transepidermal water loss
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 491
Eduardo Perez ◽  
Jose R. Fernandez ◽  
Corey Fitzgerald ◽  
Karl Rouzard ◽  
Masanori Tamura ◽  

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a minor non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) at low levels (<1% per dry weight) that serves as the direct precursor to both cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consequently, efforts to extract and purify CBG from C. sativa is both challenging and expensive. However, utilizing a novel yeast fermentation technology platform, minor cannabinoids such as CBG can be produced in a more sustainable, cost-effective, and timely process as compared to plant-based production. While CBD has been studied extensively, demonstrating several beneficial skin properties, there are a paucity of studies characterizing the activity of CBG in human skin. Therefore, our aim was to characterize and compare the in vitro activity profile of non-psychoactive CBG and CBD in skin and be the first group to test CBG clinically on human skin. Gene microarray analysis conducted using 3D human skin equivalents demonstrates that CBG regulates more genes than CBD, including several key skin targets. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to pro-inflammatory inducers to trigger cytokine production and oxidative stress. Results demonstrate that CBG and CBD reduce reactive oxygen species levels in HDFs better than vitamin C. Moreover, CBG inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor α) release from several inflammatory inducers, such as ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), chemical, C. acnes, and in several instances does so more potently than CBD. A 20-subject vehicle-controlled clinical study was performed with 0.1% CBG serum and placebo applied topically for 2 weeks after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation. CBG serum showed statistically significant improvement above placebo for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduction in the appearance of redness. Altogether, CBG’s broad range of in vitro and clinical skin health-promoting activities demonstrates its strong potential as a safe, effective ingredient for topical use and suggests there are areas where it may be more effective than CBD.

Cosmetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome ◽  
Bruna Bertoloni dos Santos ◽  
João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho ◽  
Tânia Santos de Almeida ◽  
Patrícia Rijo ◽  

“Vegan” and “sustainable” characteristics are strong claim trends behind the development of innovative skincare, fragrances, and makeup products. This created a need in the market for compliant ingredients. To date, there have been no records evidencing the use of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans (NA) in dermocosmetics. Therefore, we studied the applicability of such a natural compound in this context. NA was cultivated, and the scavenging activity (SA) of the NA extracts was evaluated. The highest SA was from the aqueous extract (54.8% ± 2.1%), being higher than that of the positive control. Two hydrogels were prepared with 1.0% ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer: (1) control gel; and (2) gel with a 1.0% NA aqueous extract. In vivo experiments were performed in healthy male and female volunteers with skin phototypes of II–IV. The stratum corneum (SC) hydration and the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured in the forearm of participants to determine their biocompatibility. This parameter was determined by skin bioengineering measurements, confirming that SC hydration and TEWL were not affected by the samples. The laser Doppler measurements results showed a delayed erythema onset in the sites, where the NA hydrogel was applied. The results confirmed the biocompatibility and the anti-inflammatory activity of an innovative ingredient derived from microalgae suitable for a natural and vegan lifestyle.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Yu Ri Woo ◽  
Seok Hoon Moon ◽  
Jeesuk Yu ◽  
Sang Hyun Cho

The synergistic effects of Korean Red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) on conventional systemic therapeutics of atopic dermatitis (AD) have not been studied yet. To analyze the synergistic effects of KRG extract and the conventional systemic therapeutics of AD in TNCB-induced AD mouse model, we determined the change in modified scoring of index, the transepidermal water loss, the skin pathology, serum IgE, and the expression of various cytokines after combination treatment to the five-week-old NC/Nga female mice. The severity of AD was significantly decreased in the KRG + hydroxyzine (AH) group than AH group, and in the KRG + evening primrose oil (EPO) group than EPO group. A significant decrease in dermal inflammation was observed in the KRG + AH group than that in the AH group, and in the KRG + EPO group than that in the EPO group (p = 0.008), respectively. A decrease in CD1a expression was observed in the KRG + AH group when compared to the AH group (p = 0.008), and KRG + EPO group when compared to the EPO group. Compared to the CS group, the KRG + CS group showed a significant decrease in IL-17 expression. A combination of KRG and conventional systemic therapeutics can safely and effectively manage the AD.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Kristýna Dvořáková ◽  
Petr Štěpánek ◽  
Jiřina Kroupová ◽  
Jarmila Zbytovská

Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive non-invasive method offering numerous advantages over the conventional routes of administration. The main obstacle to drug transport is, however, the powerful skin barrier that needs to be modulated, for example, by transdermal permeation enhancers. Unfortunately, there are still only a few enhancers showing optimum properties including low toxicity and reversibility of enhancing effects. For this reason, we investigated a series of new N-alkylmorpholines with various side chains as potential enhancers in an in vitro permeation study, using three model permeants (theophylline, indomethacin, diclofenac). Moreover, electrical impedance, transepidermal water loss, cellular toxicity and infrared spectroscopy measurements were applied to assess the effect of enhancers on skin integrity, reversibility, toxicity and enhancers’ mode of action, respectively. Our results showed a bell-shaped relationship between the enhancing activity and the hydrocarbon chain length of the N-alkylmorpholines, with the most efficient derivatives having 10–14 carbons for both transdermal and dermal delivery. These structures were even more potent than the unsaturated oleyl derivative. The best results were obtained for indomethacin, where particularly the C10-14 derivatives showed significantly stronger effects than the traditional enhancer Azone. Further experiments revealed reversibility in the enhancing effect, acceptable toxicity and a mode of action based predominantly on interactions with stratum corneum lipids.

Cosmetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Thipapun Plyduang ◽  
Apichart Atipairin ◽  
Attawadee Sae Yoon ◽  
Namfa Sermkaew ◽  
Pajaree Sakdiset ◽  

Palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis) comprise antioxidants that can be used as skin care agents. This study developed a cosmeceutical cream containing E. guineensis extract, loaded with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and assessed its efficacy on female volunteers. The E. guineensis extract exhibited a good antioxidant activity with high levels of vitamin E, β-carotene, and palmitic acid. Day and night creams containing E. guineensis fruit extract, loaded with SLNs, were formulated and exhibited acceptable physical characteristics and good stability. Subsequently, their clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated on female volunteers. Both creams were non-irritating and had good cutaneous compatibility. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin elasticity, melanin index, and skin texture were measured before and 30 min after the first application, as well as after 7, 14, and 30 days of daily application. A satisfactory survey was implemented using a questionnaire, and volunteer satisfaction scores were high for the product’s performance. Overall, the results showed that skin hydration, TEWL, cutaneous elasticity, and melanin index were improved, compared to the baseline data, after 30 days. Thus, the formulated facial day and night creams made the skin moist, reduced wrinkles, increased elasticity, and cleared the skin to the consumers’ satisfaction.

Folke Hüppop ◽  
Stephan Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer ◽  
Regina Fölster-Holst

Nummular (coin-shaped) and classical (flexural) atopic dermatitis differ morphologically, but no other distinguishing features are known. The aim of this study was to determine differences and similarities of both variants in children. Detailed interviews, clinical examinations, biophysical measurements and electron microscopic analyses were performed on 10 children with nummular atopic dermatitis, 14 with classical atopic dermatitis and 10 healthy controls. Nummular atopic dermatitis affected more boys than girls and manifested less frequently within the first year of life than classical atopic dermatitis. Localization, distribution and morphology of the eczema varied more over time, and expression of keratosis pilaris was more severe in children with nummular atopic dermatitis. Both disease groups showed reduced hydration, increased transepidermal water loss and reduced intercellular lipid lamellae in lesional skin areas compared with non-lesional areas. These findings underline the separate classification of both variants. Further research is necessary to investigate the potential of diverging therapeutic approaches.

2021 ◽  
pp. 37-41
L. S. Kruglova ◽  
E. V. Tipaeva

The relationship of xerosis with various skin diseases is very multifaceted, at the same time, xerosis can be the cause of the onset or aggravation of itching. Modern recommendations for the external treatment of chronic dermatoses, accompanied by xerosis and itching, imply two directions: direct therapeutic measures during an exacerbation and the use of dermatocosmetics adapted to certain symptoms.Material and methods. We observed 26 patients (mean age 38.7 ± 1.9 years with atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or pruritus, where xerosis was present in the clinical picture and pruritus was noted. All patients used topical drugs in accordance with the nosology, in as an adjuvant therapy – Neotanin Comfort Plus cream.Research results. In atopic dermatitis, the corneometry index increased by an average of 21%, with eczema – by 20%, with psoriasis – by 22%, with skin itching – by 12%. Transepidermal water loss decreased in atopic dermatitis by 19.8%, with eczema – by 22.8%, with psoriasis – by 21.8%, with pruritus – by 18.4% The value of the total BRS index decreased by more than two times.Conclusion. The use of Neotanin Comfort Plus cream in combination with topical drug therapy (GCS, multicomponent drugs) is highly effective and safe in patients with atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or pruritus, which makes it possible to recommend it for use in wide clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 01 ◽  
Amit Pratap ◽  
Nishat Khan ◽  
P. Meena ◽  
Rashmikant Mohile ◽  
Suraj N. Mali

