced upon exposure to levoglucosan using comparative proteomics technique, indicating these transporters and regulators were involved in the transport and metabolic regulation of levoglucosan. The proteomics results were further verified by transcriptional analysis of 16 randomly selected genes. Subsequent gene knockout and complementation tests revealed that ABC transporter XylF was likely to be a levoglucosan transporter. Molecular docking showed that levoglucosan can bind to the active pocket of XylF by seven H-bonds with relatively strong strength. Conclusion This study focusing on the omics discrepancies between the utilization of levoglucosan and non-levoglucosan sugar, could provide better understanding of levoglucosan transport and metabolism mechanisms by identifying the transporters and regulators related to the uptake and regulation of levoglucosan metabolism. The protein database generated from this study could be used for further screening and characterization of the transporter(s) and regulator(s) for downstream enzymatic/genetic engineering work, thereby facilitating more efficient microbial utilization of levoglucosan for biofuels and chemicals production in future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 56
Joo-Yeon Lim ◽  
Yeon-Ju Kim ◽  
Hee-Moon Park

G-protein signaling is important for signal transduction, allowing various stimuli that are external to a cell to affect its internal molecules. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the roles of Gβ-like protein CpcB on growth, asexual development, drug sensitivity, and virulence in a mouse model have been previously reported. To gain a deeper insight into Aspergillus fumigatus sexual development, the ΔAfcpcB strain was generated using the supermater AFB62 strain and crossed with AFIR928. This cross yields a decreased number of cleistothecia, including few ascospores. The sexual reproductive organ-specific transcriptional analysis using RNAs from the cleistothecia (sexual fruiting bodies) indicated that the CpcB is essential for the completion of sexual development by regulating the transcription of sexual genes, such as veA, steA, and vosA. The ΔAfcpcB strain revealed increased resistance to oxidative stress by regulating genes for catalase, peroxiredoxin, and ergosterol biosynthesis. The ΔAfcpcB strain showed decreased uptake by alveolar macrophages in vitro, decreased sensitivity to Congo red, decreased expression of cell wall genes, and increased expression of the hydrophobin genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that AfCpcB plays important roles in sexual development, phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, biosynthesis of the cell wall, and oxidative stress response.

2022 ◽  
Tianjiao Liu ◽  
Dayou Cheng ◽  
Xue Han ◽  
Jie Cui ◽  
Cuihong Dai ◽  

Abstract Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important raw material for the sugar industry, and its output is second only to sugar cane. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a phenomenon of pollen abortion that has important implications in sugar beet hybrid breeding. Male plant sterility is usually considered to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Although mitochondrial genes associated with male sterility have been well explored, the different mitochondrial proteomics of CMS in sugar beet are still poorly understood. In this study, differentially expressed mitochondrial proteomic analysis was performed on the flower buds of the male sterile line (DY5-CMS), its maintainer line (DY5-O) and a fertility restorer line (CL6), using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. A total of 2260 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, of which 538 were differentially expressed proteins. Most of them were involved in protein metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and binding. More specifically, some cysteine and methionine metabolism proteins (A0A0J8BGE0, A0A0J8CZM6, A0A0J8D7W0 and A0A0J8BCR7) may play important roles during the formation of CMS. This study provided an in–depth understanding of the CMS molecular mechanism at the protein level in sugar beet.

2022 ◽  
Natalia Pires ◽  
Cecilia Lascano ◽  
Danilo Ceschin ◽  
Andrés Venturino

