scholarly journals Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Scarlet Macaws in an Ex Situ Breeding Population in Mexico

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Patricia Escalante-Pliego ◽  
Noemí Matías-Ferrer ◽  
Patricia Rosas-Escobar ◽  
Gabriela Lara-Martínez ◽  
Karol Sepúlveda-González ◽  

Given the interest in the conservation of the Mesoamerican scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera), the Xcaret Park formed an initial reproductive population about 30 years ago, which has progressively grown to a considerable population in captivity. In this work, we focus on the evaluation of the genetic diversity of the captive population, taking two groups into account: its founding (49) and the current breeding individuals (166). The genetic analysis consisted of genotyping six nuclear microsatellite loci that are characterized by their high variability. Tests for all loci revealed a Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in four loci of the founders and in no loci of the breeding groups. The results showed that the genetic variation in the Xcaret population was relatively high (founders He = 0.715 SE = 0.074, breeding pairs He = 0.763 SE = 0.050), with an average polymorphism of 7.5 (4–10) alleles per locus in founders and 8.3 (4–14) in breeding pairs. No significant differences in the evaluated genetic diversity indexes were found between both groups. This indicates that the genetic variability in Xcaret has been maintained, probably due to the high number of pairs and the reproductive management strategy. Bayesian analysis revealed five different genetic lineages present in different proportions in the founders and in the breeding pairs, but no population structure was observed between founders and breeding individuals. The analyzed captive individuals showed levels of genetic diversity comparable to reported values from Ara macao wild populations. These data indicate that the captive population has maintained a similar genetic diversity as the metapopulation in the Mayan Forest and is an important resource for reintroduction projects, some of which began more than five years ago and are still underway.

ZooKeys ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 941 ◽  
pp. 49-69
Diana Ortíz-Gamino ◽  
Josefat Gregorio ◽  
Luis Cunha ◽  
Esperanza Martínez-Romero ◽  
Carlos Fragoso ◽  

Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857) is an invasive tropical earthworm, globally distributed. It reproduces through parthenogenesis, which theoretically results in low genetic diversity. The analysis of the population structure of P. corethrurus using molecular markers may significantly contribute to understanding the ecology and reproductive system of this earthworm species. This work assessed the genetic diversity and population structure of P. corethrurus with 34 polymorphic inter simple sequence repeat markers, covering four populations in tropical and temperate pastures from Veracruz State. Nuclear markers distinguished two genetic clusters, probably corresponding to two distinct genetic lineages. The number of clones detected in the AC population was lower than expected for a parthenogenetic species. Also, the apparent lack of differences in population structures related to the geographic region among the populations studied may indicate that human-mediated transference is prevalent in these areas. Still, most individuals apparently belong to lineage A, and only a few individuals seem to belong to the lineage B. Thus, the admixture signatures found among the four populations of P. corethrurus may have facilitated a successful invasion by directly increasing fitness. In summary, addressing the genetic variation of P. corethrurus with ISSR markers was a suitable approach, as it evidenced the genetic diversity and relationships in the populations evaluated.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e10521
Núria Garcia-Jacas ◽  
Jèssica Requena ◽  
Sergi Massó ◽  
Roser Vilatersana ◽  
Cèsar Blanché ◽  

Seseli farrenyi (Apiaceae) is an extremely narrow endemic plant, which is considered as one of the species of most conservation concern in Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Basin). Given the accelerated fragmentation and reduction of population size (of over 90%), the environmental agency of Catalonia is currently preparing a recovery plan that includes reinforcements of the extant populations. The present study is aimed at providing the necessary knowledge to carry out genetically-informed translocations, by using microsatellites as genetic markers. Fourteen microsatellites have been specifically developed for S. farrenyi, of which nine have been used. Besides the extant natural populations, the three ex situ collections that are known to exist of this species have also been studied, as they would be the donor sources for translocation activities. Our main finding is that levels of genetic diversity in the natural populations of S. farrenyi are still high (He = 0.605), most likely as a result of a predominantly outcrossing mating system in combination with the limited time elapsed since the population decline. However, population fragmentation is showing the first genetic signs, as the values of genetic differentiation are relatively high, and two well-differentiated genetic lineages have been found even in such a narrow geographic range. These genetic results provide important information when designing conservation management measures.

