maize cultivation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 775-796
Paulo Cesar Batista de Farias ◽  
Leilson Rocha Bezerra ◽  
Alex Lopes da Silva ◽  
Romilda Rodrigues do Nascimento ◽  

Forage sorghum is a crop that can be planted in semiarid regions, due to its greater adaptability to dry climate environments, and can replace maize in these regions, which are often unsuitable for its production. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the structural, morphological and nutritional characteristics of 23 sorghum hybrids forage cultivated in rainfed conditions, planted in different climate conditions, comparing the hybrids, in order to determine what produces the best in the climatic conditions of the explored region, and also to indicate whether this crop can be planted as a replacement for maize in environments not suitable for planting it. The research was conducted in climate BSh in the Municipality of Alvorada do Gurgueia, and climate Aw in the Municipality of Bom Jesus, both in the state of Piauí from 2014 to 2015. Each trial consisted of 20 experimental forage sorghum hybrids [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and three commercial hybrids. A randomized block design was used, with three replications in a factorial scheme (2 × 23). The growth characteristics determined were hybrid × climate interaction for the variables plant height, lodging and leaf/stem ratio. For the variable number of tillers, there was a significant difference only between hybrids. There was no difference between hybrids only for the lodging variable of climate Aw. The other variables showed a difference in all hybrids evaluated. There was an interaction for production of dead matter and total dry forage mass between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. For leaf production, there was an effect only for the different environments. For the chemical characteristics, there was an interaction for all variables analyzed between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. The semi-arid region of the State of Piauí, climate BSh which presents a high climatic risk for maize cultivation, proved to be favorable for forage sorghum production. The forage sorghum also presented agronomic characteristics similar to those found in semi humid climate Aw, a favorable region for maize cultivation. In addition, the tested hybrids showed good chemical characteristics, so the BSh climate has great exploratory potential for the cultivation of forage sorghum.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
K.S. Sohal ◽  
K.S. Sohal ◽  
K.S. Sohal

The chief objective of the present study is to reveal spatial patterns of maize productivity and Changes in Himachal Pradesh during 1990-91 to 2014-15. For achieving this purpose, the study is divided into three parts. First part deals with spatial patterns of maize productivity. It is found that the index value of maize productivity varied from minimum of 47.55 percent in Spiti tehsil to 155.90 percent in Churah tehsil in 1990-91. While in 2002-03, it varied from 47.45 percent in Lahaul tehsil to 143.14 percent in Churah tehsil. Whereas in 2014-15, it is lowest of 47.97 percent in Spiti tehsil and highest of 141.51 percent in Churah tehsil. It is also observed that in all time periods, magnitude of maize productivity starts declining from west to east. In second part, it is found that in Himachal Pradesh, the highest index value of maize productivity has declined from 150.90 percent to 141.15 percent during 1990-91 to 2014-15 and registered overall negative change of 8.39 percent index value. Whereas the lowest index value of maize productivity has increased from 47.55 percent in 1990-91 to 47.97 percent in 2014-15 and experience 0.42 percent increase in lowest index value of maize productivity during study period, thus the gap between high and low magnitude of maize productivity has minimized which shows that sign of healthy maize cultivation. In third part, major problems are identified and suggestions are made to solve these problems for increasing the maize productivity in the state. The present study is empirical in nature and based on secondary sources of data. Three time periods are taken and averages are derived for each time period, because 1990-91 is the year of liberalization era and 2002-03 and 2014-15 are post liberalization period. Singh (1976), technique is used for deriving the results and choropleth method is applied for mapping the results.

