particulate matter 2.5
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Hui-Chen Tseng ◽  
Fung-Chang Sung ◽  
Chih-Hsin Mou ◽  
Chao W. Chen ◽  
Shan P. Tsai ◽  

No study has ever investigated how ambient temperature and PM2.5 mediate rotavirus infection (RvI) in children. We used insurance claims data from Taiwan in 2006–2012 to evaluate the RvI characteristics in children aged ≤ 9. The RvI incidence rates were higher in colder months, reaching the highest in March (117.0/100 days), and then declining to the lowest in July (29.2/100 days). The age–sex-specific average incident cases were all higher in boys than in girls. Stratified analysis by temperature (<20, 20–24, and ≥25 °C) and PM2.5 (<17.5, 17.5–31.4, 31.5–41.9, and ≥42.0 μg/m3) showed that the highest incidence was 16.4/100 days at average temperatures of <20 °C and PM2.5 of 31.5–41.9 μg/m3, with Poisson regression analysis estimating an adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.43), compared to the incidence at the reference condition (<20 °C and PM2.5 < 17.5 μg/m3). As the temperature increased, the incident RvI cases reduced to 4.84 cases/100 days (aRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.35–0.45) when it was >25 °C with PM2.5 < 17.5 μg/m3, or to 9.84/100 days (aRR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.77–0.93) when it was >25 °C with PM2.5 > 42 μg/m3. The seasonal RvI is associated with frequent indoor personal contact among children in the cold months. The association with PM2.5 could be an alternative assessment due to temperature inversion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 172-182
Cecep Muhammad Alawi ◽  
Hamidie Ronald Daniel Ray ◽  
Agus Rusdiana

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh olahraga di ruang terbuka dengan paparan polusi dan olahraga di ruang terbuka hijau terhadap inflamasi paru. Metode true eksperiment dan desain The Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design digunakan dalam penelitian ini. 24 ekor tikus putih galur wistar jantan dewasa dengan berat 200-250 gram berusia 8-9 minggu dibagi secara acak menjadi empat kelompok, NE (Non Exercise) sebagai kontrol, NE+Pol (Non Exercise + polusi Particulate Matter 2.5  >75 ppm dan Carbon Monoxide Meter <100 ppm), Ex (Exercise 5 kali/minggu selama 4 minggu), Ex+Pol (Exercise + polusi). Penanda inflamasi Tumor Necrosis Factor-αlpha (TNF-α) dianalisis menggunakan Western Blotting. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan yang signifikan antar kelompok, analisis ANOVA satu jalur dan uji Post Hoc digunakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelompok eksperimen olahraga dengan paparan polusi memiliki kadar TNF-α yang signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelompok kontrol (Ex+Pol: 1,63 AU; NE: 0,54 AU; p=0,000). Tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok eksperimen olahraga di ruang terbuka hijau dengan kelompok kontrol (Ex: 0,80 AU; NE: 0,54 AU; p=0,357). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh olahraga di ruang terbuka dengan paparan polusi terhadap inflamasi paru. Dan hasil lain menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh olahraga di ruang terbuka hijau terhadap inflamasi paru.The effect of exercise in open spaces and green open spaces on lung inflammationAbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise in open spaces with exposure to pollution and exercise in green open spaces on lung inflammation. True eksperiment and The Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design was used in this study. 24 adult male wistar white rats weighing 200-250 grams aged 8-9 weeks were randomly divided into four group, NE (Non Exercise) as control, NE+Pol (Non Exercise + exposure pollution Particulate Matter 2.5 <75 ppm and Carbon Monoxide Meter <100 ppm), Ex (Exercise 5 times/week for 4 weeks), and Ex+Pol (Exercise + exposure pollution). The inflammatory marker Tumor Necrosis Factor-αlpha (TNF-α) was analyzed using Western Blotting. To find out the significant differences between groups, one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. The results showed that the exercise + exposure to pollution had significantly higher levels of TNF-α than the control group (Ex+Pol: 1,63 AU; NE: 0,54 AU; p=0,000). There was no significant difference between the exercise in green open space and the control group (Ex: 0,80 AU; NE: 0,54 AU; p=0,357). It can be concluded that there is an effect of exercise in an open space with exposure to pollution on lung inflammation. And other results show  there is no effect of exercise in green open spaces on lung inflammation.

2021 ◽  
Magali N. Blanco ◽  
Amanda Gassett ◽  
Timothy Gould ◽  
Annie Doubleday ◽  
David L. Slager ◽  

AbstractGrowing evidence links traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to adverse health effects. Previous air pollution studies focused on a few commonly measured pollutants with poor spatial resolution. Well-designed mobile monitoring studies may address this limitation. We designed an extensive mobile monitoring campaign to characterize TRAP exposure levels for a Seattle-based cohort, the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. The campaign measured particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), ultrafine particulates (UFP), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at 309 stop locations representative of the cohort. We collected about 29 two-minute measures at each location during all seasons, days of the week, and most times of day for a one-year period. Annual average concentrations of UFPs had similar degrees of spatial variability as BC and NO2 but higher degrees of variability as CO2 and PM2.5. UFPs had less temporal variability than other pollutants. Validation showed good agreement between our BC, NO2, and PM2.5 measurements and regulatory monitoring sites. The results from this campaign will be used to assess TRAP exposure in the ACT cohort.SynopsisWe assessed annual-average traffic-pollutant levels with high spatial resolution at locations representative of participant residences using a temporally balanced short-term mobile monitoring campaign.Abstract Figure

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 2986
Hyesook Lee ◽  
Min Yeong Kim ◽  
Seon Yeong Ji ◽  
Da Hye Kim ◽  
So Young Kim ◽  

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) may aggravate dry eye disease (DED). Corni Fructus (CF), which is fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., has been reported to have various beneficial pharmacological effects, whereas the effect of CF on the eye is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of oral administration of water extract of CF (CFW) on the eye, hematology, and biochemistry in a DED model induced by topical exposure to PM2.5. Furthermore, the efficacy of CFW compared with cyclosporine (CsA), an anti-inflammatory agent, and lutein, the posterior eye-protective agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were topically administered 5 mg/mL PM2.5 in both eyes four times daily for 14 days. During the same period, CFW (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and lutein (4.1 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day. All eyes of rats in the 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated group were topically exposed to 20 μL of CsA, twice daily for 14 days. Oral administration of CFW attenuated the PM2.5-induced reduction of tear secretion and corneal epithelial damage. In addition, CFW protected against goblet cell loss in conjunctiva and overexpression of inflammatory factors in the lacrimal gland following topical exposure to PM2.5. Furthermore, CFW markedly prevented PM2.5-induced ganglion cell loss and recovered the thickness of inner plexiform layer. Meanwhile, CFW treatment decreased the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum induced by PM2.5. Importantly, the efficacy of CFW was superior or similar to that of CsA and lutein. Taken together, oral administration of CFW may have protective effects against PM2.5-induced DED symptoms via stabilization of the tear film and suppression of inflammation. Furthermore, CFW may in part contribute to improving retinal function and lipid metabolism disorder.

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