Forests ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 469 ◽  
Yanwen Deng ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Yuqing Xie ◽  
Yaqing Wei ◽  
Zicai Xie ◽  

Research Highlights: This study is the first to examine the genetic diversity of Michelia shiluensis (Magnoliaceae). High genetic diversity and low differentiation were detected in this species. Based on these results, we discuss feasible protection measures to provide a basis for the conservation and utilization of M. shiluensis. Background and Objectives: Michelia shiluensis is distributed in Hainan and Guangdong province, China. Due to human disturbance, the population has decreased sharply, and there is thus an urgent need to evaluate genetic variation within this species in order to identify an optimal conservation strategy. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used eight nuclear single sequence repeat (nSSR) markers and two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers to assess the genetic diversity, population structure, and dynamics of 78 samples collected from six populations. Results: The results showed that the average observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), and percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) from nSSR markers in each population of M. shiluensis were 0.686, 0.718, and 97.92%, respectively. For cpDNA markers, the overall haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.674, and the nucleotide diversity was 0.220. Analysis of markers showed that the genetic variation between populations was much lower based on nSSR than on cpDNA (10.18% and 77.56%, respectively, based on an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA)). Analysis of the population structure based on the two markers shows that one of the populations (DL) is very different from the other five. Conclusions: High genetic diversity and low population differentiation of M. shiluensis might be the result of rich ancestral genetic variation. The current decline in population may therefore be due to human disturbance rather than to inbreeding or genetic drift. Management and conservation strategies should focus on maintaining the genetic diversity in situ, and on the cultivation of seedlings ex-situ for transplanting back to their original habitat.

2021 ◽  
Chao Du ◽  
Bai Mo ◽  
Wujiao Li ◽  
Wencong Liu ◽  
Zongxiu Hu ◽  

Abstract Rhesus monkeyss (Macaca mulatta) are extensively used in the field of medical and psychological research as valuable experimental animals. 15 polymorphic chromosome-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure in two captive individuals. A total of 155 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 7 to 15, giving an average number of 10.3 alleles per locus. The mean number of effective alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), and the polymorphism information content (PIC) were 5.602, 0.7297, 0.8016, and 0.7716, respectively. The populations HS and XJ shared partial common alleles, however, the remaining in XJ were not detected. Structure analysis indicated that two populations belong to three genetic lineages. AMOVA showed that the genetic variance was 91% among individuals, while it was 9% among populations, respectively. The bottleneck effect analysis revealed that the two captive populations were in accordance with mutation-drift equilibrium. In the comparison of the genetic parameters and structure between the HS and XJ, we speculated that the genetic diversity was higher, which may be attributed to the exchange of germplasm resources and the input of new individuals from wild populations.

Agronomy ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1984
Paulina Bolc ◽  
Bogusław Łapiński ◽  
Wiesław Podyma ◽  
Maja Boczkowska

Avena macrostachya is still a relatively unknown species. Using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, a simple and inexpensive technique, allowed us to conduct experiments on genetic differentiation and to study the population structure of this Algerian endemic oat. The results obtained showed lower than expected genetic diversity within the A. macrostachya species. The cause may be endemism of the species as well as genetic drift possible during collection, and maintenance of the accessions in gene bank and seed reproduction. No clear genetic structure was found in the examined collection, which indicates a close relationship between the populations collected in the Djurdjura National Park in Algeria. Considering the endemism of the species, its breeding potential and the small-scale ex situ collection, careful monitoring of natural sites and repeating of the collection mission are, therefore, absolutely crucial.

