Epichloë endophytes, fungal endosymbionts of Pooidae grasses, are commonly utilized in forage and turf industries because they produce beneficial metabolites that enhance resistance against environmental stressors such as insect feeding and disease caused by phytopathogen infection. In pastoral agriculture, phytopathogenic diseases impact both pasture quality and animal production. Recently, bioactive endophyte strains have been reported to secrete compounds that significantly inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. A screen of previously described Epichloë-produced antifeedant and toxic alkaloids determined that the antifungal bioactivity observed is not due to the production of these known metabolites, and so there is a need for methods to identify new bioactive metabolites. The process described here is applicable more generally for the identification of antifungals in new endophytes. This study aims to characterize the fungicidal potential of novel, ‘animal friendly’ Epichloë endophyte strains NEA12 and NEA23 that exhibit strong antifungal activity using an in vitro assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation, followed by metabolite analysis, identified 61 metabolites that, either singly or in combination, are responsible for the observed bioactivity. Analysis of the perennial ryegrass-endophyte symbiota confirmed that NEA12 and NEA23 produce the prospective antifungal metabolites in symbiotic association and thus are candidates for compounds that promote disease resistance in planta. The “known unknown” suite of antifungal metabolites identified in this study are potential biomarkers for the selection of strains that enhance pasture and turf production through better disease control.
Up-and-down procedure (UDP) was recommended to replace traditional acute toxicity methods. However, it was limited due to the long experimental period (20–42 days). To improve UDP, an improved UDP method (iUDP) was developed by shortening observation time between sequence dosages. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of iUDP to provide a reliable method for the acute toxicity measurement of valuable or minor amount compounds.
Oral median lethal dose (LD50) of nicotine, sinomenine hydrochloride and berberine hydrochloride were measured both by iUDP and modified Karber method (mKM).
LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by iUDP with 23 mice were 32.71 ± 7.46, 453.54 ± 104.59, 2954.93 ± 794.88 mg/kg, respectively. LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by mKM with 240 mice were 22.99 ± 3.01, 456.56 ± 53.38, 2825.53 ± 1212.92 mg/kg, respectively. The average time consumed by the two methods were 22 days and 14 days respectively. Total grams of the alkaloids used by the two methods were 0.0082 and 0.0673 (nicotine), 0.114 and 1.24 (sinomenine hydrochloride), 1.9 and 12.7 (berberine hydrochloride).
iUDP could replace mKM to detect acute toxicity of substances with comparable and reliable result. And it is suitable for valuable or minor amount substances.
Background Gelsenicine, one of the most toxic alkaloids of Gelsemium elegans Benth ( G. elegans), causes severe respiratory depression. However, its toxicity mechanisms are yet to be elucidated and no effective antidotes are available. Objective This study aimed to analyse the toxicity characteristics of gelsenicine. Methods Both acute and sub-acute toxicities were evaluated. Gelsenicine distribution and elimination in the central nervous system (CNS) and blood were observed. Effective antidotes for gelsenicine poisoning were screened. Results In the acute toxicity study, gelsenicine was highly toxic, and female rats exhibited greater sensitivity to gelsenicine than male rats (LD50 0.520 mg/kg vs 0.996 mg/kg, respectively). Death was primarily caused by respiratory failure. However, in the sub-acute toxicity study, no significant organ damage was observed. Gelsenicine was easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and penetrated the blood–brain barrier, reaching peak concentrations in the CNS within 15 min and rapidly decreasing thereafter. Flumazenil or diazepam combined with epinephrine reversed gelsenicine toxicity and significantly improved survival rate in mice. Conclusions Gelsenicine is a highly toxic substance that affects nerve conduction without causing damage; the potential toxic mechanism is possibly associated with GABAA receptors. Our findings provide insights into the clinical treatment of gelsenicine -related poisoning and its toxicity mechanisms.
En Afrique, de nombreuses espèces végétales ne sont pas suffisamment exploitées, malgré leurs valeurs comestibles indéniables. Parmi ces plantes figurent les aubergines amères Solanum anguivi Lam et Solanum torvum communément appelées "gnagnan" en Côte d'Ivoire. Les baies de ces légumes-fruits sont séchées et analysées selon des méthodes standard et conventionnelles. Le tri phytochimique a révélé que S. torvum contient plus de stérols, polyphénols, quinones et saponines par rapport à S. anguivi Lam. Aucune des deux aubergines ne contient d'alcaloïdes toxiques pour l'alimentation. En chromatographie sur couche mince, les sucres détectés sont le glucose, le xylose, l'arabinose et le saccharose. Cependant, le saccharose est remplacé par le fructose dans les baies de S. torvum. Ainsi, ces deux espèces pourraient être de bonnes substances naturelles avec une valeur nutritionnelle et médicinale intéressante.
In Africa, many plant species are not sufficiently exploited, despite their undeniable edible values. Among these plants are the bitter eggplants Solanum anguivi Lam and S. torvum commonly called "gnagnan" in Côte d’Ivoire. Berries of these fruit vegetables are dried and analyzed according to standard and conventional methods. Phytochemical sorting revealed that S. torvum contains more sterols, polyphenols, quinones and saponins compared to S. anguivi Lam. Neither eggplant contains toxic alkaloids in the diet. In thin layer chromatography, the sugars detected are glucose, xylose, arabinose and sucrose. However, sucrose is replaced by fructose in the berries of S. torvum. Thus, these two species could be good natural substances with interesting nutritional and medicinal value.
