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2022 ◽  
Vol 520 ◽  
pp. 230877
Scott E. Waters ◽  
Jonathan R. Thurston ◽  
Robert W. Armstrong ◽  
Brian H. Robb ◽  
Michael P. Marshak ◽  

Kevin Nsolloh Lichinga ◽  
Amos Luanda ◽  
Mtabazi Geofrey Sahini

AbstractThe main objective of this study is to improve the oil-based filtercake removal at the wellbore second interface through chemical method. The reductions in near-well permeability, bonding strength at wellbore second interface and acidizing treatment are the critical problems in oilfield upstream operations. One of the major causes has been identified as drilling fluid filtrate invasion during the drilling operations. This as result leads to near-well reduction in-flow capacity due to high drawdown pressure and wellbore instability. A number of chemical methods such as enzymes, acids, oxidizers, or their hybrids, have been used, however, due to the presence of a number of factors prior to its removal, there are still many challenges in cleaning oil-based filtercake from the wellbore surface. There is a need for development an effective method for improving oil-based filtercake removal. This study presents a novel Alkali-Surfactant (KV-MA) solution developed in the laboratory to optimize the filtercake removal of oil–gas wellbore. The Reynold number for KV-MA solution was found to be 9,068 indicating that turbulent flow regime will dominate in the annulus which enhances the cleaning efficiency. The wettability test established that, contact angle of 14° was a proper wetting agent. The calculated cleaning efficiency was 86.9%, indicating that it can effectively remove the oil-based filtercake. NaOH reacts with the polar components in the oil phase of the oil-based filtercake to produce ionized surface-active species; hence reducing the Interfacial Tension. Surfactant quickens the diffusion of ionized species from the interface to the bulk phase.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 555
Monica Miranda Mugica ◽  
Kay Louise McGuinness ◽  
Nathan Scott Lawrence

This work summarizes the electrochemical response of a salicylic acid-based carbon electrode for use as a novel solid-state reference electrode in a redox-based pH sensor. This novel reference produces a pH insensitive response over a range of pH 3–10 in solutions with low buffer concentrations, different compositions, conductivities, and ionic strengths is produced. The pH of the local environment is shown to be determined by the chemistry and the electrochemical response of the redox active species on the surface of the electrode; the local pH can be controlled by the electropolymerized salicylic acid moieties due to the acid concentration on the surface, avoiding any perturbation in environmental pH and leading to a stable novel reference system. Sensitivities of −7.1 mV/pH unit, −2.4 mV/pH unit, −0.2 mV/pH unit, and 2.5 mV/pH units were obtained for different food medias, hydroponic solution, seawater, and cell-culture media, respectively, confirming its ability to control the local pH of the electrode. This reference system is paired with a new pH sensing element based on electropolymerized flavanone to provide a calibration free, pH sensitive sensor to effectively and accurately measure the pH of various media with high viscosity, low conductivity, low/high buffer concentration or cell-culture environment, presenting a maximum error of +/−0.03 pH units.

Felix Zitzmann ◽  
Michael Reich

AbstractWe surveyed occurrence and activity of large- and medium-sized mammals on six commercial mini-rotation short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantations in northern Germany by camera trapping in different seasons (winter, late summer). In total, eleven species (6–9 per site) were detected. This corresponds to the majority of mammal species occurring in the study region. Roe deer, wild boar and red fox were found across all sites. All other species were detected on fewer sites and some in only one of the seasons. Roe deer was the most active species both in terms of visit frequency (days with detection) and use intensity (detection numbers). With few exceptions on individual sites, all other species showed significantly lower activity. Number of detected species and activity of most of the species did not differ between seasons. Furthermore, there were no differences between near-edge and central areas of the crops with regard to the activity of the occurring species. Activity of individual species on different sites, however, differed considerably in some cases. Our results show that a wide range of mammal species are basically able to include SRC into their habitat utilisation. However, the sporadic use by most species indicates a rather limited current habitat value of the surveyed plantations. Options to increase the habitat value of SRC for mammals are suggested, but their effectiveness needs to be tested in future studies. Since the spatial and temporal scope of our study was limited and only SRC of a uniform age-class were considered, our results are not immediately applicable to other landscapes, seasons or types and management phases of SRC. Therefore, further research is required that considers these aspects as well as species-specific patterns of habitat selection in comparison to other habitat types.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kootak Hong ◽  
Jun Min Suh ◽  
Tae Hyung Lee ◽  
Sung Hwan Cho ◽  
Seeram Ramakrishna ◽  

AbstractDirect consideration for both, the catalytically active species and the host materials provides highly efficient strategies for the architecture design of nanostructured catalysts. The conventional wet chemical methods have limitations in achieving such unique layer-by-layer design possessing one body framework with many catalyst parts. Herein, an innovative physical method is presented that allows the well-regulated architecture design for an array of functional nanocatalysts as exemplified by layer-by-layer adornment of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the highly arrayed silica nanorods. This spatially confined catalyst exhibits excellent efficiency for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes and widely deployed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions; their facile separation from the reaction mixtures is easily accomplished due to the monolithic structure. The generality of this method for the introduction of other metal source has also been demonstrated with Au NPs. This pioneering effort highlights the feasibility of physically controlled architecture design of nanostructured catalysts which may stimulate further studies in the general domain of the heterogeneous catalytic transformations.

