fundamental cause
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Matthew Jay Lyons ◽  
Senaida Fernandez Poole ◽  
Ross C. Brownson ◽  
Rodney Lyn

Racial disparities in breast cancer present a vexing and complex challenge for public health. A diverse array of factors contributes to disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcomes, and, thus far, efforts to improve racial equity have yielded mixed results. Systems theory offers a model that is well-suited to addressing complex issues. In particular, the concept of a systemic leverage point offers a clue that may assist researchers, policymakers, and interventionists in formulating innovative and comprehensive approaches to eliminating racial disparities in breast cancer. Naming systemic racism as a fundamental cause of disparities, we use systems theory to identify residential segregation as a key leverage point and a driver of racial inequities across the social, economic, and environmental determinants of health. We call on researchers, policymakers, and interventionists to use a systems-informed, community-based participatory approach, aimed at harnessing the power of place, to engage directly with community stakeholders in coordinating efforts to prevent breast cancer, and work toward eliminating disparities in communities of color.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Nadir A Aliyev ◽  
Zafar N Aliyev

Objectives: This study was carried out with the objectives of investigating the relationship between Family relationship and loneliness in adolescents. Accepted children will score less on loneliness. Neglected children will score high on loneliness. Concentrated children score less on loneliness as compare to accepted children. Method: Sample consisted of 150 adolescent selected by purposive sampling technique. The scales employed for data collection were Family Relationship Inventory by Sherry and Sinha and UCLA loneliness (III) Scale by Russell. Hypothesized that accepted children will score less on loneliness as compare to concentrated and neglected. Results: 150 subjects were taken & after scoring those high on accepted, concentrated and neglected were selected to form three groups. Conclusion: Findings indicate that the fundamental cause of loneliness is disconnection. Family support and close relationships with their adult children play a central role in adjusting to a new life and in preventing and/or lessening

Laiba Masood ◽  
Atif I. Rana ◽  
Zahid A. Khan ◽  
Saman Nosheen ◽  
Haider Ali ◽  

Abstract Background Acquired uterine arterial anomalies, including uterine artery pseudoaneurysms (UAP), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulae (AFVs), are rare presenting causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Timely diagnosis is essential for safe and effective treatment, avoiding life-threatening haemorrhage resulting from erroneous uterine curettage due to misdiagnosing these as other more common differentials. Main text This pictorial review discusses the ultrasound (USG), CT and MRI features of various acquired uterine vascular abnormalities with angiographic correlates. Conclusion Acquired uterine arteriovenous injuries are a fundamental cause of dysfunctional intractable bleeding recalcitrant to traditional conservative management. Endovascular transcatheter uterine artery embolisation is an increasingly popular and safe mode of treatment, especially in young patients desiring to have the option of future pregnancies, with lesser morbidity and in-hospital stay duration.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Magdalena Smeds

Purpose How do organisations know which problems are worthy of their attention? Despite good intentions, many attempts to solve problems fail. One reason for this failure might be because of attempts to solve non-problems or to solve problems with insufficient means, a concept proposed by Deming as tampering. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a definition of tampering, outline what is currently known about possible practical implications of tampering and to suggest how to extend this knowledge by proposing an agenda for future research. Design/methodology/approach To fulfil the purpose, a narrative literature review was conducted. Findings Through this review, common aspects of what constitutes tampering are identified and the following definition is proposed: Tampering is a response to a perceived problem in the form of an action that is not directed at the fundamental cause of the problem, which leads to a deterioration of the process or the process output. In addition, recommendations are generated regarding how tampering manifests itself in practice and why tampering occurs. These recommendations could be studied in future research. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that suggests a revitalisation of tampering. The results presented in this paper form the basis for continued studies on how tampering in organisations can be understood, managed and prevented.