2021 ◽  
Kazumichi Fujii ◽  
Risako Mitani ◽  
Yoshiyuki Inagaki ◽  
Chie Hayakawa ◽  
Makoto Shibata ◽  

Abstract AimsThe loss of soil organic matter (SOM) has widely been reported in the tropics after changing land use from shifting cultivation to continuous cropping. We tested whether continuous maize cultivation accelerates SOM loss compared to upland rice and forest fallow. Methods: Because litter sources include C4 plants (maize in maize fields and Imperata grass in upland rice fields) in Thailand, C3-derived and C4-derived SOM can be traced using the differences in natural 13C abundance (δ13C) between C3 and C4 plants. We analyzed the effects of land use history (cultivation or forest fallow period) on C stocks in the surface soil. Soil C stocks decreased with the cultivation period in both upland rice and maize fields. ResultsThe rate of soil organic carbon loss was higher in maize fields than in upland rice fields. The decomposition rate constant (first order kinetics) of C3-plant-derived SOM was higher in the maize fields than in the upland rice fields and the C4-plant-derived SOM in the forest fallow. Soil surface exposure and low input of root-derived C in the maize fields are considered to accelerate SOM loss. Soil C stocks increased with the forest fallow period, consistent with the slow decomposition of C4-plant-derived SOM in the forest fallows. ConclusionsContinuous maize cultivation accelerates SOM loss, while forest fallow and upland rice cultivation could mitigate the SOM loss caused by continuous maize cultivation.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Ofir Degani

Control of maize late wilt disease (LWD) has been at the forefront of research efforts since the discovery of the disease in the 1960s. The disease has become a major economic restraint in highly affected areas such as Egypt and Israel, and is of constant concern in other counties. LWD causes dehydration and collapsing at a late stage of maize cultivation, starting from the male flowering phase. The disease causal agent, Magnaporthiopsis maydis, is a seed- and soil-borne phytoparasitic fungus, penetrating the roots at sprouting, colonizing the vascular system without external symptoms, and spreading upwards in the xylem, eventually blocking the water supply to the plant’s upperparts. Nowadays, the disease’s control relies mostly on identifying and developing resistant maize cultivars. Still, host resistance can be limited because M. maydis undergoes pathogenic variations, and virulent strains can eventually overcome the host immunity. This alarming status is driving researchers to continue to seek other control methods. The current review will summarize the various strategies tested over the years to minimize the disease damage. These options include agricultural (crop rotation, cover crop, no-till, flooding the land before sowing, and balanced soil fertility), physical (solar heating), allelochemical, biological, and chemical interventions. Some of these methods have shown promising success, while others have contributed to our understanding of the disease development and the environmental and host-related factors that have shaped its outcome. The most updated global knowledge about LWD control will be presented, and knowledge gaps and future aims will be discussed.

G. Manjulatha ◽  
B. Sowjanya ◽  
E. Rajanikanth

Aim: To compare the cost and return analysis of conventional maize cultivation with mechanization. Place of Study: A field experiment on maize crop cultivation by conventional and mechanization was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Karimnagar during Kharif, 2019-20. Methodology: The cost concepts were used to estimate the cost of cultivation under conventional and Mechanization methods. The cost concepts viz., cost A1, cost A2 cost B1 cost B2 and cost C1, cost C2 and C3 were used in the present study. Results: The total costs of cultivation under conventional and mechanization methods were Rs.117794.78 and Rs.104137.92 per hectare respectively indicating 12 % saving with mechanization. Similarly gross returns were Rs. 146064.00 in conventional method against Rs.146988.00 in mechanized method.  Net returns recovered were 52% higher with mechanized method i.e Rs.42850.08 compared to conventional method Rs.28269.22. In the same way returns per rupee of investment in conventional method and mechanization were 1.23 and 1.41. Mechanization in cultivation also saves time, labour usage and reduces drudgery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Titaporn Supasri ◽  
Norihiro Itsubo ◽  
Shabbir H. Gheewala ◽  
Sate Sampattagul

