neutrophil function
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 164
Janeen L. Salak-Johnson ◽  
Cassidy Reddout ◽  
Lily Hernandez ◽  
Anne Visconti

The study aimed to investigate and characterize the maternal effects of feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boularddii (Scb) to sows from late-gestation through lactation on progeny cortisol, immune status, and stress responsiveness from birth to 14 days post-weaning. Eighty-four piglets were born to sows fed control (CON) or probiotic (PRO) boluses twice daily for 59 days. Blood samples were obtained at birth and 24 h later to assess prenatal effects; 7, 14, and 21 day-of-age to assess potential developmental effects; and at 24 h, 7, and 14 days post-weaning to assess the effects of weaning stress on immune and cortisol responses. Pigs born to PRO sows had less robust cortisol response and enhanced immune parameters at birth and 24 h later, indicating less stress. In response to weaning, pigs born to and nursed by PRO sows displayed unique cortisol and immune profiles than CON pigs. These results indicate that feeding sows Scb probiotics during late gestation reduces stress responsiveness to farrowing stress while increasing immune cell populations. Pigs nursed by PRO sows had a more robust initial cortisol response and enhanced neutrophil function and B-cell lymphocyte proliferation in response to weaning stress. These data imply it may be possible to maternally alter immune and stress responses in utero and during suckling in the short-term and up to 14 days post-weaning. However, more research is needed to optimize this strategy.

2022 ◽  
Bijun Sun ◽  
Zeyu Zhu ◽  
Xiaoying Hui ◽  
Jinqiao Sun ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose: We aimed to report the clinical and immunological characteristics of variant type X91+ CGD in a Chinese cohort.Methods: The clinical manifestations and immunological phenotypes of X91+ CGD patients were collected. Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) analysis was performed to evaluate neutrophil function. Gp91phox protein expression was determined by flow cytometry-based extracellular staining with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7D5. Results: X91+CGD patients accounted for 8% (7/85) of all patients with GCD. The median onset age in the 7 X91+ CGD patients was 4 months. Six patients received the same BCG vaccine strain, and three had probable BCG infections. Moreover, 4 patients were highly suspected of having Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Recurrent infections of the lungs and soft tissues (3/7) were the most common symptoms. Two patients had noninfectious recurrent oral ulcers and received interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment afterward. In our cohort, the stimulation index (SI) of the 7 X91+ CGD patients ranged widely from 1.9 to 67.5, while the SI ranged from 1.2 to 35.7 in patents with X910 CGD. The level of SI between these two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). CYBB mutations associated with X91+CGD were usually located in or near the FAD and NADPH binding domains. Three new X91+ CGD related mutations (c.1462-2 A>T, c.1243C>T and c.925G>A) were identified. Conclusions: Variant type X91+ CGD may have varied severities of clinical manifestations. Moreover, the laboratory findings of X91+ CGD could present with a moderate neutrophil stimulation index. We should deepen our understanding of the X91+ variant CGD to prevent missed diagnosis.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261724
Felix P. Sanchez Klose ◽  
Halla Björnsdottir ◽  
Agnes Dahlstrand Rudin ◽  
Tishana Persson ◽  
Arsham Khamzeh ◽  

Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive monogenic disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CTSC gene, thus preventing the synthesis of the protease Cathepsin C (CTSC) in a proteolytically active form. CTSC is responsible for the activation of the pro-forms of the neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs; Elastase, Proteinase 3 and Cathepsin G), suggesting its involvement in a variety of neutrophil functions. In PLS neutrophils, the lack of CTSC protease activity leads to inactivity of the NSPs. Clinically, PLS is characterized by an early, typically pre-pubertal, onset of severe periodontal pathology and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. However, PLS is not considered an immune deficiency as patients do not typically suffer from recurrent and severe (bacterial and fungal) infections. In this study we investigated an unusual CTSC mutation in two siblings with PLS, a 503A>G substitution in exon 4 of the CTSC gene, expected to result in an amino acid replacement from tyrosine to cysteine at position 168 of the CTSC protein. Both patients bearing this mutation presented with pronounced periodontal pathology. The characteristics and functions of neutrophils from patients homozygous for the 503A>G CTSC mutation were compared to another previously described PLS mutation (755A>T), and a small cohort of healthy volunteers. Neutrophil lysates from patients with the 503A>G substitution lacked CTSC protein and did not display any CTSC or NSP activity, yet neutrophil counts, morphology, priming, chemotaxis, radical production, and regulation of apoptosis were without any overt signs of alteration. However, NET formation upon PMA-stimulation was found to be severely depressed, but not abolished, in PLS neutrophils.

