Elevated Risk
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Catherine R. Knight-Agarwal ◽  
Rati Jani ◽  
Meisa Al Foraih ◽  
Dionne Eckley ◽  
Carrie Ka Wai Lui ◽  

Abstract Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia has been rising in line with the increased incidence of maternal overweight and obesity. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus, high body mass index or both are at an elevated risk of birthing a large for gestational age infant. The aim was to explore the relationship between country of birth, maternal body mass index with large for gestational age, and gestational diabetes mellitus. In addition to provide additional information for clinicians when making a risk assessment for large for gestational age babies. Method A retrospective cohort study of 27,814 women residing in Australia but born in other countries, who gave birth to a singleton infant between 2008 and 2017 was undertaken. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between the aforementioned variables. Results A significantly higher proportion of large for gestational age infants was born to overweight and obese women compared to those who were classified as underweight and healthy weight. Asian-born women residing in Australia, with a body mass index of ≥40 kg/m2, had an adjusted odds ratio of 9.926 (3.859–25.535) for birthing a large for gestational age infant. Conversely, Australian-born women with a body mass index of ≥40 kg/m2 had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.661 (2.256–3.139) for the same outcome. Women born in Australia were at high risk of birthing a large for gestational age infant in the presence of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus, but this risk was not significant for those with the diet-controlled type. Asian-born women did not present an elevated risk of birthing a large for gestational age infant, in either the diet controlled, or insulin requiring gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese, and considering a pregnancy, are encouraged to seek culturally appropriate nutrition and weight management advice during the periconception period to reduce their risk of adverse outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Kendra M. Cuffe ◽  
Elizabeth Torrone ◽  
Jaeyoung Hong ◽  
Jami S. Leichliter ◽  
Thomas L. Gift ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qiu-hong Tan ◽  
Lin Liu ◽  
Yu-qing Huang ◽  
Yu-ling Yu ◽  
Jia-yi Huang ◽  

Background: Limited studies focused on the association between serum uric acid (SUA) change with ischemic stroke, and their results remain controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between change in SUA with ischemic stroke among hypertensive patients.Method: This was a retrospective cohort study. We recruited adult hypertensive patients who had two consecutive measurements of SUA levels from 2013 to 2014 and reported no history of stroke. Change in SUA was assessed as SUA concentration measured in 2014 minus SUA concentration in 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test were performed to quantify the difference in cumulative event rate. Additionally, subgroup analysis and interaction tests were conducted to investigate heterogeneity.Results: A total of 4,628 hypertensive patients were included, and 93 cases of ischemic stroke occurred during the mean follow-up time of 3.14 years. Participants were categorized into three groups according to their SUA change tertiles [low (SUA decrease substantially): <-32.6 μmol/L; middle (SUA stable): ≥-32.6 μmol/L, <40.2 μmol/L; high (SUA increase substantially): ≥40.2 μmol/L]. In the fully adjusted model, setting the SUA stable group as reference, participants in the SUA increase substantially group had a significantly elevated risk of ischemic stroke [HR (95% CI), 1.76 (1.01, 3.06), P = 0.0451], but for the SUA decrease substantially group, the hazard effect was insignificant [HR (95% CI), 1.31 (0.75, 2.28), P = 0.3353]. Age played an interactive role in the relationship between SUA change and ischemic stroke. Younger participants (age < 65 years) tended to have a higher risk of ischemic stroke when SUA increase substantially.Conclusion: SUA increase substantially was significantly correlated with an elevated risk of ischemic stroke among patients with hypertension.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Simona Zaami ◽  
Silvia Graziano ◽  
Roberta Tittarelli ◽  
Renata Beck ◽  
Enrico Marinelli

: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are a widely prescribed class of sedative-hypnotics compounds for the treatment of a broad range of conditions as anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders, phobias, sleep related problems associated with insomnia and for the management of alcohol and GHB withdrawal. Zolpidem, zopiclone and zaleplon, commonly known as Z-drugs are non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug with pharmacology similar to BDZs. Despite their usefulness, BDZs and Z-drugs present a potential for abuse and dependence. Moreover, the non-medical use of BDZs is a well-known phenomenon and represents an increasingly widespread public health problem since is associated with an elevated risk of serious health consequences or fatal overdose, especially among specific group of users. The spectrum of BDZs and Z-drugs misuse is extended by new synthetic BDZs, which may pose high risks to users, since the majority have never undergone clinical trials or tests and consequently their pharmacology and toxicology is largely unknown.

