separation process
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2022 ◽  
pp. 9-17

Purpose. The choice of the geometric dimensions ratios of system of matrix poles of electromagnetic polygradient separator to increase productivity with maintaining the reliability of extracting of ferromagnetic impurities from bulk material.Methodology. To solve the dynamic problem of motion of a ferromagnetic body in the working gap of pole system of matrix of polygradient separator under the influence of an external magnetic field the known methods of solving linear inhomogeneous differential equations are used. To confirm the reliability of obtained results the method of experimental research is used.Findings. The formulation of dynamic problem of movement of ferromagnetic body in the working gap of plate pole system of matrix of polygradient separator is carried out. Parametric equation for the trajectory of ferromagnetic body removal and a calculated relation connecting the main geometric dimensions of the system of matrix poles are obtained. The calculation results are confirmed experimentally and by operating practice of known magnetic separating devices.Originality. The mathematical description of working process of a polygradient electromagnetic separator with a plate matrix was further developed, which made it possible to obtain an analytical expression that takes into account the main geometric dimensions of the working space of matrix of separator.Practical value. Accounting of obtained analytical dependences between the length of separation zone and air gap, which characterizes the thickness of the separated material layer through which the ferromagnetic body must pass during the separation process, will ensure the necessary purity and productivity of separation.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 264
Felix M. Carbajal Gamarra ◽  
José C. C. Santana ◽  
Segundo A. V. Llanos ◽  
Jorge A. Heredia Pérez ◽  
Fábio Richard Flausino ◽  

The demand for bromelian and pineapple fruit has been increasing substantially in the world because of their benefits for the human health and use in diverse areas. In this context, this work aimed to study the capacity of higher retention (concentration); bromelain activity underwent ultrafiltration from pineapple juice (Ananas comusus L. Merrill). All assays were carried out at pH 7.0 and 7.5, and at 0.05 and 0.40 bar of transmembrane pressures. Results have shown that at the best operating conditions, between 85 and 87% of bromelain activity was recovered using the plain membrane separation process at 0.05 bar. The ultrafiltration has shown the capacity to retain 100% of proteolytic activity of the bromelain extracted. The samples have kept the same physics properties after ultrafiltration, and the result was verified via electrophoresis. The bromelain enzyme obtained was characterized, and pH 7 and between 30 and 40 °C were the best conditions. Therefore, this work shows that the use of both polymeric membranes has shown high efficiency, and can be used in the purification of bromelain enzymes.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 410
Hammad Al-Shammari ◽  
Siamak Farhad

The cathode performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) fabricated from recycled cathode active materials is studied for three scenarios. These scenarios are based on the conditions for separation of different cathode active materials in recycling facilities during the LIB’s recycling process. In scenario one, the separation process is performed ideally, and the obtained pure single cathode active material is used to make new LIBs after regeneration. In scenario two, the separation of active materials is performed with efficiencies of less than 100%, which is the actual case in the recycling process. In this scenario, a single cathode active material that contains a little of the other types of cathode active materials is used to make new LIBs after the materials’ regeneration. In scenario three, the separation has not been performed during the recycling process. In this scenario, all types of cathode active materials are regenerated together, and a mixture is used to make new LIBs. The studies are performed through modeling and computer simulation, and several experiments are conducted for validation purposes. The cathode active materials that are studied are the five commercially available cathodes made of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiCoO2 (LCO), LiNixMnyCo(1−x−y)O2 (NMC), LiNixCoyAl(1−x−y)O2 (NCA), and LiFePO4 (LFP). The results indicate that the fabrication of new LIBs with a mixture of cathode active materials is possible when cathode active materials are not ideally separated from each other. However, it is recommended that the separation process is added to the recycling process, at least for the separation of LFP or reducing its amount in the cathode active materials mixture. This is because of the difference of the voltage level of LFP compared to the other studied active materials for cathodes.

Marina A. Gorbunova ◽  
Evgenii V. Komov ◽  
Leonid Yu. Grunin ◽  
Mariya S. Ivanova ◽  
Ainur F. Abukaev ◽  

Control of the phase separation process of soft and hard segments by selecting diisocyanates and by varying the thermal program allows defining the final degree of crystallinity and phase composition of TPUs.

Li Liu ◽  
Laura Charlton ◽  
Yanqing Song ◽  
Tao Li ◽  
Xue-Mei Li ◽  

Membrane distillation is a thermally driven separation process using hydrophobic, porous membranes. Among various problems faced by membrane distillation, scaling remains an unresolved challenge in treating streams of high salinity....

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 100155
Shaoqu Xie ◽  
Zhuoxi Li ◽  
Guodian Zhu ◽  
Conghua Yi
Jet Fuel ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 103680
Haiqing Li ◽  
Chairun Nasirin ◽  
Azher M. Abed ◽  
Dmitry Olegovich Bokov ◽  
Lakshmi Thangavelu ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 101-110
Dan Cujbescu ◽  
Iuliana Găgeanu ◽  
Adrian Iosif

Modeling the threshing and separation process involves the application of a method of description, analysis and analytical determination of system performance: threshing apparatus - working process. The modeling of the process of separating the seeds passing through an axial flow threshing device was performed taking into account that the separation function ss(x) is given depending on the length of the threshing apparatus. Then, models were made to describe the variation of the percentage (cumulative) of separated seeds ss (x=L), corresponding to the modification of the threshing apparatus functional parameters (depending on the peripheral speed of the rotor, the flow of straw parts and the moisture of straw parts).

2021 ◽  
pp. 0044118X2110611
Brad Ridout ◽  
Jennifer Fletcher ◽  
Jennifer Smith-Merry ◽  
Brian Collyer ◽  
John Dalgleish ◽  

We used a mixed-methods online survey to recruit 616 young Australians whose parents had separated, to understand their experiences and how to better support them throughout the separation process. Persistent themes included conflict, lack of communication and agency, mental health concerns, and feelings of confusion, frustration, loss, and grief. Some suggested it would have been useful to talk about reasons for the separation, their rights, opinions and feelings, with some indicating the separation process affected their ongoing mental health and relationships. There was a general preference for face-to-face counseling, closely followed by online counseling and online peer-to-peer support, indicating that a “one size fits all” approach is not suitable for young people. Young people should be offered services early in the separation process that can be extended in content to other issues such as new partners, school life and mental health, and continued beyond the timeframe of the separation process.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Wieslaw Lyskawinski ◽  
Mariusz Baranski ◽  
Cezary Jedryczka ◽  
Jacek Mikolajewicz ◽  
Roman Regulski ◽  

The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the separation process of poly (ethylene terephthalate) and high-density polyethylene mixture. The research studied the influence of parameters of tribocharging and separation processes on the quality of separation. The research was carried out using a developed test stand consisting of a test tribocharger and a dedicated drum-type electrostatic separator. Both the separator and the tribocharger have been designed as automated test benches to assess the quality of plastic separation. In order to assess the quality of electrostatic separation of plastics, an original method based on the use of a dedicated vision system was used. The research was conducted in two stages. Firstly, the influence of the tribocharging process parameters on the efficiency of the process, i.e., the charge collected, was investigated. The next stage of the research was focused on the analysis of the influence of the separation process parameters on its effectiveness. The obtained results were presented and discussed. On the basis of the conducted research, the parameters of the tribocharging and separation processes affecting their effectiveness were determined.

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