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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Ana-Maria Creţu

Abstract Despite its potential implications for the objectivity of scientific knowledge, the claim that ‘scientific instruments are perspectival’ has received little critical attention. I show that this claim is best understood as highlighting the dependence of instruments on different perspectives. When closely analysed, instead of constituting a novel epistemic challenge, this dependence can be exploited to mount novel strategies for resolving two old epistemic problems: conceptual relativism and theory ladeness. The novel content of this paper consists in articulating and developing these strategies by introducing two fine-grained notions of perspectives as the key units of analysis: ‘broad perspectives’ and ‘narrow perspectives’

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Guilherme S. Nunes ◽  
Samantha L. Adami ◽  
Maitê M. Pellenz ◽  
Daniela Rigo ◽  
Rafael A. Estivalet ◽  

Abstract Background The execution of undergraduate thesis is a period in which students have an opportunity to develop their scientific knowledge. However, many barriers could prevent the learning process. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the scientific dissemination of results from undergraduate theses in physical therapy programs and verify the existence of barriers and challenges in the preparation of undergraduate thesis. Second, to investigate whether project characteristics and thesis development barriers were associated with the dissemination of undergraduate thesis results. Methods Physical therapists who graduated as of 2015, from 50 different educational institutions, answered an online questionnaire about barriers faced during the execution of undergraduate thesis and about scientific dissemination of their results. Results Of 324 participants, 43% (n = 138) of participants disseminated their results, and the main form of dissemination was publishing in national journals (18%, n = 58). Regarding the barriers, 76% (n = 246) of participants reported facing some difficulties, and the main challenge highlighted was the lack of scientific knowledge (28%, n = 91). Chances of dissemination were associated with barriers related to scientific understanding and operational factors, such as the type of institution, institutional facilities, and involvement with other projects. Conclusion Scientific knowledge seems to be a determining factor for the good development of undergraduate theses. In addition, it is clear the need to stimulate more qualified dissemination that reaches a larger audience. Changes in operational and teaching factors may improve the undergraduate thesis quality. However, the importance of rethinking scientific education within physical therapy programs draws attention.

Meliora ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
Esther Goldberg

This thesis attends to the slippages between life and nonlife in Emily Fridlunds 2017 novel History of Wolves. It traces the matter that is granted life or animacy, as well as the matter that is devitalized. Through the protagonist, Linda, the novel investigates the role of both scientific knowledge production and Christian Science in placing arbitrary biological limits on life forms, making some visible and others unseeable and unsayable. The thesis fleshes out the characters’ climate denial as yet another erasure of the animate agents. Ultimately, the thesis asks: if we can expand what is worthy of life, can we, in turn, expand what agents, actors, and matters are deserving of care?  

2022 ◽  
鬼谷 子

The guide of experts is a directory of researchers from an institution who are willing to collaborate with the media and allows journalists to locate them autonomously in a short time. It is a communication tool that optimizes the media projection of the organization's intellectual capital, increasing the visibility, branding, and organization's intellectual capital, increasing the visibility, brand, and reputation of the institution. For this reason, its presence and management in Spanish private universities are researched. The objectives are to ascertain their presence or absence from the guide; identify the reasons that have slowed down their digital implementation; analyze their location, type of format, and languages; research how an expert is located; analyze the curricular data offered by the researcher; reveal the curricular data offered by the expert, and make known the methods for contacting the specialist. The methodology is based on content analysis and the study period is from February to June 2020. The results indicate a poor presence, although they are always located in the press rooms and their format is usually digital (not in pdf), allowing the search by name-surname or specialty, mainly only in Spanish, offering little curricular information on the researchers and always allowing contact by telephone or institutional e-mail through both direct contact and contact mediated by the communication office. It concludes with an overview of its implementation and an identification of the dysfunctions and good practices detected for transferring scientific knowledge through this organizational tool.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Оlena Gulac ◽  
Lyudmyla Holoviy ◽  
Tetiana Milova ◽  
Kateryna Troshkina ◽  
Yevhen Sobol ◽  

The purpose of the article is to identify existing problems in the formation and implementation of anti-corruption policy in Ukraine based on the analysis of research results of the current state of corruption in Ukraine, analysis of relevant regulations and practice of its implementation. The methodology is based on the dialectical method of scientific knowledge, as well as special research methods based on modern scientific principles of legal, political, managerial and related sciences. Results of the research. The article analyzes the current issues of state anti-corruption policy in Ukraine at the present stage. It is noted that corruption is one of the biggest problems of Ukrainian society and has a great resistance to the development of Ukraine as a state. Ukraine currently has a whole system of anti-corruption bodies, some of which perform purely anti-corruption functions, while others perform anti-corruption functions as well. At the same time, the Basic Anti-Corruption Law defines a limited list of specially authorized entities in the field of anti-corruption. It is proved that the reserve of influence of public organizations in combating corruption offenses is still poorly used by the state on the initiative of the state itself.

