environmental responses
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tomasz Bieluszewski ◽  
Weronika Sura ◽  
Wojciech Dziegielewski ◽  
Anna Bieluszewska ◽  
Catherine Lachance ◽  
...  

AbstractNucleosomal acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) is an essential transcriptional coactivator in eukaryotes, but remains poorly characterized in plants. Here, we describe Arabidopsis homologs of the NuA4 scaffold proteins Enhancer of Polycomb-Like 1 (AtEPL1) and Esa1-Associated Factor 1 (AtEAF1). Loss of AtEAF1 results in inhibition of growth and chloroplast development. These effects are stronger in the Atepl1 mutant and are further enhanced by loss of Golden2-Like (GLK) transcription factors, suggesting that NuA4 activates nuclear plastid genes alongside GLK. We demonstrate that AtEPL1 is necessary for nucleosomal acetylation of histones H4 and H2A.Z by NuA4 in vitro. These chromatin marks are diminished genome-wide in Atepl1, while another active chromatin mark, H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac), is locally enhanced. Expression of many chloroplast-related genes depends on NuA4, as they are downregulated with loss of H4ac and H2A.Zac. Finally, we demonstrate that NuA4 promotes H2A.Z deposition and by doing so prevents spurious activation of stress response genes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Aolong Sun ◽  
Yongliang Li ◽  
Xiaoxiao Zou ◽  
Fenglin Chen ◽  
Ruqiong Cai ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The CCHC zinc finger proteins (CCHC-ZFPs) are transcription factors that play versatile roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. However, little is known about the CCHC-ZF genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), an important food crop.Results: In this study, 50 TaCCHC-ZF genes were identified and distributed unevenly on 21 wheat chromosomes. According to the phylogenetic features, the 50 TaCCHC-ZF genes were classified into eight groups with specific motifs and gene structures. 43 TaCCHC-ZF genes were identified as segmentally duplicated genes that formed 36 segmental duplication gene pairs. Additionally, the collinearity analyses between wheat and eight other representative plant species showed that wheat had closer phylogenetic relationships with monocots compared to dicots. A total of 636 cis-elements related to environmental stress and phytohormone responsiveness were identified in the promoter of TaCCHC-ZF genes. Moreover, GO enrichment results revealed that all 50 TaCCHC-ZF genes were annotated under metal ion binding and nucleic acid binding. 91 miRNA binding sites within the 34 TaCCHC-ZF genes were identified by miRNA targets analyses, indicating that the expression of TaCCHC-ZF genes could be regulated by the miRNAs. Based on published transcriptome data, 38 TaCCHC-ZF genes were identified as DEGs, and 15 TaCCHC-ZF genes among them were verified by qRT-PCR assays, which showed response to drought, heat, or simultaneous response of them.Conclusions: This study systematically explored the gene structures, evolutionary characteristics, and potential roles during environmental responses of TaCCHC-ZF genes, providing a foundation for further investigation and application of TaCCHC-ZF genes in the molecular breeding of T. aestivum.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liang Song ◽  
Xiong Hu ◽  
Feng Wei ◽  
Zhaoai Yan ◽  
Qingchen Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract. The Stratospheric Environmental respoNses to Solar stORms (SENSOR) campaign investigates the influence of solar storms on the stratosphere. This campaign employs a long-duration zero-pressure balloon as a platform to carry multiple types of payloads during a series of flight experiments in the mid-latitude stratosphere from 2019 to 2022. This article describes the development and testing of an acoustic anemometer for obtaining in situ wind measurements along the balloon trajectory. Developing this anemometer was necessary, as there is no existing commercial off-the-shelf product, to the authors’ knowledge, capable of obtaining in situ wind measurements on a high-altitude balloon or other similar floating platform in the stratosphere. The anemometer is also equipped with temperature, pressure, and humidity sensors from a Temperature-Pressure-Humidity measurement module, inherited from a radiosonde developed for sounding balloons. The acoustic anemometer and other sensors were used in a flight experiment of the SENSOR campaign that took place in the Da chaidan District (95.37° E, 37.74° N) on 4 September 2019. Three-dimensional wind speed observations, which were obtained during level flight at an altitude of around 25 km, are presented. A preliminary analysis of the measurements yielded by the anemometer are also discussed. In addition to wind speed measurements, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity measurements during ascent are compared to observations from a nearby radiosonde launched four hours earlier. The problems experienced by the acoustic anemometer during the 2019 experiment show that the acoustic anemometer must be improved for future experiments in the SENSOR campaign.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jorge Zamora-Zaragoza ◽  
Katinka Klap ◽  
Jaheli Sánchez-Pérez ◽  
Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada ◽  
Ben Scheres

The RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) proteins play a central role coordinating cell division, cell differentiation and cell survival within an environmental and developmental context. These roles reflect RBR ability to engage in multiple protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However the functional outcomes of RBR phosphorylation in multicellular organisms remain largely unexplored. Here we test the hypothesis that phosphorylation allows diversification of RBR functions in multicellular context. Using a representative collection of transgenic loss- and gain of function point mutations in RBR phospho-sites, we analysed their complementation capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana root meristems. While the number of mutated residues often correlated to the phenotypic strength of RBR phospho-variants, phospho-sites contributed differentially to distinct phenotypes. For example, the pocket-domain has a greater influence on meristematic cell proliferation, whereas the C-terminal region associates to stem cell maintenance. We found combinatorial effects between the T406 phopspho-site with others in different protein domains. Moreover, a phospho-mimetic and a phospho-defective variant, both promoting cell death, indicate that RBR controls similar cell fate choices by distinct mechanisms. Thus, additivity and specificity of RBR phospho-sites fine tune RBR activity across its multiple roles. Interestingly, a mutation disrupting RBR interactions with the LXCXE motif suppresses dominant phospho-defective RBR phenotypes. By probing protein-protein interactions of RBR variants, we found that LXCXE-containing members of the DREAM complex constitute an important component of phosphorylation-regulated RBR function, but also that RBR participates in stress or environmental responses independently of its phosphorylation state. We conclude that developmental-related, but not stress- or environmental-related functions of RBR are defined and separable by a combinatorial phosphorylation code.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3485
Author(s):  
Shashi Prakash Singh ◽  
Peter A. Thomason ◽  
Robert H. Insall

The lamellipodia and pseudopodia of migrating cells are produced and maintained by the Scar/WAVE complex. Thus, actin-based cell migration is largely controlled through regulation of Scar/WAVE. Here, we report that the Abi subunit—but not Scar—is phosphorylated in response to extracellular signalling in Dictyostelium cells. Like Scar, Abi is phosphorylated after the complex has been activated, implying that Abi phosphorylation modulates pseudopodia, rather than causing new ones to be made. Consistent with this, Scar complex mutants that cannot bind Rac are also not phosphorylated. Several environmental cues also affect Abi phosphorylation—cell-substrate adhesion promotes it and increased extracellular osmolarity diminishes it. Both unphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic Abi efficiently rescue the chemotaxis of Abi KO cells and pseudopodia formation, confirming that Abi phosphorylation is not required for activation or inactivation of the Scar/WAVE complex. However, pseudopodia and Scar patches in the cells with unphosphorylatable Abi protrude for longer, altering pseudopod dynamics and cell speed. Dictyostelium, in which Scar and Abi are both unphosphorylatable, can still form pseudopods, but migrate substantially faster. We conclude that extracellular signals and environmental responses modulate cell migration by tuning the behaviour of the Scar/WAVE complex after it has been activated.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Reinhold Stockenhuber ◽  
Reiko Akiyama ◽  
Nicolas Tissot ◽  
Misako Yamazaki ◽  
Michele Wyler ◽  
...  

