convergence time
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Huizhu Pan ◽  
Jintao Song ◽  
Wanquan Liu ◽  
Ling Li ◽  
Guanglu Zhou ◽  

AbstractPreserving contour topology during image segmentation is useful in many practical scenarios. By keeping the contours isomorphic, it is possible to prevent over-segmentation and under-segmentation, as well as to adhere to given topologies. The Self-repelling Snakes model (SR) is a variational model that preserves contour topology by combining a non-local repulsion term with the geodesic active contour model. The SR is traditionally solved using the additive operator splitting (AOS) scheme. In our paper, we propose an alternative solution to the SR using the Split Bregman method. Our algorithm breaks the problem down into simpler sub-problems to use lower-order evolution equations and a simple projection scheme rather than re-initialization. The sub-problems can be solved via fast Fourier transform or an approximate soft thresholding formula which maintains stability, shortening the convergence time, and reduces the memory requirement. The Split Bregman and AOS algorithms are compared theoretically and experimentally.

2022 ◽  
Alysson Rômulo de Sousa Pezzutti ◽  
Joberto S. B. Martins

Smart grids (SGs) have as one of their basic proposals to incorporate intelligence into the electric grid through computing and communication technologies aiming at greater efficiency and effectiveness in their operation and control. Power loss, quality, and failures are inherent in the generation process, transmission, and distribution of electricity and, in the context of SGs, should be minimized to ensure greater resilience and system efficiency. Dynamic and efficient distribution network reconfiguration is an example of an SG functionality. The reconfiguration process consists of adjusting or changing the topology of the distribution network from the opening and closing of switches to minimize technical losses, optimize operating parameters, and restore power supply in contingency situations. The nature of the network reconfiguration problem is combinatorial, complex, and non-linear. Aiming to minimize convergence time in search of a solution in medium and large topologies, heuristic and optimization techniques are an alternative. This dissertation proposes a new genetic algorithm, GAEnhanced (Genetic Algorithm Enhanced), to solve network reconfiguration and make a comparative study of performance aspects of this algorithm in relation to other solutions and algorithmic strategies used. The main goal is to evaluate the algorithm implementation strategies for dynamic reconfiguration and on-the-fly distribution networks from a broader perspective, in addition to proposing a new solution with the GAEnhanced algorithm. A simulator (DNRSim) with basic functionalities for implementation and tests of network reconfiguration algorithms for the Smart Grid was developed within the scope of this dissertation. The comparative study of the performance of the GAEnhanced algorithm and other solutions with the DNRSim uses the IEEE models for system tests (14-bus, 30-bus, 57-bus, 118-bus, and 330-bus). The comparative study results illustrate the different ways to efficiently compute network reconfiguration solutions (scalability, time, and quality) and demonstrate the feasibility of using the GAEnhanced algorithm in the context of Smart Grids in a perspective of deploying more autonomic and intelligent solutions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 334
Ke Qi ◽  
Yamin Dang ◽  
Changhui Xu ◽  
Shouzhou Gu

Satellite phase fractional cycle biases (FCBs) are crucial to precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP–AR), and they can improve the accuracy and reliability of a solution. Traditional methods need multiple iterations and need to keep the same reference when estimating satellite phase fractional cycle biases. In this paper, we propose an improved fast estimation of FCB, which does not need any iterations and can select any reference when estimating FCB. We compare the suitability and precision of a traditional and a proposed method by BDS-3 experiments. The results of the FCB experiments show that the calculated time of the proposed method is less than the traditional method and that computation efficiency is increased by 34.71%. These two methods have a similar rate of fixed epochs and ambiguities in the static and dynamic models. However, the time to first fix (TTFF) of the proposed method decreased by 19.69% and 28.83% for the static and dynamic models, respectively. The results show that the proposed method has a better convergence time in PPP–AR.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Fei Li ◽  
Wentai Guo ◽  
Xiaotong Deng ◽  
Jiamei Wang ◽  
Liangquan Ge ◽  

Ensemble learning of swarm intelligence evolutionary algorithm of artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the core research directions in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). As a representative member of swarm intelligence evolutionary algorithm, shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) has the advantages of simple structure, easy implementation, short operation time, and strong global optimization ability. However, SFLA is susceptible to fall into local optimas in the face of complex and multi-dimensional symmetric function optimization, which leads to the decline of convergence accuracy. This paper proposes an improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm of threshold oscillation based on simulated annealing (SA-TO-SFLA). In this algorithm, the threshold oscillation strategy and simulated annealing strategy are introduced into the SFLA, which makes the local search behavior more diversified and the ability to escape from the local optimas stronger. By using multi-dimensional symmetric function such as drop-wave function, Schaffer function N.2, Rastrigin function, and Griewank function, two groups (i: SFLA, SA-SFLA, TO-SFLA, and SA-TO-SFLA; ii: SFLA, ISFLA, MSFLA, DSFLA, and SA-TO-SFLA) of comparative experiments are designed to analyze the convergence accuracy and convergence time. The results show that the threshold oscillation strategy has strong robustness. Moreover, compared with SFLA, the convergence accuracy of SA-TO-SFLA algorithm is significantly improved, and the median of convergence time is greatly reduced as a whole. The convergence accuracy of SFLA algorithm on these four test functions are 90%, 100%, 78%, and 92.5%, respectively, and the median of convergence time is 63.67 s, 59.71 s, 12.93 s, and 8.74 s, respectively; The convergence accuracy of SA-TO-SFLA algorithm on these four test functions is 99%, 100%, 100%, and 97.5%, respectively, and the median of convergence time is 48.64 s, 32.07 s, 24.06 s, and 3.04 s, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Changqing Wu ◽  
Xiaodong Han ◽  
Weiyu An ◽  
Jianglei Gong ◽  
Nan Xu

