standard deviations
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2022 ◽  
Shenghua Jing ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Changchen Jiang ◽  
Xiangnan Qiu ◽  
Taincong Wu ◽  

Abstract Purpose: We investigated the movement characteristics of lung cancers and the clinical accuracy of tracking lung tumors with Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System (SRTs) during the CyberKnife treatment. We also explored the influencing factors of accuracy. These data provided the appropriate expansion margins of patients with different respiratory characteristics, which was helpful to realize the personalized design of treatment plans of CyberKnife. Methods and Materials: 73 patients with lung cancer treated with CyberKnife SRTs were selected retrospectively for this study. The patient's age, gender, respiratory characteristics and tumor datas (tumor size, anatomical position and geometric position) were recorded. During treatment, the deviation was checked every 45 s and compensated by the synchronous respiratory tracking system.Results: The total mean motion amplitudes and standard deviations of lung tumors in superior-inferior (SI), left-right (LR), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were 4.15 ± 3.47 mm, 3.98 ± 3.21 mm and 3.79 ± 2.73 mm, respectively. The overall mean correlation errors and standard deviations were 0.86 ± 0.45 mm, 1.04 ± 0.76 mm and 0.70 ± 0.47 mm, respectively. The overall mean prediction errors and standard deviations were 0.18 ± 0.17 mm, 0.35 ± 0.39 mm and 0.35 ± 0.42 mm, respectively. The correlation errors of LR direction were less correlated with the geometric position of the tumor (r = 0.38), and not correlated with the anatomical position of the tumor (r < 0.3). The prediction errors were moderately correlated with the respiratory amplitude (r = 0.588), and less correlated with the baseline drift and the motion amplitude of the tumor (r = 0.407 and 0.365, respectively).Conclusions: The patient’s respiratory amplitude, the tumor motion amplitude, the tumor baseline drift and geometric position were the main factors affecting the tracking accuracy. Tumors at different geometric positions should be treated differently to ensure sufficient dose coverage of the lung tumor target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-31
Mahmoud Radwan Bardaweel ◽  
Luqman M Rababah(

The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for utilizing Arabizi among students at Jadara and Yarmouk Universities, as well as the prevalent motivations for switching for each reason. For the academic year 2019/2020, this quantitative study includes students studying English language and translation at two institutions, Yarmouk and Jadara. The participants in this study were picked at random from Jadara and Yarmouk Universities in the Irbid governorate. This study's data comes from a questionnaire that was given to 283 students of both genders (male and female). The researchers used Standard Deviations, percentages, means, frequencies, statistical figures, and the Friedman test to answer the study's research question. The findings revealed that there are numerous explanations for this. It is used by the participants as a prestigious language, as well as an easy way to write and appear more westernized. Code switching has three motivations: communication, intellectual, and solidarity. Because this study was limited to the governorate of Irbid, which is located in northern Jordan, there is a need to investigate the reasons in other Jordanian geographic locations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 102-121
Priyanka Behrani ◽  
Dorothy Bhandari Deka

Intelligence is the general mental capacity that involves reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning efficiently, and learning from experience. Intellectual disability (previously termed “mental retardation”) shows significant cognitive deficits (IQ score of below 70, i.e., two standard deviations below the mean of 100 in the population) and also significant deficits in functional and adaptive skills. Individuals with intellectual disability meet with various challenges in every span of life. The chapter tries to highlight some of the areas that are related to the concerns for the people with intellectual disability.

Л.Н. Лукьянова ◽  
И.В. Макаренко ◽  
О.А. Усов

The morphology studies of the interlayer surface (0001) were carried out by the method of scanning tunneling microscopy in the n–Bi1.6Sb0.4Te2.94Se0.06, n- Bi1.8Sb0.2Te2.82Se0.09S0.09, p-Bi0.8Sb1.2Te2.91Se0.09 and p-Bi0.7Sb1.3Te2.91Se0.09 solid solutions. On the surface (0001), impurity and native defects were found (vacancies of tellurium, antisite defects, adatoms), formed in the compositions due to substitutions of atoms in the Bi2Te3 sublattices. The average values of HM and the standard deviations of HS in height in the distribution of atoms on the surface are determined depending on the composition of the solid solution. The effect of detected defects on the thermoelectric properties of solid solutions has been established.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Vanitha Chittaluri ◽  