2015 ◽  
Vol 63 (2) ◽  
pp. 91 ◽  
Laura Ruykys ◽  
Melanie L. Lancaster

Genetic diversity is a critical determinant of the persistence of populations because it enables animals to evolve and adapt to environmental change. Black-footed rock-wallabies (Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell Ranges race), or warru, once occupied virtually all suitable habitat within the arid zone of central Australia. However, only two metapopulations now remain in the southern portion of this race’s range (South Australia) and a recovery program has involved both in- and ex-situ conservation initiatives. To establish whether genetic factors such as inbreeding may be inhibiting population recovery, the current study examined the population structure and genetic diversity of animals in the three largest-known extant colonies using six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian and frequency-based assignment tests revealed substantial population structuring (pairwise FST values 0.122–0.278), congruent with geographically distinct colonies. There was some evidence of dispersal, with two migrants identified across two colonies, but little evidence for extensive interbreeding among colonies. Population substructure was evidenced by high values of FIS in one colony. All populations possessed relatively high levels of genetic diversity (allelic richness: 5.1–7.5, heterozygosity: 0.70–0.72). On the basis of a genetic analysis of parentage, approximately half of all males and females in the known metapopulations produced offspring. This has likely contributed to the retention of genetic diversity across colonies. These findings have implications for the management of both the in- and ex-situ warru populations.

2020 ◽  
Liu Shuo ◽  
Decroocq Stephane ◽  
Harte Elodie ◽  
Tricon David ◽  
Chague Aurelie ◽  

AbstractIn-depth characterization of the genetic diversity and population structure of wild relatives of crops is of paramount importance for genetic improvement and biodiversity conservation, and is particularly crucial when the wild relatives of crops are endangered. In this study, we therefore sampled the Alpine plum (Briançon apricot) Prunus brigantina Vill. across its natural distribution in the French Alps, where its populations are severely fragmented and its population size strongly impacted by humans. We analysed 71 wild P. brigantina samples with 34 nuclear markers and studied their genetic diversity and population structure, with the aim to inform in situ conservation measures and build a core collection for long-term ex-situ conservation. We also examined the genetic relationships of P. brigantina with other species in the Prunophora subgenus, encompassing the Prunus (Eurasian plums), Prunocerasus (North-American plums) and Armeniaca (apricots) sections, to check its current taxonomy. We detected a moderate genetic diversity in P. brigantina and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach revealed the existence of three genetically differentiated clusters, endemic to three geographical regions in the Alps, which will be important for in situ conservation measures. Based on genetic diversity and population structure analyses, a subset of 36 accessions were selected for ex-situ conservation in a core collection that encompasses the whole detected P. brigantina allelic diversity. Using a dataset of cultivated apricots and wild cherry plums (P. cerasifera) genotyped with the same markers, we detected gene flow neither with European P. armeniaca cultivars nor with diploid plums. In contrast with previous studies, dendrograms and networks placed P. brigantina closer to Armeniaca species than to Prunus species. Our results thus confirm the classification of P. brigantina within the Armeniaca section; it also illustrates the importance of the sampling size and design in phylogenetic studies.

2017 ◽  
Diana Ortíz-Gamino ◽  
Luis Cunha ◽  
Esperanza Martínez-Romero ◽  
Norma Flores-Estévez ◽  
Ángel I Ortíz-Ceballos

Population genetic analyses of the invasive pantropical earthworm P. corethrurus populations will contribute significantly to better understand the ecology and especially the reproductive system of this species. Using 34 polymorphic ISSR markers the genetic diversity and population structure was assessed for four populations of P. corethrurus along an altitudinal gradient, ranging from sea level up to ~1667 meters. Nuclear markers were able to distinguish two genetic clusters, probably corresponding to two distinct genetic lineages, herein defined as A and B. Clones were detected in one population (Actopan at 480 masl) and its number was lower than expected for a parthenogenetic species. Nevertheless, low levels of genetic diversity and a high number of intermediary genotypes were detected among the studied P. corethrurus populations with no apparent population structure related to the distinct geographic regions, which may indicate that human-mediated transference is prevalent, in particular, for the lower altitude regions. Hybridisation between the two genetic clusters was tested and pointed to 11 MLGs as being later-generation hybrids (B1 introgression) mainly associated with the three lower altitude regions. Still, most of the individuals seem to belong to lineage A and only five individuals seem to belong exclusively to the lineage B. Interestingly, these parental individuals were only found present at the highest altitude site, Naolinco (1566-1667 masl), which also showed the highest values of genotypic richness. During the biological invasion, multiple introduction of different genetic lineages can provide opportunities for admixture among genetically distinct clusters. The signatures of admixture among P. corethrurus populations along the altitudinal gradient in Mexico may have allowed the invasion success by directly increasing fitness. ISSR markers revealed to be useful for the study of genetic variation in the invasive pantropical earthworm, P. corethrurus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (10) ◽  
Zulfahmi Zulfahmi ◽  
Parjanto Parjanto ◽  
Edi Purwanto ◽  
Ahmad Yunus