Abstract Transcriptional analysis of the network of transcription regulators and target pathways in exposed organisms may be a hard task when their genome remains unknown. We used a whole transcriptome study on Rhinella arenarum larvae exposed to the organophosphorus pesticides azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos to evaluate transcriptional effects on a priori selected groups of genes. This approach allowed us to evaluate the effects on hypothesis-selected pathways such as target esterases, detoxifying enzymes, polyamine metabolism and signaling and regulatory pathways modulating them. We could then compare the responses at the transcriptional level with previously described effects at the enzymatic or metabolic levels to obtain global insight into toxicity-response mechanisms. The effects of both pesticides on the transcript levels of these pathways could be considered moderate, while the responses elicited by chlorpyrifos were more potent and earlier than those elicited by azinphos-methyl. Finally, we infer a prevailing downregulation effect of pesticides on signaling pathways and transcription factor transcripts encoding products that modulate/control the polyamine and antioxidant response pathways. We additionally tested and selected potential housekeeping genes based on those reported for other species. These results allow us to go through future confirmatory studies on pesticide gene expression modulation in toad larvae.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Cheng Song Zhou ◽  
Huan Huan Lv ◽  
Xiao Hu Guo ◽  
Qian Cao ◽  
Rui Xingyue Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Neonicotinoids are widely applied in the control of the destructive agricultural pest Bemisia tabaci, and resistance against these chemicals has become a common, severe problem in the control of whiteflies. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying resistance against nenonicotinoids in whiteflies, RNA-seq technology was applied, and the variation in the transcriptomic profiles of susceptible whiteflies and whiteflies selected by imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam treatment was characterized. Results A total of 90.86 GB of clean sequence data were obtained from the 4 transcriptomes. Among the 16,069 assembled genes, 584, 110 and 147 genes were upregulated in the imidacloprid-selected strain (IMI), acetamiprid-selected strain (ACE), and thiamethoxam (THI)-selected strain, respectively, relative to the susceptible strain. Detoxification-related genes including P450s, cuticle protein genes, GSTs, UGTs and molecular chaperone HSP70s were overexpressed in the selected resistant strains, especially in the IMI strain. Five genes were downregulated in all three selected resistant strains, including 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B18-like genes (LOC 109030370 and LOC 109032577). Conclusions Ten generations of selection with the three neonicotinoids induced different resistance levels and gene expression profiles, mainly involving cuticle protein and P450 genes, in the three selected resistant whitefly strains. The results provide a reference for research on resistance and cross-resistance against neonicotinoids in B. tabaci.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xing You ◽  
Qiong Yang ◽  
Kai Yan ◽  
Song-Rong Wang ◽  
Rong-Rong Huang ◽  

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Autoreactive CD8+ T cells have been reported as the effector cells; however, the mechanisms regulating their cell activation in SAA remain largely unknown. Here, we performed proteomics and metabolomics analyses of plasma and bone marrow supernatant, together with transcriptional analysis of CD8+ T cells from SAA patients and healthy donors, to find key pathways that are involved in pathogenic CD8+ T-cell activation. We identified 21 differential proteins and 50 differential metabolites in SAA patients that were mainly involved in energy metabolism, complement and coagulation cascades, and HIF-1α signaling pathways. Interestingly, we found that these pathways are also enriched in T cells from SAA patients by analyzing available single-cell RNA sequencing data. Moreover, CD8+ T cells from SAA patients contain a highly activated CD38+ subset, which was increased in the bone marrow of SAA patients and a murine model of SAA. This subset presented enriched genes associated with the glycolysis or gluconeogenesis pathway, HIF-1α signaling pathway, and complement associated pathways, all of which were of importance in T-cell activation. In conclusion, our study reveals new pathways that may regulate CD8+ T-cell activation in SAA patients and provides potential therapeutic targets for SAA treatment.

2021 ◽  
Gareth Williams ◽  
David Chambers ◽  
Ruman Rahmam ◽  
Francisco Molina-Holgado

Background: We have previously reported that the endocannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM630 is a potent inhibitor of isocitrade dehydrogenase-1 wild-type glioblastoma (GBM) core tumor cell proliferation. To uncover the mechanism behind the anti-tumour effects we have performed a transcriptional analysis of AM630 activity both in the tumour core cells (U87) and the invasive margin cells (GIN-8), the latter representing a better proxy of post-surgical residual disease. Results: The core and invasive margin cells exhibited markedly different gene expression profiles and only the core cells had high expression of a potential AM630 target, the CB1 receptor. Both cell types had moderate expression of the HTR2B serotonin receptor, a reported AM630 target. We found that the AM630 driven transcriptional response was substantially higher in the central cells than in the invasive margin cells, with the former driving the up regulation of immune response and the down regulation of cell cycle and metastatic pathways and correlating with transcriptional responses driven by established anti-neoplastics as well as serotonin receptor antagonists. Conclusion: Our results highlight the different responsiveness of the core and invasive margin cells. Taken together, whilst our findings identify AM630 as an anti-neoplastic drug, showing a high correlation with known anti-proliferative drugs, we find distinct drug sensitivies of the infiltrative margin relative to contrast-enhanced core regions of GBM upon which failed molecular targeted therapies to date have been predicated.

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