Evolution Process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Handong He ◽  
Yanrong Liu ◽  
Jing Cui ◽  
Di Hu

Knowing the GIS expression of geological phenomena is an important basis for the combination of geology and GIS. Regional geological structures include folds, faults, strata, rocks, and other typical geological phenomena and are the focus of geological GIS research. However, existing research on the GIS expression of regional geological structure focuses on the expression of the spatial and attribute characteristics of geological structures, and our knowledge of the expression of the semantic, relationship, and evolution processes of geological structures is not comprehensive. In this paper, a regional geological structure scene expression model with the semantic terms positional accuracy, geometric shape, relationship type, attribute type, and time-type attributes and operations is proposed. A regional geological structure scenario markup language (RGSSML) and a method for mapping it with graphics are designed to store and graphically express regional geological structure information. According to the geological time scale, a temporal reference coordinate system is defined to dynamically express the evolution of regional geological structures. Based on the dynamic division of the time dimension of regional geological structures, the expression method of “time dimension + space structure” for the regional geological structure evolution process is designed based on the temporal model. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the regional geological structure scene expression method proposed in this paper is verified using the Ningzhen Mountain (Nanjing section) as an example. The research results show that the regional geological structure scene expression method designed in this paper has the following characteristics: (1) It can comprehensively express the spatial characteristics, attribute characteristics, semantics, relationships, and evolution processes of regional geological structures; (2) it can be used to realize formalized expression and unified storage of regional geological information; and (3) it can be used to realize dynamic expression of the regional geological structure evolution process. Moreover, it has significant advantages for the expression of regional geological structure semantics, relationships, and evolution processes. This study improves our knowledge of the GIS expression of regional geological structures and is expected to further promote the combination and development of geology and GIS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Yue Wu ◽  
Junxiang Li ◽  
Jiru Zhou ◽  
Shichang Luo ◽  
Liwei Song

Because of its unique decentralization, encryption, reliability, and tamper-proof, the block chain system makes smart contracts break through the shackles of the lack of trusted environment, and its application field keeps expanding. We read the source code and official documents of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Hyperledger to explore the operation principle and implementation mode of smart contract. By analyzing the evolution process of smart contracts in blockchain and the sequence of its function expansion, according to the multirole business process of supply chain, we design a semipublic smart contract chain model based on Ethereum and Hyperledger in order to provide useful inspiration and help for the future research of smart contracts in blockchain applied in supply chain.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Xu Han

Purpose This study aims to examine how evolutionary and ecological forces shape the market strategy and performance of firms after their organizational form was changed by exogenous shock. Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses are developed based on both evolutionary and ecological perspectives and tested using fixed effect logistics models and a sample of 3,110 firms that were privatized during 1998–2007. Findings I find that once the organizational form of firms is changed, the market strategy of organizations is shaped by the population density of their old and new organizational forms in their existing market. Moreover, such a market strategy enhances the survival chance of firms. Originality/value This study contributes to organizational evolution literature by unpacking the evolution process when exogeneous shock to organizational form takes place. It advances both evolutionary economics and organization ecology theory through integrating them to understand the evolution process of organizations. This study also contributes to the privatization literature through examining the ecological forces that shape the restructuring strategy of firms after privatization and the performance implications of such restructuring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Hongliang Liu ◽  
Nianxue Luo ◽  
Qiansheng Zhao

China is one of the countries most affected by typhoon disasters. It is of great significance to study the mechanism of typhoon disasters and construct a typhoon disaster chain for emergency management and disaster reduction. The evolution process of typhoon disaster based on expert knowledge and historical disaster data has been summarized in previous studies, which relied too much on artificial experience while less in-depth consideration was given to the disaster exposure, the social environment, as well as the spatio-temporal factors. Hence, problems, such as incomplete content and inconsistent expression of typhoon disaster knowledge, have arisen. With the development of computer technology, massive Web corpus with numerous Web news and various improvised content on the social media platform, and ontology that enables consistent expression new light has been shed on the knowledge discovery of typhoon disaster. With the Chinese Web corpus as its source, this research proposes a method to construct a typhoon disaster chain so as to obtain disaster information more efficiently, explore the spatio-temporal trends of disasters and their impact on human society, and then comprehensively comprehend the process of typhoon disaster. First, a quintuple structure (Concept, Property, Relationship, Rule and Instance) is used to design the Typhoon Disaster Chain Ontology Model (TDCOM) which contains the elements involved in a typhoon disaster. Then, the information extraction process, regarded as a sequence labeling task in the present study, is combined with the BERT model so as to extract typhoon event-elements from the customized corpus. Finally, taking Typhoon Mangkhut as an example, the typical typhoon disaster chain is constructed by data fusion and structured expression. The results show that the methods presented in this research can provide scientific support for analyzing the evolution process of typhoon disasters and their impact on human society.

2022 ◽  
pp. 84-106
Munish Saini ◽  
Kuljit Kaur Chahal

Many studies have been conducted to understand the evolution process of Open Source Software (OSS). The researchers have used various techniques for understanding the OSS evolution process from different perspectives. This chapter reports a meta-data analysis of the systematic literature review on the topic in order to understand its current state and to identify opportunities for the future. This research identified 190 studies, selected against a set of questions, for discussion. It categorizes the research studies into nine categories. Based on the results obtained from the systematic review, there is evidence of a shift in the metrics and methods for OSS evolution analysis over the period of time. The results suggest that there is a lack of a uniform approach to analyzing and interpreting the results. There is need of more empirical work using a standard set of techniques and attributes to verify the phenomenon governing the OSS projects. This will help to advance the field and establish a theory of software evolution.

Economic development and environmental degradation are usually inversely proportional to each other and this can be reversed by endorsing more eco-competent growth policies. Although with the prompt economic growth, the concern of environmental sustainability is still a major challenge for every country. EIA since its inception has been considered as a holistic tool in assessing the potential impacts of developmental projects on the natural environment. EIA in India was first launched in 1994 and since then it has been undergoing a renaissance, and now several developmental projects have to obtain necessary environmental clearance as per the EIA notification 2006. This paper focuses on a critical overview of the evolution, process, and changes. Evaluation of the process using SOAR analysis helps in increasing the transparency and efficacy in the EIA. This research finally concludes by inferring that EIA if exercised properly shall not only ensure a clean and healthy environment but also shall aid the nation in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

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