A robust, geology-based Proterozoic continental assembly places the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian craton against the southwestern margins of Laurentia in a tight, spoon-in-spoon conjugate fit. The proposed assembly began to break apart in late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic time. Siberia then drifted clockwise along the Laurussian margin on coast-parallel transforms until suturing with Europe in late Permian time. The proposed drift path is permitted by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field from Silurian to Permian time. However, the Proterozoic reconstruction itself is not permitted by GAD. Rather, site-mean paleomagnetic data plot ted on the reconstruction suggest a multipolar Proterozoic dynamo dominated by a quadrupole. The field may have resembled that of present-day Neptune, where, in the absence of a large solid inner core, a quadrupolar magnetic field may be generated within a thin spherical shell near the core-mantle boundary. The quadrupole may have dominated Earth’s geomagnetic field until early Paleozoic time, when the field became erratic and transitioned to a dipole, which overwhelmed the weaker quadrupole. The dipole then established a strong magnetosphere, effectively shielding Earth from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and making the planet habitable for Cambrian fauna.
Stressors are commonly encountered by all farmed species, including chickens, but the impact of these stressors on the animal and their productivity can be influenced by the environmental conditions in which they are kept. This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin D3 (vitD3) and ultraviolet light (UVB) on growth performance, organ weight, serum corticosterone levels (CORT), serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D3) status, gut histology, and welfare indicators of broiler chickens challenged with social isolation stress. One day (d) old Ross 308 broiler chicks (n = 192) were individually weighed, wing-tagged, and allocated to non-isolated (control) and isolated groups; control birds were never isolated, while isolated birds were subjected to regular sessions of social isolation for about 15-min periods over the course of 3 d a week for 2 weeks starting from d 10 (1.30 h total exposure) with inter treatment interval of 48 h. Birds were treated with either dietary vitD3 at 4,000 IU/kg (HD) or UVB light (UVB). The UVB lamp (24 Watt 12% UVB D3, 55 cm) with wavelength: 280–315 nm, intensity; 28.12 μW/cm2 hung 50 cm above the substrate was used for the broilers in all the treatment groups but were filtered to remove UVB in the HD group. Growth performance measure; body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were estimated at the end of starter (day 10), grower (day 24), and finisher periods (day 38). Broilers were feather and gait scored to measure welfare at 22/35 and 24/37 days of age, respectively. The selected birds were weighed and euthanized to obtain serum to determine 25-OH-D3 and CORT levels, GIT weights, and gut histology. Subjecting the birds to 2-week social isolation (for 15 min, three times per week) increased CORT levels but did not alter GP and 25-OH-D3 levels of broilers. However, UVB-treated broilers demonstrated better welfare, duodenal absorptive capacity, and reduced FCR compared to HD chickens. Results suggest some beneficial effects of UVB lighting on welfare indicators and the potential to support early life growth of commercial broilers reared indoors, which are often challenged with stressors.
Drought, ultraviolet-B (UV-B), and nitrogen stress are significant constraints for sweetpotato productivity. Their impact on plant growth and development can be acute, resulting in low productivity. Identifying phenotypes that govern stress tolerance in sweetpotatoes is highly desirable to develop elite cultivars with better yield. Ten sweetpotato cultivars were grown under nonstress (100% replacement of evapotranspiration (ET)), drought-stress (50% replacement of ET), UV-B (10 kJ), and low-nitrogen (20% LN) conditions. Various shoot and root morphological, physiological, and gas-exchange traits were measured at the early stage of the crop growth to assess its performance and association with the storage root number. All three stress factors caused significant changes in the physiological and root- and shoot-related traits. Drought stress reduced most shoot developmental traits (29%) to maintain root growth. UV-B stress increased the accumulation of plant pigments and decreased the photosynthetic rate. Low-nitrogen treatment decreased shoot growth (11%) and increased the root traits (18%). The highly stable and productive cultivars under all four treatments were identified using multitrait stability index analysis and weighted average of absolute scores (WAASB) analyses. Further, based on the total stress response indices, ‘Evangeline’, ‘O’Henry’, and ‘Beauregard B-14’ were identified as vigorous under drought; ‘Evangeline’, ‘Orleans’, and ‘Covington’ under UV-B; and ‘Bonita’, ‘Orleans’, and ‘Beauregard B-14’ cultivars showed greater tolerance to low nitrogen. The cultivars ‘Vardaman’ and ‘NC05-198’ recorded a low tolerance index across stress treatments. This information could help determine which plant phenotypes are desirable under stress treatment for better productivity. The cultivars identified as tolerant, sensitive, and well-adapted within and across stress treatments can be used as source materials for abiotic stress tolerance breeding programs.
