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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Mingzhang Yang ◽  
Jing Liu

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) refers to the external corrosion of piping and vessels when they are encapsulated in thermal insulation. To date, very limited information (especially electrochemical data) is available for these “difficult-to-test” CUI conditions. This study was aimed at developing a novel electrochemical sensing method for in situ CUI monitoring and analysis. Pt-coated Ti wires were used to assemble a three-electrode electrochemical cell over a pipe surface covered by thermal insulation. The CUI behavior of X70 carbon steel (CS) and 304 stainless steel (SS) under various operating conditions was investigated using mass loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It was found that both the consecutive wet and dry cycles and cyclic temperatures accelerated the progression of CUI. LPR and EIS measurements revealed that the accelerated CUI by thermal cycling was due to the reduced polarization resistance and deteriorated corrosion film. Enhanced pitting corrosion was observed on all tested samples after thermal cycling conditions, especially for CS samples. The proposed electrochemical technique demonstrated the ability to obtain comparable corrosion rates to conventional mass loss data. In addition to its potential for in situ CUI monitoring, this design could be further applied to rank alloys, coatings, and inhibitors under more complex exposure conditions.

Julian Ascolani-Yael ◽  
Alejandra Montenegro-Hernandez ◽  
Laura C. Baqué ◽  
Lucía M. Toscani ◽  
Alberto Caneiro ◽  

Abstract This work presents a comparative study of the diffusion (Dchem) and surface exchange coefficients (kchem) of porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated LSCF electrodes. The study was carried out using the 3DT-EIS method, which combines Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy experiments with FIB-SEM tomography data through an adapted Transmission Line - Adler Lane Steele electrochemical model. A reduction of the polarization resistance of about 60% was measured for the Co3O4 decorated LSCF respect to the reference LSCF cathode, in air at 700 °C. The Co3O4 decoration was found to modify the ORR surface reaction limiting mechanism from O2 dissociation to O-ion incorporation, whereas the diffusion coefficient was not modified by the decoration, which represents a surface diffusion process for both electrodes. After the EIS measurements, the Co3O4 particles were almost no longer visible by Field-Emission SEM on the surface of the decorated sample, but signs that these particles play an active role in Sr Segregation were observed by STEM-EDS, in particular by concentrating the segregated SrO in the surroundings of the decorated particles.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Koya Tokutake ◽  
Shinji Okazaki ◽  
Shintaro Kodama

Organic coatings are applied as a corrosion prevention measure, but their effectiveness may degrade over time. In this study, the acceleration effects of typical degradation methods in non-defective vinyl ester resin organic coatings containing glass flakes such as high-temperature immersion and immersion in chemical accelerators are clarified using physiochemical techniques. Immersion in an acetic acid (AcOH) aqueous solution causes resin swelling, and the behaviors are quantitatively evaluated through gravimetric, thickness, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, a combined process of immersion in hydrofluoric acid and an AcOH aqueous solution reduces the electrical properties and eventually blisters the thick coating surface. This result suggests that an appropriate combination of the resin swelling and the glass degradation (glass dissolution and/or formation of the gap between glass and resin) decrease mechanical properties of the glass flake coating and causes blisters. In order to help the health diagnosis of the visually non-defective aged glass flake coating, the relationship between the electrical characteristic values and the invisible degradation by accelerated tests is finally indicated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Hyung-Seok Lim ◽  
Sujong Chae ◽  
Litao Yan ◽  
Guosheng Li ◽  
Ruozhu Feng ◽  

Redox flow batteries are considered a promising technology for grid energy storage. However, capacity decay caused by crossover of active materials is a universal challenge for many flow battery systems, which are based on various chemistries. In this paper, using the vanadium redox flow battery as an example, we demonstrate a new gel polymer interface (GPI) consisting of crosslinked polyethyleneimine with a large amount of amino and carboxylic acid groups introduced between the positive electrode and the membrane. The GPI functions as a key component to prevent vanadium ions from crossing the membrane, thus supporting stable long-term cycling. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted to investigate the effect of GPI on the electrochemical properties of graphitic carbon electrodes (GCFs) and redox reaction of catholyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra demonstrated that the crosslinked GPI is chemically stable for 100 cycles without dissolution of polymers and swelling in the strong acidic electrolytes. Results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy proved that the GPI is effective in maintaining the concentration of vanadium species in their respective half-cells, resulting in improved cycling stability because of it prevents active species from crossing the membrane and stabilizes the oxidation states of active species.