Yufa Zhou ◽  
Jingsen Zhang ◽  
Guangqing Xia ◽  
Yue Hua ◽  
Yanqin Li ◽  

Abstract In this work, N-doped graphite oxide (GO-P) was prepared by cold plasma treatment of GO using a mixture of NH3 and Ar as the working gas. When the ratios of NH3:Ar were 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, the specific capacitances of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:2), GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3), and GO-P(NH3:Ar1:4) were 124.5, 187.7, and 134.6 Fg−1, respectively, which were 4.7, 7.1, and 5.1 times that of GO at the current density of 1 Ag−1. The capacitance retention of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3) was 80% when it was cycled 1000 times. The characterization results showed that the NH3 cold plasma could effectively produce N-doped GO and generate more active defects. The N/C ratio and the contents of pyridinic nitrogen and graphitic nitrogen of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3) were the highest. These were conducive to providing pseudocapacitance and reducing the internal resistance of the electrode. In addition, the ID/IG of the GO-P(NH3:Ar=1:3) (1.088) was also the highest, indicating the highest number of defects. The results of discharge parameters measurement and in situ optical emission spectroscopy diagnosis of NH3 plasma showed that the discharge is the strongest when the ratio of NH3:Ar was 1:3, thereby the generated nitrogen active species can effectively promote N-doping. The N-doping and abundant defects were the keys to the excellent electrochemical performance of the GO-P(NH3:Ar1:3). NH3 cold plasma is a simple and rapid method to prepare N-doped GO and regulate the N-doping to prepare high-performance supercapacitors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Hyung-Seok Lim ◽  
Sujong Chae ◽  
Litao Yan ◽  
Guosheng Li ◽  
Ruozhu Feng ◽  

Redox flow batteries are considered a promising technology for grid energy storage. However, capacity decay caused by crossover of active materials is a universal challenge for many flow battery systems, which are based on various chemistries. In this paper, using the vanadium redox flow battery as an example, we demonstrate a new gel polymer interface (GPI) consisting of crosslinked polyethyleneimine with a large amount of amino and carboxylic acid groups introduced between the positive electrode and the membrane. The GPI functions as a key component to prevent vanadium ions from crossing the membrane, thus supporting stable long-term cycling. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted to investigate the effect of GPI on the electrochemical properties of graphitic carbon electrodes (GCFs) and redox reaction of catholyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra demonstrated that the crosslinked GPI is chemically stable for 100 cycles without dissolution of polymers and swelling in the strong acidic electrolytes. Results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy proved that the GPI is effective in maintaining the concentration of vanadium species in their respective half-cells, resulting in improved cycling stability because of it prevents active species from crossing the membrane and stabilizes the oxidation states of active species.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Yeney Lauzurique ◽  
Lidia Carolina Espinoza ◽  
César Huiliñir ◽  
Verónica García ◽  
Ricardo Salazar

Winery wastewater represents the largest waste stream in the wine industry. This deals with the mineralization of the organic matter present in winery wastewater using anodic oxidation and two types of anodes—namely, a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) and two mixed metal oxides (MMO), one with the nominal composition Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 and the other with Ti/Ir0.45Ta0.55O2. To conduct the study, the variability of different quality parameters for winery wastewater from the Chilean industry was measured during eight months. A composite sample was treated using anodic oxidation without the addition of supporting electrolyte, and the experiments were conducted at the natural pH of the industrial wastewater. The results show that this effluent has a high content of organic matter (up to 3025 ± 19 mg/L of total organic carbon (TOC)), which depends on the time of the year and the level of wine production. With MMO electrodes, TOC decreased by 2.52% on average after 540 min, which may be attributed to the presence of intermediate species that could not be mineralized. However, when using a BDD electrode, 85% mineralization was achieved due to the higher generation of hydroxyl radicals. The electrolyzed sample contained oxamic, acetic, and propionic acid as well as different ions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and phosphate. These ions can contribute to the formation of different species such as active species of chlorine, persulfate, and perphosphate, which can improve the oxidative power of the system.

2022 ◽  
Jorrit Bleeker ◽  
Stijn Reichert ◽  
Joost Veerman ◽  
David Vermaas

Abstract Here we assess the route to convert low grade waste heat (<100°C) into electricity by leveraging the temperature dependency of redox potentials (Seebeck effect). We use fluid-based redox-active species, which can be easily heated and cooled using heat exchangers. By using a first principles approach, we designed a redox flow battery system with Fe(CN)63−/Fe(CN)64− and I−/I3− chemistry. We evaluate the continuous operation with one flow cell at high temperature and one at low temperature. We show that the most sensitive parameter, the Seebeck coefficient, can be controlled via the redox chemistry, the reaction quotient and solvent additives, and we present the highest Seebeck coefficient for this RFB chemistry. A power density of 0.6 W/m2 and stable operation for 2 hours are achieved experimentally. We predict high (close to Carnot) heat-to-power efficiencies if challenges in the heat recuperation and Ohmic resistance are overcome, and the Seebeck coefficient is further increased.

Yonggui Zhao ◽  
Nanchen Dongfang ◽  
Carlos A. Triana ◽  
Chong Huang ◽  
Rolf Erni ◽  

The structural reconstruction dynamics and the real HER/OER active species of cobalt phosphides/chalcogenides were revealed through operando XAS/Raman spectroscopy.

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