Abstract. Zulfahmi, Parjanto, Purwanto E, Yunus A. 2021. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eurycoma apiculata in Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4431-4439. Information on genetic variation within and among populations of Eurycoma apiculata plants is important to develop strategies for their conservation, sustainable use, and genetic improvement. To date, no information on genetic variation within and among populations of the E. apiculata has been reported. This study aims to assess genetic diversity within and among populations of E. apiculata based on RAPD markers, and to determine populations to collect E. apiculata genetic material for conservation and breeding programs. Young leaves of E. apiculata were collected from six natural populations. Fifteen RAPD primers were used to assess the genetic diversity of each population. The data obtained were analyzed with POPGEN and Arlequin software. The amplification results of 15 selected primers produced 3-16 loci with all primers 100% polymorphic. At the species level, the mean allele per locus (Na), number of effective alleles (Ne), percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL), Nei’s gene diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) were 2.000, 1.244, 100%, 0.167, and 0.286, respectively. At the population level, the mean values for Na, Ne, PPL, He and I were 1.393, 1.312, 39.27%, 0.119, and 0.186, respectively. The highest value of gene diversity within population (He) was found in the Lingga-1 population and the lowest value was found in the Rumbio population. The value of genetic differentiation among populations (GST) of E. apiculata is 0.284, consistent with the results of the AMOVA analysis which found that genetic variation among populations was 23.14%, indicates that the genetic variation of E. apiculata was more stored within populations than among populations. The gene flow (Nm) value of E. apiculata was 1.259 migrants per generation among populations. The Nm value of this species was high category, and could inhibit genetic differentiation among populations. The clustering of E. apiculata population based on the UPGMA dendrogram and PCA was inconsistent with its geographic distribution, reflecting the possibility that genes migration occurred between islands in the past. The main finding of this study was the genetic variation of the E. apiculata mostly stored within the population. Therefore, the population with the highest genetic diversity is a priority for in-situ conservation, and collection of E. apiculata genetic material for ex-situ conservation and breeding programs should be carried out minimum from Lingga-1 and Pokomo populations.

2018 ◽  
Guoling Chen ◽  
Chenqing Zheng ◽  
Nelson Wan ◽  
Daoqiang Liu ◽  
Vivian Wing Kan Fu ◽  

Background. Understanding genetic diversity and population structure is critically important for the conservation and management of endangered species. These factors are particularly relevant for species with small populations and/or restricted ranges, such as the critically endangered Blue-crowned Laughingthrush, Garrulax courtoisi, which has only two wild populations left in Wuyuan, Jiangxi and Simao, Yunnan, China. Methods. In this study, novel microsatellites markers were developed using whole-genome sequencing of the target species. We genotyped 14 and nine individuals from the Oceanic Park of Hong Kong, which are of unknown origin, and the Nanchang Zoo, which were introduced from the wild Wuyuan population, respectively, using the novel microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of captive Blue-crowned Laughingthrush populations was estimated based on genetic polymorphisms revealed by a new microsatellite data set and mitochondrial sequences.Then, we characterised the population structure using STRUCTURE, principal coordinates analysis, population assignment test using the microsatellite data, and haplotype analysis of mitochondrial data. Additionally, we quantified genetic relatednessbased on the microsatellite data with ML-Relate. Results. This is the first study to describe this novel set of 12 microsatellite markers for Blue-crowned Laughingthrush. Our results based on the microsatellite dataset and mitochondrial sequences showed equally low levels of genetic diversity of the two captive Blue-crowned Laughingthrush populations. The population structure analysis, population assignment test using the microsatellite data, and haplotype analysis of the mitochondrial data showed some population structuring between these two populations. The average pairwise relatedness coefficient was not significant, and their genetic relatedness was quantified. Discussion. This study provided a genetic tool which allowed the first estimate of captive population genetic diversity and relatedness for a critically endangered bird species. Furthermore, our results indicate that we cannot exclude the possibility that the origin of the Hong Kong captive population was the wild Wuyuan population. These results provide valuable knowledge that can help improve conservation management and planning for both captive and wild Blue-crowned Laughingthrush populations.

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