Intra Uterine Growth Retardation is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken to compare the knowledge and attitude regarding intra uterine growth retardation and its prevention among antenatal mothers in rural and urban areas Khammam, Telangana. The objectives of the study were to describe the levels of knowledge and attitude, to compare the levels of Knowledge and attitude in rural and urban areas, to find out the association between knowledge and attitude scores with their selected socio-demographic variables. A quantitative survey approach and comparative descriptive design was used for this study. The sample for current study is antenatal mothers who were residing at Raghunadhapalem rural area and Ballepalli urban area, Khammam. The sample size was 100((50 rural+50 urban) and the sample was selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Data was collected by using structure interview schedule. The Findings revealed that the knowledge means of antenatal mothers in rural and urban areas were 14.10 and 16.68 respectively. Standard deviations were 3.29 and 3.3 respectively. The ‘t’ calculated value was 3.89 which is significant at 0.05. The attitude means of antenatal mothers in rural and urban areas were 36.08 and 36.02 respectively. Standard deviations were 2.15 and 2.48 respectively. The ‘t’ calculated value was 0.12 which is significant at 0.05. The study concluded that the level of knowledge is low in rural area by comparing with urban area. There is an increased need for awareness program regarding intra uterine growth retardation and its prevention in selected setting in order to promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 199-204

The daily aerological data of 23 RS/R W stations for the p~ak monsoon months of July and August 1978, 1979 and 1980 for 25 levels from the surface to the lower stratosphere have been analysed. The standard deviations of the daily values of temperature are found to be about 1 .5 to 2° C in th9 lower troposphere increasing to about twice this value at upper levels. The standard deviations of geopotential heights or isobaric levels range from 15to 30 gpm in the lower troposphere increasing to about 4 times this value at upper levels. The horizontal gradients in the mean fields of temperature and geopotential height between pairs of stations in the network show several inconsistencies which are illustrated with examples. The existence of such inconsistencies in the mean fields for several years has also been found from an examination of CLIMAT -TEMP data of the stations up to 1989. These findings impose limitations on the utilisation of the data in synoptic and climatological studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-83
Salim Nasser Said Al-Kahali

The study aims to reveal the level of professional development in basic education schools from the male and female teachers’ viewpoint in the Sultanate of Oman. It further aims to examine its relationship with some variables in light of Sullivan theory, and the differences in the level of professional development (teachers’ skills, professional participation, professional development problems) according to the gender variable, and the educational stage (first cycle/ second cycle). The study sample consisted of (93) teachers distributed as such: (46) male teachers, and (47) female teachers. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to measure the level of the professional development of the male and female teachers. The questionnaire consisted of (45) paragraphs. The researcher analyzed the means, standard deviations, and (T) test. Results have shown that that there is a high level of professional development among male and female teachers in the basic education schools in the Sultanate of Oman. Moreover, the dimensional levels have come first after teachers’ skills, second after professional participation, and third after professional development problems. Further, there are no statistically significant differences attributed to the gender and the educational stage variables (first cycle/ second cycle). The study has recommended the importance of benefiting from the applications of psychology and its theories in building, and developing the personalities of male and female teachers and in education sector’s professionals professionally, scientifically, socially, psychologically and academically. It has also recommended to encourage male and female teachers to pursue postgraduate studies and employ procedural research in electronic training and professional development operations.

2021 ◽  
Cesare Cornoldi ◽  
David Giofrè ◽  
Irene Mammarella ◽  
Enrico Toffalini

Whether intellectually gifted children have a greater emotional response when tested is still unclear. This may be due to the marked heterogeneity of this particular population, and the fact that most studies lack the power to reduce the noise associated with this heterogeneity. The present study examined the relationship between performance and emotional response in 468,423 Italian fifth-graders taking a national test on mathematics and language. Analyses were performed using statistical models with polynomial terms. Special attention was paid to estimating the mean emotional response of the children who were gifted (1.5-2.5 standard deviations above the mean) or highly gifted (more than 2.5 standard deviations above the mean). The results showed that, although a lower emotional response correlated with a higher achievement, this relationship is nonlinear, and the estimates for gifted and highly gifted children were virtually the same. Girls showed a greater emotional response than boys on all levels of performance. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

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