Although ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the ground represents a tiny fraction of the total solar radiant energy, it significantly affects human health and global ecosystems. Therefore, erythemal UV-B monitoring has recently attracted significant attention. However, traditional UV-B retrieval methods rely on empirical modeling and handcrafted features, which require expertise and fail to generalize to new environments. Furthermore, most traditional products have low spatial resolution. To address this, we propose a deep learning framework for retrieving all-sky, kilometer-level erythemal UV-B from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We designed a deep neural network with a residual structure to cascade high-level representations from raw MODIS inputs, eliminating handcrafted features. We used an external random forest classifier to perform the final prediction based on refined deep features extracted from the residual network. Compared with basic parameters, extracted deep features more accurately bridge the semantic gap between the raw MODIS inputs, improving retrieval accuracy. We established a dataset from 7 Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) stations and 1 from 30 UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) stations with MODIS top-of-atmosphere reflectance, solar and view zenith angle, surface reflectance, altitude, and ozone observations. A partial SURFRAD dataset from 2007–2016 trained the model, achieving an R2 of 0.9887, a mean bias error (MBE) of 0.19 mW/m2, and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.42 mW/m2. The model evaluated on 2017 SURFRAD data shows an R2 of 0.9376, an MBE of 1.24 mW/m2, and an RMSE of 17.45 mW/m2, indicating the proposed model accurately generalizes the temporal dimension. We evaluated the model at 30 UVMRP stations with different land cover from those of SURFRAD and found most stations had a relative RMSE of 25% and an MBE within ±5%, demonstrating generalization in the spatial dimension. This study demonstrates the potential of using MODIS data to accurately estimate all-sky erythemal UV-B with the proposed algorithm.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a minor non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) at low levels (<1% per dry weight) that serves as the direct precursor to both cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consequently, efforts to extract and purify CBG from C. sativa is both challenging and expensive. However, utilizing a novel yeast fermentation technology platform, minor cannabinoids such as CBG can be produced in a more sustainable, cost-effective, and timely process as compared to plant-based production. While CBD has been studied extensively, demonstrating several beneficial skin properties, there are a paucity of studies characterizing the activity of CBG in human skin. Therefore, our aim was to characterize and compare the in vitro activity profile of non-psychoactive CBG and CBD in skin and be the first group to test CBG clinically on human skin. Gene microarray analysis conducted using 3D human skin equivalents demonstrates that CBG regulates more genes than CBD, including several key skin targets. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to pro-inflammatory inducers to trigger cytokine production and oxidative stress. Results demonstrate that CBG and CBD reduce reactive oxygen species levels in HDFs better than vitamin C. Moreover, CBG inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor α) release from several inflammatory inducers, such as ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), chemical, C. acnes, and in several instances does so more potently than CBD. A 20-subject vehicle-controlled clinical study was performed with 0.1% CBG serum and placebo applied topically for 2 weeks after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation. CBG serum showed statistically significant improvement above placebo for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduction in the appearance of redness. Altogether, CBG’s broad range of in vitro and clinical skin health-promoting activities demonstrates its strong potential as a safe, effective ingredient for topical use and suggests there are areas where it may be more effective than CBD.
Mahonia bealei (M. bealei) is a traditional Chinese medicine containing a high alkaloid content used to treat various diseases. Generally, only dried root and stem are used as medicines, considering that the alkaloid content in M. bealei leaves is lower than in the stems and roots. Some previous research found that alkaloid and flavonoid contents in the M. bealei leaves may increase when exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. However, the underlying mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, we used titanium dioxide material enrichment and mass-based label-free quantitative proteomics techniques to explore the effect and mechanism of M. bealei leaves when exposed to UV-B treatment. Our data suggest that UV-B radiation increases the ATP content, photosynthetic pigment content, and some enzymatic/nonenzymatic indicators in the leaves of M. bealei. Moreover, phosphoproteomics suggests phosphoproteins related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction and the plant hormone brassinosteroid signaling pathway as well as phosphoproteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the amino acid synthesis/metabolism pathway are all affected by UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the UV-B radiation activates the oxidative stress response, MAPK signal transduction pathway, and photosynthetic energy metabolism pathway, which may lead to the accumulation of secondary metabolites in M. bealei leaves.
The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is closely linked with advanced age and ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure. More specifically, the development of NMSC is linked to diminished insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling from senescent dermal fibroblasts in geriatric skin. Consequently, keratinocyte IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) remains inactive, resulting in failure to induce appropriate protective responses including DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint signaling. This allows UVB-induced DNA damage to proliferate unchecked, which increases the likelihood of malignant transformation. NMSC is estimated to occur in 3.3 million individuals annually. The rising incidence results in increased morbidity and significant healthcare costs, which necessitate identification of effective treatment modalities. In this review, we highlight the pathogenesis of NMSC and discuss the potential of novel preventative therapies. In particular, wounding therapies such as dermabrasion, microneedling, chemical peeling, and fractionated laser resurfacing have been shown to restore IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in geriatric skin and suppress the propagation of UVB-damaged keratinocytes. This wounding response effectively rejuvenates geriatric skin and decreases the incidence of age-associated NMSC.