Syed H. Mazhar ◽  
Dipak Kumar Bose ◽  
Jahanara Jahanara

Maize (Zea Mays L.) is considered as a unique cereal crop for its diversified use and suitability under various cropping systems. In India it is the third largest cereal crop in terms of acreage. The present study was conducted in Khariar block of Nuapada district of Odisha. Descriptive research design was followed, since the present study is fact-finding and present description of the respondents as well as the area. There are 117 villages in the selected block out of that 12 villages were selected through Random sampling based on existence of Maize cultivation. From the above analysis, it was concluded that majority (85.00%) of respondents were male. Majority (45.00%) of the respondents belonged to both the age group of (20-35) years and (36-55) years. Majority (80.00%) of respondents were married. Majority (70.00%) of respondents were having annual income more than 51,000. Majority (35.00%) of respondents were having education qualification up to High School. Majority (60.00%) of respondents were having land holding of 1-2 hectare. Majority (75.00%) of respondents were occupation Maize Farming and other crops farming collectively. Majority (80.00%) of respondents were having joint family. Majority (65.00%) of respondents were having family size of more than 5 members. Majority (45.00%) of respondents were having semi-cemented house. Majority (40.00%) of respondents were having social participation in Farmers Society. Majority (65.00%) of respondents daily used mobile. Majority (70.00%) of respondents were having maize farming experience up to 1-20 years. Majority (45.00%) of respondents were having medium level knowledge regarding Maize Cultivation Practices. Majority the adoption of Improved Production Technology of Maize was found to be high that is 75.00 percent. According to the response from the respondents, non-performance of visit by agricultural personnel time to time ranked I for constraints faced by the respondents, Lack of hybrid seed ranked II, Lack of credit facility at time ranked III, Lack of proper resources and capital ranked IV and so on. According to the suggestions received from the respondents, Hybrid seed should be available in time, Credit should be available earlier and timely, Availability of fertilizers and other inputs should be in time, Technical advice and training should be given at right time and so on.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 277
Saowanee Wijitkosum ◽  
Thavivongse Sriburi

Many agronomical wastes are produced annually in significant amounts after cultivation, especially in agricultural countries. This study applied biochar produced from the pyrolysis of cassava stems to improve soil with low fertility for maize cultivation. The effect of soil biochar incorporation on maize yield and productivity was also investigated. Eight experimental plots, each with four replicates, were applied with cassava stem biochar (CSB) at different rates of 0.5 kg/m2 (TB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TB2.5) and 3.0 kg/m2 (TB3.0), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 (TM), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 mixed with CSB at 0.5 kg/m2 (TMB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TMB2.5), 3.0 kg/m2 (TMB3.0) and untreated soil (TC). Pyrolysis of cassava stems at 450–500 °C produced strongly alkaline CSB with pH 9.6 and increased nutrient contents. Specific surface area and total pore volume increased, and pores were classified as mesoporous, while average pore diameter decreased. CSB had a highly stable carbon content of 58.46%, with high aromaticity and polarity obtained from O/C and H/C ratios. Results indicated that CSB enhanced and supported maize growth by improving soil physicochemical properties to suit cultivation. Applying CSB into the soil gave higher maize yield and productivity than cultivation using fertilizer. The highest yield and nutrition contents were obtained in seed from cultivation using fertilizer mixed with biochar at 3.0 kg/m2. Biochar production from cassava stems generated a useful commodity from waste material.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 4749
George Azzari ◽  
Shruti Jain ◽  
Graham Jeffries ◽  
Talip Kilic ◽  
Siobhan Murray

This paper provides recommendations on how large-scale household surveys should be conducted to generate the data needed to train models for satellite-based crop type mapping in smallholder farming systems. The analysis focuses on maize cultivation in Malawi and Ethiopia, and leverages rich, georeferenced plot-level data from national household surveys that were conducted in 2018–20 and integrated with Sentinel-2 satellite imagery and complementary geospatial data. To identify the approach to survey data collection that yields optimal data for training remote sensing models, 26,250 in silico experiments are simulated within a machine learning framework. The best model is then applied to map seasonal maize cultivation from 2016 to 2019 at 10-m resolution in both countries. The analysis reveals that smallholder plots with maize cultivation can be identified with up to 75% accuracy. Collecting full plot boundaries or complete plot corner points provides the best quality of information for model training. Classification performance peaks with slightly less than 60% of the training data. Seemingly little erosion in accuracy under less preferable approaches to georeferencing plots results in the total area under maize cultivation being overestimated by 0.16–0.47 million hectares (8–24%) in Malawi.

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