Membrane fouling is a dominant limit of the membrane separation process. In this research, the optimal water backwashing to solve the membrane fouling problem was investigated in the combined water treatment process of alumina MF and pure polypropylene (PP) beads. Additionally, the influence of membrane shape (tubular or seven channel) was examined, depending on the water backwashing period. The optimal backwashing time (BT) could be 20 s in the combined water treatment process, because of the highest total treated volume (VT) in our BT 6–30 s conditions. The optimal backwashing period (BP) could be 6 min, because of the minimum membrane fouling and the maximum VT in the combined process of tubular alumina MF and PP beads. The resistance of reversible membrane fouling (Rrf) showed a major resistance of total membrane fouling, and that of irreversible membrane fouling (Rif) was a minor one, in the combined process using tubular or seven channel MF. The Rif showed a decreasing trend obviously, as decreasing BT from NBW to 2 min for seven channel MF. It means that the more frequent water backwashing could be more effective to control the membrane fouling, especially irreversible fouling, for seven channel membranes than tubular membranes.
Recently, demands for raw materials like rare earth elements (REEs) have increased considerably due to their high potential applications in modern industry. Additionally, REEs’ similar chemical and physical properties caused their separation to be difficult. Numerous strategies for REEs separation such as precipitation, adsorption and solvent extraction have been applied. However, these strategies have various disadvantages such as low selectivity and purity of desired elements, high cost, vast consumption of chemicals and creation of many pollutions due to remaining large amounts of acidic and alkaline wastes. Membrane separation technology (MST), as an environmentally friendly approach, has recently attracted much attention for the extraction of REEs. The separation of REEs by membranes usually occurs through three mechanisms: (1) complexation of REE ions with extractant that is embedded in the membrane matrix, (2) adsorption of REE ions on the surface created-active sites on the membrane and (3) the rejection of REE ions or REEs complex with organic materials from the membrane. In this review, we investigated the effect of these mechanisms on the selectivity and efficiency of the membrane separation process. Finally, potential directions for future studies were recommended at the end of the review.
The demand for bromelian and pineapple fruit has been increasing substantially in the world because of their benefits for the human health and use in diverse areas. In this context, this work aimed to study the capacity of higher retention (concentration); bromelain activity underwent ultrafiltration from pineapple juice (Ananas comusus L. Merrill). All assays were carried out at pH 7.0 and 7.5, and at 0.05 and 0.40 bar of transmembrane pressures. Results have shown that at the best operating conditions, between 85 and 87% of bromelain activity was recovered using the plain membrane separation process at 0.05 bar. The ultrafiltration has shown the capacity to retain 100% of proteolytic activity of the bromelain extracted. The samples have kept the same physics properties after ultrafiltration, and the result was verified via electrophoresis. The bromelain enzyme obtained was characterized, and pH 7 and between 30 and 40 °C were the best conditions. Therefore, this work shows that the use of both polymeric membranes has shown high efficiency, and can be used in the purification of bromelain enzymes.
The comparison study of CO2 removal efficiency from flue gases at low pressures and temperatures is presented, based on commonly used methods and materials. Our own experimental results were compared and analyzed for different methods of CO2 removal from flue gases: absorption in a packed column, adsorption in a packed column and membrane separation on polymeric and ceramic membranes, as well as on the developed supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). The efficiency and competitiveness comparison of the investigated methods showed that SILMs obtained by coating of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][Ac]) exhibit a high ideal CO2/N2 selectivity of 152, permeability of 2400 barrer and long term stability. Inexpensive and selective SILMs were prepared applying commercial membranes. Under similar experimental conditions, the absorption in aqueous Monoethanolamine (MEA) solutions is much faster than in ionic liquids (ILs), but gas and liquid flow rates in packed column sprayed with IL are limited due to the much higher viscosity and lower diffusion coefficient of IL. For CO2 adsorption on activated carbons impregnated with amine or IL, only a small improvement in the adsorption properties was achieved. The experimental research was compared with the literature data to find a feasible solution based on commercially available methods and materials.
In order to improve the production efficiency of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by anaerobic fermentation of food waste and reduce the cost for the production of organic deicing salt (ODS), ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane separation was applied in the conventional food waste fermenter to build an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Results showed that the maximum VFA concentration in AnMBR was up to 55.37 g/L. Due to the fact that the MF membrane could realize in situ separation of VFAs, the recovery of VFAs could reach 95.0%; 66.6% higher than that of traditional fermentation reactors. After the application of the MF membrane, more than 20.0% of soluble COD, 40.0% of proteins, and 50.0% of polysaccharides were retained and more than 90.0% of VFAs could be transferred in a timely fashion in the AnMBR system. In addition, the enrichment effect of the MF membrane enhanced enzymatic activities such as protease, α-Glucosidase and acetate kinase, and increased the abundance of some important bacteria for organic acid generation such as Amphibacter, Peptoniphilus and Halomonas, which made a significant contribution to the yield of VFAs. After concentration, evaporation and crystallization, the melting efficiency of obtained ODS can reach more than 90.0% in chloride salts, which was 112.0% of commercial calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). When compared to chloride salts and CMA, ODS was more environmentally-friendly as it can reduce the corrosion of carbon steel and concrete significantly. This study created a new way of converting food waste into a high-value organic deicing agent, realizing the resource utilization of solid waste and reducing the production cost of organic deicing agents.
Nano-zeolite is an innovative class of materials that received recognition for its potential use in water and tertiary wastewater treatment. These applications include ion-exchange/sorption, photo-degradation, and membrane separation. The aim of this work is to summarize and analyze the current knowledge about the utilization of nano-zeolite in these applications, identify the gaps in this field, and highlight the challenges that face the wide scale applications of these materials. Within this context, an introduction to water quality, water and wastewater treatment, utilization of zeolite in contaminant removal from water was addressed and linked to its structure and the advances in zeolite preparation techniques were overviewed. To have insights into the trends of the scientific interest in this field, an in-depth analysis of the variation in annual research distribution over the last decade was performed for each application. This analysis covered the research that addressed the potential use of both zeolites and nano-zeolites. For each application, the characterization, experimental testing schemes, and theoretical analysis methodologies were overviewed. The results of the most advanced research were collected, summarized, and analyzed to allow an easy visualization and comparison of these research results. Finally, the gaps and challenges that face these applications are concluded.
Membrane separation of CO2 from high-temperature flue gas has economic benefits. Thus, the development of thermal-stable polymeric membranes with efficient permselectivity is very crucial. In this work, we designed a...