2021 ◽  
Julja Burchard ◽  
Glenn R. Markenson ◽  
George R. Saade ◽  
Louise C. Laurent ◽  
Kent D. Heyborne ◽  

Objective Evaluate clinical utility and cost effectiveness of identifying pregnancies at increased risk of preterm birth using a validated proteomic biomarker risk predictor to enable proactive intervention Study Design Pregnancies at elevated risk (≥15%) of preterm birth were identified in a cohort from TREETOP (NCT02787213), a study independent of biomarker development. In the screening arm, higher-risk subjects received simulated interventions based on published efficacy of multimodal treatment or care-management alone. Subjects in the non-screening arm received no interventions. Neonatal and maternal length of stay, neonatal mortality and morbidity and neonatal costs were compared between arms. Results Multimodal/care-management modeled treatments predicted reductions in neonatal (30%/22%) and maternal (9.2%/8.5%) hospital stays, neonatal morbidity and mortality (41%/29%), and neonatal costs (34%/16%) for the screening vs. non-screening arm. Conclusion Modeled interventions applied to pregnancies identified as higher-risk by a proteomic biomarker risk predictor demonstrate clinically and economically meaningful improvements in neonatal and maternal outcomes. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Eloise Passarella ◽  
Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman ◽  
Haim A. Abenhaim

Abstract Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is linked to many health comorbidities. We aimed to ascertain if OSA correlates with a rise in poor obstetrical outcomes. Methods Employing the United States’ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project – National Inpatient Sample, we performed our retrospective cohort study including all women who delivered between 2006 and 2015. ICD-9 codes were used to characterize women as having a diagnosis of OSA. Temporal trends in pregnancies with OSA were studied, baseline features were evaluated among gravidities in the presence and absence of OSA, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized in assessing consequences of OSA on patient and newborn outcomes. Results Of a total 7,907,139 deliveries, 3,115 belonged to patients suffering from OSA, resulting in a prevalence of 39 per 100,000 deliveries. Rates rose from 10.14 to 78.12 per 100,000 deliveries during the study interval (p<0.0001). Patients diagnosed with OSA were at higher risk of having pregnancies with preeclampsia, OR 2.2 (95% CI 2.0–2.4), eclampsia, 4.1 (2.4–7.0), chorioamnionitis, 1.4 (1.2–1.8), postpartum hemorrhage, 1.4 (1.2–1.7), venous thromboembolisms, 2.7 (2.1–3.4), and to deliver by caesarean section, 2.1 (1.9–2.3). Cardiovascular and respiratory complications were also more common among these women, as was maternal death, 4.2 (2.2–8.0). Newborns of OSA patients were at elevated risk of being premature, 1.3 (1.2–1.5) and having congenital abnormalities, 2.3 (1.7–3.0). Conclusions Pregnancies with OSA were linked to an elevated risk of poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. During pregnancy, OSA patients should receive attentive follow-up care in a tertiary hospital.

Assessment ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 107319112110441
Rachel A. Plouffe ◽  
Bethany Easterbrook ◽  
Aihua Liu ◽  
Margaret C. McKinnon ◽  
J. Don Richardson ◽  

Moral injury (MI) is defined as the profound psychological distress experienced in response to perpetrating, failing to prevent, or witnessing acts that transgress personal moral standards or values. Given the elevated risk of adverse mental health outcomes in response to exposure to morally injurious experiences in military members, it is critical to implement valid and reliable measures of MI in military populations. We evaluated the reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factor structure of the commonly used Moral Injury Events Scale (MIES) across two separate active duty and released Canadian Armed Forces samples. In Study 1, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated through correlations between MIES scores and depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, adverse childhood experiences, and combat experiences. Across studies, internal consistency reliability was high. However, dimensionality of the MIES remained unclear, and model fit was poor across active and released Canadian Armed Forces samples. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Moi Yamazaki ◽  
Quentin De Larochelambert ◽  
Guillaume Sauliere ◽  
Jean-François Toussaint ◽  
Juliana Antero