2021 ◽  
Vol 219 (1) ◽  
John C. Gomez ◽  
Claire M. Doerschuk

Neutrophil functions and responses are heterogeneous, and the nature and categorization of this heterogeneity is achieving considerable interest. Work by Li et al. in this issue of JEM (2021. J. Exp. Med. identifies how a transcriptional repressor, DREAM, regulates adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. This study offers a mechanism for heterogeneity in this critical response of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli.

2021 ◽  
Michelle Nelson ◽  
Lyn M. O’Brien ◽  
Carwyn Davies ◽  
Emma Keyser ◽  
Wendy Butcher ◽  

Two strains of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), England -1 and EMC/2012, were used to challenge common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) by three routes of infection, aerosol, oral and intra-nasal. Animals challenged by the intra-nasal and aerosol routes presented with a mild, transient disease, while those challenged by the oral route presented with a subclinical immunological response. Animals challenged with MERS-CoV strain EMC/2012 by the aerosol route responded with primary and/or secondary pyrexia. Marmosets had minimal to mild multifocal interstitial pneumonia, with the greatest relative severity observed in animals challenged by the aerosol route. Viable virus was isolated from the host in throat swabs and lung tissue. The transient disease described is consistent with a successful host response and was characterised by upregulation of macrophage and neutrophil function observed in all animals at the time of euthanasia. Importance Middle East Respiratory Syndrome is caused by a human Coronavirus, MERS-CoV, similar to SARS-CoV-2. Humans typically exhibit with a fever, cough, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal issues and breathing difficulties which can lead to pneumonia and/or renal complications. This emerging disease resulted in the first human lethal cases in 2012 and has a case fatality rate of approximately 36%. Consequently, there is a need for medical countermeasures and appropriate animal models for their assessment. This work has demonstrated the requirement for higher concentrations of virus to cause overt disease. Challenge by the aerosol, intra-nasal and oral route resulted in no or mild disease, but all animals had an immunological response. This shows that an appropriate early immunological response is able to control the disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5815
Ivo Udovicic ◽  
Ivan Stanojevic ◽  
Dragan Djordjevic ◽  
Snjezana Zeba ◽  
Goran Rondovic ◽  

Immune cells and mediators play a crucial role in the critical care setting but are understudied. This review explores the concept of sepsis and/or injury-induced immunosuppression and immuno-inflammatory response in COVID-19 and reiterates the need for more accurate functional immunomonitoring of monocyte and neutrophil function in these critically ill patients. in addition, the feasibility of circulating and cell-surface immune biomarkers as predictors of infection and/or outcome in critically ill patients is explored. It is clear that, for critically ill, one size does not fit all and that immune phenotyping of critically ill patients may allow the development of a more personalized approach with tailored immunotherapy for the specific patient. In addition, at this point in time, caution is advised regarding the quality of evidence of some COVID-19 studies in the literature.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1828
Fabian Bohländer ◽  
Sabrina Weißmüller ◽  
Dennis Riehl ◽  
Marcus Gutscher ◽  
Jörg Schüttrumpf ◽  

In comparison to human immunoglobulin (Ig) G, antibodies of IgA class are not well investigated. In line with this, the functional role of the IgA component in IgM/IgA-enriched immunoglobulin preparations is also largely unknown. In recent years, powerful anti-pathogenic and immunomodulatory properties of human serum IgA especially on neutrophil function were unraveled. Therefore, the aim of our work is to investigate functional aspects of the trimodulin IgA component, a new plasma-derived polyvalent immunoglobulin preparation containing ~56% IgG, ~23% IgM and ~21% IgA. The functional role of IgA was investigated by analyzing the interaction of IgA with FcαRI, comparing trimodulin with standard intravenous IgG (IVIG) preparation and investigating Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent functions by excluding IgM-mediated effects. Trimodulin demonstrated potent immunomodulatory, as well as anti-pathogenic effects in our neutrophil model (neutrophil-like HL-60 cells). The IgA component of trimodulin was shown to induce a strong FcαRI-dependent inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAMi) signaling, counteract lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and mediate phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. The fine-tuned balance between immunomodulatory and anti-pathogenic effects of trimodulin were shown to be dose-dependent. Summarized, our data demonstrate the functional role of IgA in trimodulin, highlighting the importance of this immunoglobulin class in immunoglobulin therapy.

