dermal fibroblasts
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 491
Eduardo Perez ◽  
Jose R. Fernandez ◽  
Corey Fitzgerald ◽  
Karl Rouzard ◽  
Masanori Tamura ◽  

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a minor non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) at low levels (<1% per dry weight) that serves as the direct precursor to both cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consequently, efforts to extract and purify CBG from C. sativa is both challenging and expensive. However, utilizing a novel yeast fermentation technology platform, minor cannabinoids such as CBG can be produced in a more sustainable, cost-effective, and timely process as compared to plant-based production. While CBD has been studied extensively, demonstrating several beneficial skin properties, there are a paucity of studies characterizing the activity of CBG in human skin. Therefore, our aim was to characterize and compare the in vitro activity profile of non-psychoactive CBG and CBD in skin and be the first group to test CBG clinically on human skin. Gene microarray analysis conducted using 3D human skin equivalents demonstrates that CBG regulates more genes than CBD, including several key skin targets. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to pro-inflammatory inducers to trigger cytokine production and oxidative stress. Results demonstrate that CBG and CBD reduce reactive oxygen species levels in HDFs better than vitamin C. Moreover, CBG inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor α) release from several inflammatory inducers, such as ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), chemical, C. acnes, and in several instances does so more potently than CBD. A 20-subject vehicle-controlled clinical study was performed with 0.1% CBG serum and placebo applied topically for 2 weeks after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation. CBG serum showed statistically significant improvement above placebo for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduction in the appearance of redness. Altogether, CBG’s broad range of in vitro and clinical skin health-promoting activities demonstrates its strong potential as a safe, effective ingredient for topical use and suggests there are areas where it may be more effective than CBD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Timothy C. Frommeyer ◽  
Craig A. Rohan ◽  
Dan F. Spandau ◽  
Michael G. Kemp ◽  
Molly A. Wanner ◽  

The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is closely linked with advanced age and ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure. More specifically, the development of NMSC is linked to diminished insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling from senescent dermal fibroblasts in geriatric skin. Consequently, keratinocyte IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) remains inactive, resulting in failure to induce appropriate protective responses including DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint signaling. This allows UVB-induced DNA damage to proliferate unchecked, which increases the likelihood of malignant transformation. NMSC is estimated to occur in 3.3 million individuals annually. The rising incidence results in increased morbidity and significant healthcare costs, which necessitate identification of effective treatment modalities. In this review, we highlight the pathogenesis of NMSC and discuss the potential of novel preventative therapies. In particular, wounding therapies such as dermabrasion, microneedling, chemical peeling, and fractionated laser resurfacing have been shown to restore IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in geriatric skin and suppress the propagation of UVB-damaged keratinocytes. This wounding response effectively rejuvenates geriatric skin and decreases the incidence of age-associated NMSC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Juliane M. D. Ahlers ◽  
Cassandra Falckenhayn ◽  
Nicholas Holzscheck ◽  
Llorenç Solé-Boldo ◽  
Sabrina Schütz ◽  

The dermal sheath (DS) is a population of mesenchyme-derived skin cells with emerging importance for skin homeostasis. The DS includes hair follicle dermal stem cells, which exhibit self-renewal and serve as bipotent progenitors of dermal papilla (DP) cells and DS cells. Upon aging, stem cells exhibit deficiencies in self-renewal and their number is reduced. While the DS of mice has been examined in considerable detail, our knowledge of the human DS, the pathways contributing to its self-renewal and differentiation capacity and potential paracrine effects important for tissue regeneration and aging is very limited. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of human skin biopsies from donors of different ages we have now analyzed the transcriptome of 72,048 cells, including 50,149 fibroblasts. Our results show that DS cells that exhibit stem cell characteristics were lost upon aging. We further show that HES1, COL11A1, MYL4 and CTNNB1 regulate DS stem cell characteristics. Finally, the DS secreted protein Activin A showed paracrine effects on keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, promoting proliferation, epidermal thickness and pro-collagen production. Our work provides a detailed description of human DS identity on the single-cell level, its loss upon aging, its stem cell characteristics and its contribution to a juvenile skin phenotype.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Morshed Khandaker ◽  
Hembafan Nomhwange ◽  
Helga Progri ◽  
Sadegh Nikfarjam ◽  
Melville B. Vaughan

The study’s aim was to develop a dermal equivalent scaffold that can mimic the architecture and biological performance of the human dermis. Poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofiber material (ENF) was assembled with polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), sodium alginate (SA) and type I collagen (CG1) to develop three groups of dermal equivalent scaffolds. These scaffolds were named PEGDA-PCL, SA-PCL and CG1-PCL. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of cell-free scaffolds’ top and cross-sectional surface were collected and analyzed to examine internal morphology, specifically the adhesiveness of PCL fibers with the different scaffolds. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on each of the scaffolds. Cell viability studies including cell adhesion, cell differentiation and stress fiber production were conducted on each scaffold. Furthermore, the architectural integrity of each scaffold was verified by degradation analysis for 2 weeks by soaking each scaffold in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. Finally, we conducted rheological characteristics of each scaffold. Based on our results from the above analysis, the study concluded that CG1-PCL is best suitable for the dermal equivalent model and has potential to be used as a graft for skin repair.

Cosmetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Nesma Aly ◽  
Emilie Benoit ◽  
Jean-Luc Chaubard ◽  
Kavyasree Chintalapudi ◽  
Soojin Choung ◽  

Collagen and its derivative proteins have been widely used as a major component for cosmetic formulations as a natural ingredient and moisturizer. Most commercially available collagens are animal-derived collagen type I and other forms of collagen, such as type III collagen, are far less prevalent in animals, making extraction and purification extremely difficult and expensive. Here, we report the production of a 50 kDa protein produced in yeast that is 100% identical to the N-terminus of the human type III collagen. This recombinant protein has a larger molecular weight than most incumbent recombinant collagen proteins available for personal care applications. We report the industrialization of both the fermentation and purification processes to produce a final recombinant protein product. This final protein product was shown to be safe for general applications to human skin and compatible with common formulation protocols, including ethanol-based formulations. This recombinant collagen type III protein was also shown to uniquely stimulate both collagen type I and type III production and secretion by primary human dermal fibroblasts. The unique combination of biostimulation, compatibility with beauty product formulations and demonstrated commercial production, make this novel recombinant type III collagen a good candidate for broad application in the cosmetics industry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 513
Odelia Levana ◽  
Soonkook Hong ◽  
Se Hyun Kim ◽  
Ji Hoon Jeong ◽  
Sung Sik Hur ◽  

Adhesion of bacteria on biomedical implant surfaces is a prerequisite for biofilm formation, which may increase the chances of infection and chronic inflammation. In this study, we employed a novel electrospray-based technique to develop an antibacterial surface by efficiently depositing silica homogeneously onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film to achieve hydrophobic and anti-adhesive properties. We evaluated its potential application in inhibiting bacterial adhesion using both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. These silica-deposited PET surfaces could provide hydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle greater than 120° as well as increased surface roughness (root mean square roughness value of 82.50 ± 16.22 nm and average roughness value of 65.15 ± 15.26 nm) that could significantly reduce bacterial adhesion by approximately 66.30% and 64.09% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, compared with those on plain PET surfaces. Furthermore, we observed that silica-deposited PET surfaces showed no detrimental effects on cell viability in human dermal fibroblasts, as confirmed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and live/dead assays. Taken together, such approaches that are easy to synthesize, cost effective, and efficient, and could provide innovative strategies for preventing bacterial adhesion on biomedical implant surfaces in the clinical setting.

2022 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 112461
Wannita Klinngam ◽  
Phetploy Rungkamoltip ◽  
Saowarose Thongin ◽  
Jaruwan Joothamongkhon ◽  
Phattharachanok Khumkhrong ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Pedro Cruz-Vicente ◽  
Ana M. Gonçalves ◽  
Octávio Ferreira ◽  
João A. Queiroz ◽  
Samuel Silvestre ◽  

A pharmacophore-based virtual screening methodology was used to discover new catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors with interest in Parkinson’s disease therapy. To do so, pharmacophore models were constructed using the structure of known inhibitors and then they were used in a screening in the ZINCPharmer database to discover hit molecules with the desired structural moieties and drug-likeness properties. Following this, the 50 best ranked molecules were submitted to molecular docking to better understand their atomic interactions and binding poses with the COMT (PDB#6I3C) active site. Additionally, the hits’ ADMET properties were also studied to improve the obtained results and to select the most promising compounds to advance for in-vitro studies. Then, the 10 compounds selected were purchased and studied regarding their in-vitro inhibitory potency on human recombinant membrane-bound COMT (MBCOMT), as well as their cytotoxicity in rat dopaminergic cells (N27) and human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Of these, the compound ZIN27985035 displayed the best results: For MBCOMT inhibition an IC50 of 17.6 nM was determined, and low cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines (61.26 and 40.32 μM, respectively). Therefore, the promising results obtained, combined with the structure similarity with commercial COMT inhibitors, can allow for the future development of a potential new Parkinson’s disease drug candidate with improved properties.

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