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the risk of neurodegenerative death (ND) that former Olympians endure due to their participation in sports grouped based on presumed repeated shocks to the head, and to understand the impact of their participation in such elite sports on their total longevity.Materials and Methods: The cohort included all former US Olympians, who participated in the Olympic Games (OG) between 1948 and 1972, and whose vital status and causes of death were verified (n = 2,193). Olympic sports were classified into three categories of exposure: Collision (the highest presumed risk of repeated shocks to the head), Contact, and No-Contact. The Fine-Gray competing risk regression model was used to compare the risk of ND where the No-Contact category was a reference group. The years-saved analysis was performed to quantify the number of years saved or lost to ND and total longevity compared with the US general population.Results: A total of 65 NDs were identified. Collision sports Olympians had a 3.11 (95% CI: 1.31–7.40) higher risk of ND while the Contact group showed a risk of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.21–1.48) compared with the No-Contact sports Olympians. Compared with the general population, the Collision group lost 0.61 (95% CI: -1.16—0.06) years of life from ND, while the Contact group saved 0.4 (95% CI: 0.26–0.54) and the No-Contact group saved 0.09 (-0.09–0.28) years of life up to the age of 90. Regarding the total longevity, Collision, Contact, and No-Contact groups saved 4.67 (95% CI: 3.13–6.22), 5.8 (95% CI: 4.93–6.67), and 6.24 (95% CI: 5.57–6.92) years of life, respectively, from all causes of death.Conclusion: There is an elevated risk of ND among US Olympians, who engaged in sports with the highest presumed risk of repeated shocks to the head compared with those exposed to no such hazard. Such risk does not jeopardize the total longevity among Olympians in Collision sports.

Rheumatology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Stephen G Fung ◽  
Richard Webster ◽  
M Ellen Kuenzig ◽  
Braden Knight ◽  
Michelle Batthish ◽  

Abstract Objectives Kawasaki disease (kDa) is an immune-mediated vasculitis of childhood with multi-organ inflammation. We determined the risk of subsequent immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID), including arthritis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune liver disease (ALD), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We conducted a matched population-based cohort study using health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Children aged &lt;18 years born between 1991–2016 diagnosed with kDa (n = 3,753) were matched to 5 non-kDa controls from the general population (n = 18 749). We determined the incidence of IMIDs after resolution of kDa. Three- and 12-month washout periods were used to exclude kDa-related symptoms. Results There was an elevated risk of arthritis in kDa patients compared with non-kDa controls starting three months after index date (103.0 vs 12.7 per 100 000 person-years (PYs); incidence rate ratio (IRR) 8.07 (95% CI 4.95–13.2); hazard ratio (HR) 8.08 (95% CI 4.95–13.2), resulting in the overall incidence of IMIDs being elevated in kDa patients (175.1 vs 68.0 per 100 000 PYs; IRR 2.58 (95% CI 1.93–3.43); HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.94–3.43). However, there was no increased risk for diabetes, IBD, ALD, PSC or MS in kDa patients. Similar results were observed using a 12-month washout period. Conclusions Children diagnosed with kDa were at increased risk of arthritis following the acute kDa event, but not other IMIDs. Health care providers should monitor for arthritis in children following a diagnosis of kDa.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Nipith Charoenngam ◽  
Ben Ponvilawan ◽  
Jerapas Thongpiya ◽  
Pitchaporn Yingchoncharoen ◽  
Patompong Ungprasert

Objective: This study was conducted in order to determine the association between psoriatic arthritis and risk of vertebral fracture by pooling the evidence from previous studies. Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE database from inception to March 2020 using search strategy that comprised of terms for “Psoriatic Arthritis” and “Vertebral Fracture”. Studies were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were cohort studies that included psoriatic arthritis and individuals without psoriasis and followed them for incident vertebral fracture. Studies were also required to report standardized incidence ration, hazard risk ratio or relative risk with related 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing the incidence of vertebral fracture between the two cohorts. The retrieved point estimates with standard errors from each study were pooled into the final result by the random-effect model, generic inverse variance method. Results: A total of 26,090 articles were identified. After two rounds of independent review by three investigators, we included five cohort studies that met the eligibility criteria in the meta-analysis. PsA is significantly associated with VF the pooled odds ratio of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.11 – 3.96; I2 70%). The funnel plot was fairly asymmetric, thus, the publication bias in favor of studies may present. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that psoriatic arthritis patients have a significantly elevated risk of developing vertebral fracture.

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