Mohammad Sarowar Uddin ◽  
Md. Shalahuddin Millat ◽  
Prodip Kumar Baral ◽  
Mahmuda Ferdous ◽  
Md. Giash Uddin ◽  

Abstract Background The outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) is globally deemed a significant threat to human life. Researchers are searching for prevention strategies, mitigation interventions, and potential therapeutics that may reduce the infection’s severity. One such means that is highly being talked in online and in social media is vitamin C. Main text Vitamin C is a robust antioxidant that boosts the immune system of the human body. It helps in normal neutrophil function, scavenging of oxidative species, regeneration of vitamin E, modulation of signaling pathways, activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors, activation of the signaling cascade, regulation of inflammatory mediators, and phagocytosis and increases neutrophil motility to the site of infection. All of these immunological functions are required for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. Conclusion Considering the role of vitamin C, it would be imperative to administrate vitamin C for the management of severe COVID-19. However, there is no specific clinical data available to confirm the use of vitamin C in the current pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Blake William Paget

<p>Cattle are constantly exposed to environmental pathogens and are susceptible to a number of diseases which cause significant economic loss or animal welfare concerns. The mucosal surface is a key barrier to infection and a greater understanding of bovine mucosal immunology may lead to improved disease management strategies. The cathelicidins are a family of host defence proteins which may play an important role in this defensive barrier.  The cathelicidins are composed of a globular cathelin-like domain (CLD) and a C-terminal antimicrobial peptide (AMP) domain. The CLD is highly conserved across all species in which cathelicidins are found, yet the role of the CLD during infection has not been firmly established. The first aim of this thesis was to produce functional recombinant bovine CLD as a precursor to further experiments. However, the recombinant protein bound less lipopolysaccharide, was unable to agglutinate microbes, and was unable to permeabilise neutrophil membranes when compared to the activity of a native CLD preparation. Although further studies were not carried out with recombinant CLD, these results demonstrated that cell death induced by the native CLD and the agglutination of microbes potentially contribute to a broad anti-inflammatory role for the CLD during infection.  In contrast to humans and mice where only one cathelicidin isoform is expressed, bovine express seven cathelicidins, with variable AMP domains. Therefore the second aim of this thesis was to profile the effect of bovine cathelicidin AMPs on neutrophil function. The bovine AMPs were able to modify a number of activities. Migration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were enhanced by several peptides while ROS production was inhibited by others. When investigated in further detail, linear Bac1 (bactenecin), Bac5 and BMAP-34 (bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide) were able to dose-dependently induce or inhibit several key neutrophil functions including migration, degranulation, respiratory burst and phagocytosis, indicating significant roles in differential modulation of immune responses. In particular, Bac5 was able to differentially modify neutrophil respiratory burst without significant disruption to cellular homeostasis, which suggested Bac5 was acting via an intracellular mechanism.  The third aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanism by which Bac5 modulated neutrophil function. The results demonstrated the ability of Bac5 to be internalised by neutrophils and that Bac5 inhibition of p47phox binding to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a possible explanation for the differential induction and inhibition of extracellular ROS production. β-actin was identified as a major intracellular target for Bac5 and is consistent with the ability of Bac5 to modulate multiple neutrophil functions.  In summary, this thesis demonstrates that the bovine cathelicidins have multiple roles in host defence. The conserved CLD appears to have an anti-inflammatory role through an as yet undefined mechanism. The variable AMPs together have multifaceted roles which may act in concert to promote elimination of pathogens and regulate excessive detrimental neutrophil activity. The combined effect of these roles will facilitate clearance of pathogens during infection and aid in the resolution of the innate inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces.</p>

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