2022 ◽  
Juan Gabriel Rodríguez

AbstractOpportunities in science largely affect the accumulation of scientific knowledge and, therefore, technological change. However, there is little evidence of how much of people’s talent is actually wasted. Here we focus on scientists with the highest performance, the recipients of the Nobel Prize and Fields Medal. We found that the average age of scientists at the time of the breakthrough was higher for researchers from less developed countries. Moreover, individual opportunities in the world were extremely unequal by country of birth, gender significantly conditioned any participation in research, and the probability of becoming a top researcher more than doubled for individuals with parents belonging to the most favoured occupational categories. Thus, inequality of opportunity in science at the highest level was higher than in sports excellence (Olympic medals) and educational attainment. These findings would not be so negative if opportunities in science at the highest level had increased over time. Contrary to the expectations, our results show that opportunities in science, in contrast with humanities, have stagnated.

Gunjan Taneja

Immunization programs today stand at crossroads. Even as COVID vaccine campaigns continue, inequity, concerns and confusion around them seems ever expanding. While vaccine hesitancy in some form or the other has existed since the inception of vaccination, the complex and dynamic world that we live in now has resulted in hesitancy to vaccines become an outcome of myriad interactions that we encounter in our day to day lives. Factors extraneous to health systems are major determinants and it is essentially the culmination of economics, politics, science, and technology impacting human behaviors and emotions which result in a parent, family or a community arrive at the decision of whether to or not to vaccinate. Vaccine hesitancy is on the rise, it is becoming more organized and now is not just a problem of high- income countries. It is imperative that as public health advocates, academicians, policy makers, managers and implementers we recognize it and adopt a non-judgmental and non-partisan approach built on empathy, respect and trust and not just scientific knowledge and theorems to address it. The current paper puts forward a novel approach to address hesitancy, the LEARN approach: and advocates that we need to ‘Listen’ to the voices of concern, ‘Engage’ with all stakeholders, ‘Articulate’ and communicate better in a language which is simple and comprehensible, ‘Reflect’ on what works and what does not and at the same time ‘Negate’ events and episodes which dent confidence in science and promote complacency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2113067119
Diego Kozlowski ◽  
Vincent Larivière ◽  
Cassidy R. Sugimoto ◽  
Thema Monroe-White

The US scientific workforce is primarily composed of White men. Studies have demonstrated the systemic barriers preventing women and other minoritized populations from gaining entry to science; few, however, have taken an intersectional perspective and examined the consequences of these inequalities on scientific knowledge. We provide a large-scale bibliometric analysis of the relationship between intersectional identities, topics, and scientific impact. We find homophily between identities and topic, suggesting a relationship between diversity in the scientific workforce and expansion of the knowledge base. However, topic selection comes at a cost to minoritized individuals for whom we observe both between- and within-topic citation disadvantages. To enhance the robustness of science, research organizations should provide adequate resources to historically underfunded research areas while simultaneously providing access for minoritized individuals into high-prestige networks and topics.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 289
Sharifah Nurfadhlin Afifah Syed Azhar ◽  
Siti Efliza Ashari ◽  
Norhazlin Zainuddin ◽  
Masriana Hassan

Advanced hybrid component development in nanotechnology provides superior functionality in the application of scientific knowledge for the drug delivery industry. The purpose of this paper is to review important nanohybrid perspectives in drug delivery between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hydrogel systems. The hybrid system may result in the enhancement of each component’s synergistic properties in the mechanical strength of the hydrogel and concomitantly decrease aggregation of the NLC. The significant progress in nanostructured lipid carriers–hydrogels is reviewed here, with an emphasis on their preparation, potential applications, advantages, and underlying issues associated with these exciting materials.

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