Joaquín Grassi ◽  
Mario A. Macías ◽  
Juan F. Basbus ◽  
Jorge Castiglioni ◽  
Gilles H. Gauthier ◽  

YBa2Cu3O6+δ (YBC) oxygen deficient perovskite was synthesized by an auto-combustion method and was studied as potential cathode for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC). Synchrotron X-ray thermodiffraction in air shows a phase transition from orthorhombic Pmmm to tetragonal P4/mmm space groups at ~ 425 °C. The chemical compatibility with Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) electrolyte was investigated in air where certain reactivity was observed above 800 °C. However, the main phase is Ba(Ce1-xYx)O3, a good ionic conductor. The catalytic performance in air was obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on YBC/GDC/YBC symmetrical cells. The area specific resistance (ASR) values change from 13.66 to 0.14 Ω cm2 between 500 and 800 °C, with activation energy (Ea) of 0.41 eV. The results suggest potential applications of YBC as IT-SOFC cathode.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7366
Nina Gartner ◽  
Miha Hren ◽  
Tadeja Kosec ◽  
Andraž Legat

Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) present a promising potential alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The service life of reinforced concrete structures depends greatly on the corrosion resistance of the steel used for reinforcement. Due to the wide range and diverse properties of AAMs, the corrosion processes of steel in these materials is still relatively unknown. Three different alkali-activated mortar mixes, based on fly ash, slag, or metakaolin, were prepared for this research. An ordinary carbon-steel reinforcing bar was installed in each of the mortar mixes. In order to study the corrosion properties of steel in the selected mortars, the specimens were exposed to a saline solution in wet/dry cycles for 17 weeks, and periodic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were performed. The propagation of corrosion damage on the embedded steel bars was followed using X-ray computed microtomography (mXCT). Periodic EIS measurements of the AAMs showed different impedance response in individual AAMs. Moreover, these impedance responses also changed over the time of exposure. Interpretation of the results was based on visual and numerical analysis of the corrosion damages obtained by mXCT, which confirmed corrosion damage of varying type and extent on steel bars embedded in the tested AAMs.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (22) ◽  
pp. 7024
Nasreen Al Otaibi ◽  
Hassan H. Hammud

Extract of natural plants is one of the most important metallic corrosion inhibitors. They are readily available, nontoxic, environmentally friendly, biodegradable, highly efficient, and renewable. The present project focuses on the corrosion inhibition effects of Peganum Harmala leaf extract. The equivalent circuit with two time constants with film and charge transfer components gave the best fitting of impedance data. Extraction of active species by sonication proved to be an effective new method to extract the inhibitors. High percent inhibition efficacy IE% of 98% for 283.4 ppm solutions was attained using impedance spectroscopy EIS measurements. The values of charge transfer Rct increases while the double layer capacitance Cdl values decrease with increasing Harmal extract concentration. This indicates the formation of protective film. The polarization curves show that the Harmal extract acts as a cathodic-type inhibitor. It is found that the adsorption of Harmal molecules onto the steel surface followed Langmuir isotherm. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used to determine the electron-rich functional groups in Harmal extract, which contribute to corrosion inhibition effect. Scanning electron microscopy SEM measurement of a steel surface clearly proves the anticorrosion effect of Harmal leaves.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 6487-6503

The aim of the present work is to investigate the inhibitory effect of the aerial part of Daucus carota L essential oil (EO) on mild steel in a 1.0M HCl solution. The electrochemical study is performed using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in the presence of various concentrations of the examined Daucus carota L essential oil (EO). PDP results show that the studied EO behaved as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements indicated that the EO could inhibit the corrosion of mild steel by the formation of a protective film on the surface of mild steel. The experimental results showed an efficiency of 96.5% for a concentration of 2 g/l. In addition, The DFT results proved that the major components, especially -pinene (23.5%), -Bisabolene (3.96%), and Pseudo limonene (7.20%) having a high electron-accepting ability and interact actively with the iron surface, which may be responsible for the inhibition ability of the investigated EO. Furthermore, the computational complies with the experimental data.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6169
I.A. Hermoso-Diaz ◽  
R. Lopez-Cecenes ◽  
J.P. Flores-De los Rios ◽  
L.L. Landeros-Martínez ◽  
E. Sarmiento-Bustos ◽  

A component of Salvia hispanica, α-linolenic acid, has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for 1018 carbon steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Theoretical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) were used also. The results have shown that this compound is a good corrosion inhibitor, with an efficiency which increased with an increase in its concentration up to 600 ppm, but it decreased with a further increase in the concentration. α-linolenic acid formed protective corrosion products layer because it was chemically adsorbed onto the steel surface according to a Langmuir type of adsorption isotherms. Polarization curves have shown that α-linolenic acid is a good, mixed type of inhibitor with a predominant effect on the cathodic hydrogen evolution reactions. EIS measurements indicated a charge transfer-controlled corrosion process. DFT calculations indicated that α-linolenic acid was more efficient in an acidic environment than in a neutral one because has a high tendency to donate electrons and can be easily protonated. In addition to this, it had the highest EHUMO value, the best chemical reactivity, the greatest tendency to transfer electrons and a greater facility of modifying its electronic configuration in the presence of carbon steel specimens according to its chemical hardness value.

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