In many space missions, spacecraft are required to have the ability to avoid various obstacles and finally reach the target point. In this paper, the path planning of spacecraft attitude maneuver under boundary constraints and pointing constraints is studied. The boundary constraints and orientation constraints are constructed as finite functions of path evaluation. From the point of view of optimal time and shortest path, the constrained attitude maneuver problem is reduced to optimal time and path solving problem. To address this problem, a metaheuristic maneuver path planning method is proposed (cross-mutation grey wolf algorithm (CMGWO)). In the CMGWO method, we use angular velocity and control torque coding to model attitude maneuver, which increases the difficulty of solving the problem. In order to deal with this problem, the grey wolf algorithm is used for mutation and evolution, so as to reduce the difficulty of solving the problem and shorten the convergence time. Finally, simulation analysis is carried out under different conditions, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the method are verified by numerical simulation.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 488
Josué González-García ◽  
Alfonso Gómez-Espinosa ◽  
Luis Govinda García-Valdovinos ◽  
Tomás Salgado-Jiménez ◽  
Enrique Cuan-Urquizo ◽  

Several control strategies have been proposed for the trajectory tracking problem of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). Most of them are model-based, hence, detailed knowledge of the parameters of the robot is needed. Few works consider a finite-time convergence in their controllers, which offers strong robustness and fast convergence compared with asymptotic or exponential solutions. Those finite-time controllers do not permit the users to predefine the convergence time, which can be useful for a more efficient use of the robot’s energy. This paper presents the experimental validation of a model-free high-order Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) with finite-time convergence in a predefined time. The convergence time is introduced by the simple change of a time-base parameter. The aim is to validate the controller so it can be implemented for cooperative missions where the communication is limited or null. Results showed that the proposed controller can drive the robot to the desired depth and heading trajectories in the predefined time for all the cases, reducing the error by up to 75% and 41% when compared with a PID and the same SMC with asymptotic convergence. The energy consumption was reduced 35% and 50% when compared with those same controllers.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yang Li ◽  
Simeng Chen ◽  
Ke Bai ◽  
Hao Wang

Safety is the premise of the stable and sustainable development of the chemical industry, safety accidents will not only cause casualties and economic losses, but also cause panic among workers and nearby residents. Robot safety inspection based on the fire risk level in a chemical industrial park can effectively reduce process accident losses and can even prevent accidents. The optimal inspection path is an important support for patrol efficiency, therefore, in this study, the fire risk level of each location to be inspected, which is obtained by the electrostatic discharge algorithm (ESDA)–nonparallel support vector machine evaluation model, is combined with the optimisation of the inspection path; that is, the fire risk level is used to guide the inspection path planning. The inspection path planning problem is a typical travelling salesman problem (TSP). The discrete ESDA (DESDA), based on the ESDA, is proposed. In view of the shortcomings of the long convergence time and ease of falling into the local optimum of the DESDA, further improvements are proposed in the form of the IDESDA, in which the greedy algorithm is used for the initial population, the 2-opt algorithm is applied to generate new solutions, and the elite set is joined to provide the best segment for jumping out of the local optimum. In the experiments, 11 public calculation examples were used to verify the algorithm performance. The IDESDA exhibited higher accuracy and better stability when solving the TSP. Its application to chemical industrial parks can effectively solve the path optimisation problem of patrol robots.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Wenhui Ma ◽  
Xiaogeng Liang ◽  
Yangwang Fang ◽  
Tianbo Deng ◽  
Wenxing Fu

In order to overcome the drawbacks of the convergence time boundary dependent on tuning parameters in existing finite/fixed-time cooperative guidance law, this paper presents a three-dimensional prescribed-time pinning group cooperative guidance scheme that ensures multiple unpowered missiles to intercept multiple stationary targets. Firstly, combining a prescribed-time scaling function with pinning group consensus theory, the prescribed-time consensus-based cooperative guidance law is proposed. Secondly, the prescribed-time convergence of the proposed pinning group consensus-based cooperative guidance law proves that the convergence can be achieved at a specified time, regardless of initial conditions and parameters. Furthermore, the design steps including two stages of the proposed guidance law are given for engineering application. Extensive simulations are carried out in three cases to verify the properties. Simulation results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed prescribed-time consensus-based cooperative guidance scheme.

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