Background: Due to growing environmental concerns, eco-friendly and sustainable materials have become one of the key interests of cosmetics research. Isopropyl myristate is being used as a major cosmetic ingredient, like in many other cosmetic items, as an emollient for a long time. Methods: An emollient ester, isopropyl ricinoleate, is derived from non-edible oil, castor oil. The synthesized isopropyl ricinoleate using greener enzyme catalysed methodology was further tested for sensory evaluation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) studies. Results: An ester, isopropyl ricinoleate, imparted better gloss and shine to the skin as compared to isopropyl myristate due to its higher refractive index. Both esters, isopropyl ricinoleate and isopropyl myristate, showed minimum tackiness and residue after spreading. Moreover, in-silico toxicity analysis of ester, isopropyl ricinoleate, supported previously reported in-vitro toxicity data. Conclusion: Thus, the current study provides better insights on the replacement of emollient ester isopropyl myristate by isopropyl ricinoleate.

2021 ◽  
pp. 192-202
J. S. Kovaleva ◽  
M. V. Orobei ◽  
N. K. Zyablitskaya ◽  
N. K. Bishevskaya

The skin of children has its own anatomical and physiological characteristics, the epidermis is much thinner than in adults, the layers of the dermis and basement membrane are poorly developed and differentiated, the rate of transepidermal water loss is increased and the level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is reduced. Such a structure of the skin predisposes to a violation of its barrier function, contributes to the occurrence of skin diseases, provides an increased resorptive capacity of the skin and requires special attention when prescribing external therapy. The use of high-quality emollients is an important part of the basic treatment of chronic dermatoses and has its own characteristics in childhood. The use of emollients prevents the development of exacerbations and reduces the need for anti-inflammatory topical drugs. With the localization of the inflammatory process on the face, neck, genitals and large folds, it is necessary to give preference to short courses of topical glucocorticosteroids (THCS) with sufficient anti-inflammatory activity, rapid onset of action, minimal side effects. Given the high risk of side effects in children in these areas of the skin, strong fluorinated THCS, high-potency THCS, and the use of THCS under occlusive dressings are not recommended. The Russian experience of using 0.1% methylprednisolone aceponate in children of various age groups in the treatment of allergic dermatoses, including those with localization in sensitive areas, has shown good efficacy, tolerance and the absence of side effects. he article presents own clinical observations of the effectiveness of the use of combination therapy: an emollient agent - a special cream with physiological lipids omega 3-6-9 and cream methylprednisolone aceponate (with ceramides in the base) in the treatment of skin diseases in children with an emphasis on complex localizations, such as face, folds, genital area.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 622
Hyeong Rok Yun ◽  
Sang Woo Ahn ◽  
Bomin Seol ◽  
Elena A. Vasileva ◽  
Natalia P. Mishchenko ◽  

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which skin barrier dysfunction leads to dryness, pruritus, and erythematous lesions. AD is triggered by immune imbalance and oxidative stress. Echinochrome A (Ech A), a natural pigment isolated from sea urchins, exerts antioxidant and beneficial effects in various inflammatory disease models. In the present study, we tested whether Ech A treatment alleviated AD-like skin lesions. We examined the anti-inflammatory effect of Ech A on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model. AD-like skin symptoms were induced by treatment with 1% DNCB for 1 week and 0.4% DNCB for 5 weeks in NC/Nga mice. The results showed that Ech A alleviated AD clinical symptoms, such as edema, erythema, and dryness. Treatment with Ech A induced the recovery of epidermis skin lesions as observed histologically. Tewameter® and Corneometer® measurements indicated that Ech A treatment reduced transepidermal water loss and improved stratum corneum hydration, respectively. Ech A treatment also inhibited inflammatory-response-induced mast cell infiltration in AD-like skin lesions and suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and interleukin-13. Collectively, these results suggest that Ech A may be beneficial for treating AD owing to its anti-inflammatory effects.

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