As sessile organisms, plants are subjected to fluctuating sunlight including potentially detrimental ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). In Arabidopsis thaliana, experiments under controlled conditions have shown that UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) controls photomorphogenic responses for acclimation and tolerance to UV-B; however, its long-term impacts on plant performance remain poorly understood in naturally fluctuating environments. Here we quantified the survival and reproduction of different Arabidopsis mutant genotypes in diverse field and laboratory conditions. We found that uvr8 mutants produced more fruits than wild type in growth chambers with artificial low UV-B conditions but not in natural field conditions. Importantly, independent double mutants of UVR8 and the blue-light photoreceptor gene CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) in two genetic backgrounds showed a drastic reduction in fitness in the field. UV-B attenuation experiments in field conditions and supplemental UV-B in growth chambers demonstrated that UV-B caused the conditional cry1 uvr8 lethality phenotype. RNA sequencing in different conditions revealed a large number of genes with statistical interaction of UVR8 and CRY1 mutations in the presence of UV-B in the field. Among them, Gene Ontology analysis identified enrichment of categories related to UV-B response, oxidative stress, photoprotection and DNA damage repair. Our study demonstrates the functional importance of the UVR8-mediated response across life stages in natura, which is partially redundant with CRY1, and provides an integral picture of gene expression associated with plant environmental responses under diverse environmental conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miriam Ruocco ◽  
Isabel Barrote ◽  
Jan Dirk Hofman ◽  
Katia Pes ◽  
Monya M. Costa ◽  
...  

The circadian clock is an endogenous time-keeping mechanism that enables organisms to adapt to external environmental cycles. It produces rhythms of plant metabolism and physiology, and interacts with signaling pathways controlling daily and seasonal environmental responses through gene expression regulation. Downstream metabolic outputs, such as photosynthesis and sugar metabolism, besides being affected by the clock, can also contribute to the circadian timing itself. In marine plants, studies of circadian rhythms are still way behind in respect to terrestrial species, which strongly limits the understanding of how they coordinate their physiology and energetic metabolism with environmental signals at sea. Here, we provided a first description of daily timing of key core clock components and clock output pathways in two seagrass species, Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera marina (order Alismatales), co-occurring at the same geographic location, thus exposed to identical natural variations in photoperiod. Large differences were observed between species in the daily timing of accumulation of transcripts related to key metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis and sucrose synthesis/transport, highlighting the importance of intrinsic biological, and likely ecological attributes of the species in determining the periodicity of functions. The two species exhibited a differential sensitivity to light-to-dark and dark-to-light transition times and could adopt different growth timing based on a differential strategy of resource allocation and mobilization throughout the day, possibly coordinated by the circadian clock. This behavior could potentially derive from divergent evolutionary adaptations of the species to their bio-geographical range of distributions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jacob Bauss ◽  
Michele Morris ◽  
Rama Shankar ◽  
Rosemary Olivero ◽  
Leah N. Buck ◽  
...  

In the age of genomics, public understanding of complex scientific knowledge is critical. To combat reductionistic views, it is necessary to generate and organize educational material and data that keep pace with advances in genomics. The view that CCR5 is solely the receptor for HIV gave rise to demand to remove the gene in patients to create host HIV resistance, underestimating the broader roles and complex genetic inheritance of CCR5. A program aimed at providing research projects to undergraduates, known as CODE, has been expanded to build educational material for genes such as CCR5 in a rapid approach, exposing students and trainees to large bioinformatics databases and previous experiments for broader data to challenge commitment to biological reductionism. Our students organize expression databases, query environmental responses, assess genetic factors, generate protein models/dynamics, and profile evolutionary insights into a protein such as CCR5. The knowledgebase generated in the initiative opens the door for public educational information and tools (molecular videos, 3D printed models, and handouts), classroom materials, and strategy for future genetic ideas that can be distributed in formal, semiformal, and informal educational environments. This work highlights that many factors are missing from the reductionist view of CCR5, including the role of missense variants or expression of CCR5 with neurological phenotypes and the role of CCR5 and the delta32 variant in complex critical care patients with sepsis. When connected to genomic stories in the news, these tools offer critically needed Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication (ELSI) education to combat biological reductionism.


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