Surabhi Kumari

Abstract: MPC (multi-party computation) is a comprehensive cryptographic concept that can be used to do computations while maintaining anonymity. MPC allows a group of people to work together on a function without revealing the plaintext's true input or output. Privacy-preserving voting, arithmetic calculation, and large-scale data processing are just a few of the applications of MPC. Each MPC party can run on a single computing node from a system perspective. Multiple parties' computing nodes could be homogenous or heterogeneous; nevertheless, MPC protocols' distributed workloads are always homogeneous (symmetric). We investigate the system performance of a representative MPC framework and a collection of MPC applications in this paper. On homogeneous and heterogeneous compute nodes, we describe the complete online calculation workflow of a state-of-the-art MPC protocol and examine the fundamental cause of its stall time and performance limitation. Keywords: Cloud Computing, IoT, MPC, Amazon Service, Virtualization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (4) ◽  
pp. 493-511
Megan M. Reynolds

Link and Phelan’s pioneering 1995 theory of fundamental causes urged health scholars to consider the macro-level contexts that “put people at risk of risks.” Allied research on the political economy of health has since aptly demonstrated how institutions contextualize risk factors for health. Yet scant research has fully capitalized on either fundamental cause or political economy of health’s allusion to power relations as a determinant of persistent inequalities in population health. I address this oversight by advancing a theory of health power resources that contends that power relations distribute and translate the meaning (i.e., necessity, value, and utility) of socioeconomic and health-relevant resources. This occurs through stratification, commodification, discrimination, and devitalization. Resurrecting historical sociological emphases on power relations provides an avenue through which scholars can more fully understand the patterning of population health and better connect the sociology of health and illness to the central tenets of the discipline.

Qianqian Wang ◽  
Jie Han ◽  
Hong Chang ◽  
Chaoqi Wang ◽  
Eric Lichtfouse

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. 3366-3369
Syed Shah Gul ◽  
Muhammad Abdul Quddus ◽  
Jahangir Zaib ◽  
Tahir Iqbal ◽  
Wajid Hussain ◽  

Background and Aim: Jaundice and associated liver disease are frequently diagnosed in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The assessment of jaundice causes, etiology, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with liver disease have not been addressed. The present study aimed to evaluate jaundice and associated liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 272 human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-infected patients with liver disease at the Department of Gastroenterology AK CMH/ Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayad Al Nahyan Hospital Rawalakot, Medicine Medical Unit A, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar and department of Medicine, Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi for duration between 5th January 2020 and 5th December 2020. Jaundice was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration of 3 mg/dL or higher. The etiology of jaundice was determined using a pattern of liver disease biochemistry test, radiographic studies, liver biopsy and clinical follow-up. Results: About 272 HIV-infected patients were evaluated liver disease; the prevalence of jaundice was 46 (16.9%). Drug-induced hepatitis was the more prevalent cause in Jaundice 19 (41.3%) followed by neoplasms in 14 (30.4%) patients. Out of 14 neoplasms, the extrahepatic and intrahepatic disease was present in 8 and 6 patients respectively. Alcoholic liver disease was present in 5 (10.9%). Various potential causes were present in three patients. The use of abdominal ultrasonography and CT was beneficial in determining the fundamental cause of the infection. five of these patients died as a result of liver disease. Conclusion: Jaundice is rare and can be caused by a number of opportunistic and non-opportunistic etiologies in AIDS. The most common cause is drug-induced hepatitis, which can be fatal. Long-term survival was dismal. Keywords: Jaundice, Liver Disease, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

2021 ◽  
pp. 097206342110504
Jayakant Singh ◽  
Mathew George

This study seeks to examine the living conditions, working conditions, and health seeking behaviour for malaria among Kondho community after one is infected with malaria. The residential surroundings of those diagnosed with malaria positive cases were extremely conducive for mosquito breeding. For instance, the majority of households threw garbage near their house, went for open defecation, the cowshed was beside their houses, and above all the houses were mostly situated in the jungle or near thick forest. Sub-centre followed by the community health centres was the first point of contact in most cases but medical care was sought only after routine life was affected. While malaria treatment plans are changing towards administering more powerful drugs as a result of chloroquine resistance but not as much has been done in the ground to prevent malaria at the first place. Therefore, together with continuing curative care for malaria—more emphasis is needed on its prevention. Community, civil society and the government need to work in tandem to improve the living and working conditions of backward communities particularly those living in malaria endemic zone so as to be able to take effective preventive measures for malaria.

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