Opaque soap is a solid soap product. It was made from a mixture of oil and the addition of alkaline compounds to form a saponification process. Solid soap preparations made with the addition of tobacco extract as an active ingredient that contains nicotine compounds, which include toxic alkaloids are weakly basic. In addition, tobacco extracts chosen to produce products that were beneficial to society. The purpose of this study was to provided wider use of tobacco and to know the characteristic of opaque soap preparations with the addition of tobacco extracts. The research method was a single completely randomized design (CRD) with descriptive analysis. In this study, the formulas of opaque soap were A0 (no addition of tobacco extract), A1 (1.2 g of tobacco extract), A2 (2.4 g of tobacco extract), and A3 (4.8 g of tobacco extract). The observed parameters were chemical and microbiological characteristics. All variations of opaque soaps had a pH of 9.51-9.77, water content of 13.15%-14.35%, free alkali 0.056-0.0584, antibacterial (E. coli inhibition zone proved by clear zone) about 8.60-21.50 mm; and nicotine levels 0-383.67 mg/100g. From the results due to chemical and microbiological characteristics, all of the opaque soap with additional tobacco extract was in accordance with the Indonesian National Standards (SNI 3532-2016) so that soap was safe for use by the public.
Keywords: chemistry, microbiology, soap preparations, tobacco extract
The biology of the weed goat’s-rue, Galega officinalis (Fabaceae), is reviewed. Introduced to Canada in the late 19th Century as an ornamental, it has become established at scattered localities and is spreading locally in southern Ontario. The plant is considered a noxious weed and is legally regulated in many jurisdictions due to the production of toxic alkaloids and its invasive characteristics. Primarily a weed of pastures, grasslands and perennial crops, it also displaces native vegetation in areas where it becomes established. Originally endemic in the Black Sea region, it was spread by humans through Europe and eastward to Pakistan as a herbal medicine. More recently it has been introduced widely as a forage and ornamental plant. As a folk remedy it has been used primarily to treat diabetes in humans and to enhance milk production in both humans and livestock. The plant has also used as a forage by limiting consumption to early growth stages and the quantity ingested. Effective control has been achieved with 2,4-D, dicamba, tryclopyr, metsulfuron methyl and other herbicides. Goat’s-rue forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the soil bacterium Neorhizobium galegae symbiovar officinalis. Successful establishment of Goat’s rue in new regions depends on the co-introduction of plant and bacterium. The lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, soil pH requirements and symbiont dependency, reduces the ability of G. officinalis to spread into novel areas without anthropogenic activities. These constraints to establishment may facilitate management and eradication strategies.
Vatsanabh mula (Aconitum ferox Wall ex Seringe root); is toxic due to its chief active principle an alkaloid named as Aconitine. According to Ayurveda and modern science; it is included in one of the most poisonous plants known till today to mankind. Despite it is used widely in Ayurvedic treatment in various diseases. So its use in medicinal preparation should be done only after proper processing termed as Shodhan (purification) procedures. These processings are done in specific media. Shodhan procedures enhance therapeutic properties of Vatsanabha, reduce its toxicity & convert it into medicine. In Ayurvedic literature, media like Gomutra (Cow’s urine), Godugdha (Cow’s milk) and Ajadugdha (Goat’s milk) has been mentioned for Shodhan procedures of Vatsanabha. This study focuses on effect of two Shodhan procedures of Vatsanabha Mula by using Gomutra (cow’s urine) and Godugdha (cow’s milk) on HPLC quantification of Aconitine while the raw roots were taken as control. Changes in HPLC chromatogram confirm the effect of Shodhan procedure on Vatsanabha. In HPLC analysis, peaks were observed at retention time 30.1. Areas under the curve were less in the samples after purification with cow’s urine compared to purification with cow’s milk, indicating denaturation of some component after purification. Hence, Vatsanabha mula purified by Gomutra (cow’s urine) may be regarded as better method of purification as far as toxic alkaloids are concerned.
Orange-tufted sunbirds (Cinnyris osea) feed on the nectar of the tobacco tree (Nicotiana glauca) which contains toxic pyridine alkaloids characterized by high concentrations of anabasine and much lower concentrations of nicotine. We aimed at determining whether the gut microbiota of sunbirds harbors bacterial species that enable the birds to cope with these toxic alkaloids. An in vivo experiment that included 12 birds showed that inducing dysbiosis in sunbirds’ guts by the addition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, significantly reduced the birds’ ability to degrade anabasine (n = 3) compared to control birds (n = 3) with undisturbed microbiota. Sunbirds whose gut bacterial communities were altered by the antibacterial agents and who were fed with added nicotine, also showed a lower percentage of nicotine degradation (n = 3) in their excreta compared to the sunbirds with undisturbed microbiota (n = 3), though this difference was not significant. In an in vitro experiment, we studied the ability of Lactococcus lactis, Enterobacter hormaechei, Chryseobacterium gleum, Kocuria palustris, and Methylorubrum populi that were isolated from sunbirds’ excreta, to degrade anabasine and nicotine. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, we successfully demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of these species to degrade the focal secondary metabolites. Our findings demonstrate the role of gut bacteria in detoxifying toxic secondary metabolites found in the N. glauca nectar. The degradation products may supply the birds with nitrogen which is scarce in nectar-rich diets. These findings support another role of bacteria in mediating the interactions between plants and their pollinators.