Drying Conditions
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
Huayan Yao ◽  
Guang Liu ◽  
Zhenhua Zhang ◽  
Hanbing Bian ◽  
He Liu ◽  

Raphael PIRES BOLZAN ◽  
Erica CRUZ ◽  

LWT ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 112495
Travis G. Burger ◽  
Indarpal Singh ◽  
Caleb Mayfield ◽  
Joseph L. Baumert ◽  
Yue Zhang

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5381
Ji-Hun Park ◽  
Quang-The Bui ◽  
Sang-Hwa Jung ◽  
In-Hwan Yang

This study aims to evaluate the effect of curing and drying conditions on the strength properties of concrete containing coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash as substitutes for fine aggregates and cement, respectively. The strength properties of the concrete including CBA and fly ash were evaluated under two different curing and drying conditions: saturated surface-dry (SSD) conditions and oven-dried conditions at curing ages of 28 and 91 days. The natural fine aggregates of the mixtures were replaced by CBA fine aggregates at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume. In addition, the cement in the mixtures was partly replaced with fly ash at 20% and 40%. The experimental program included the measurement of the unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity of the concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength decreased as the CBA content increased under both SSD and oven-dried conditions. The curing and drying conditions of the concrete with CBA and fly ash considerably influenced the reduction in the compressive, splitting, and flexural tensile strengths of the concrete. Additionally, the experimental results showed that fly ash insignificantly contributed to the reduction in the strength properties under both SSD and oven-dried conditions. Finally, the relationships between ultrasonic pulse velocity and the splitting tensile strength, flexural tensile strength, and compressive strength were investigated.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (18) ◽  
pp. 5466
César Leyva-Porras ◽  
María Zenaida Saavedra-Leos ◽  
Laura Araceli López-Martinez ◽  
Vicente Espinosa-Solis ◽  
Yolanda Terán-Figueroa ◽  

The drying of fruit juices has advantages such as easy handling of powders, reduction in volume, and preservation of the characteristics of the fruit. Thus, in this work, the effect of the spray drying conditions of strawberry juice (SJ) with maltodextrin (MX) as a carrying agent on the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds and physicochemical properties was studied. The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity showed higher values at low concentrations of MX, while the effect of drying temperature was negligible. The thermal characterization showed that the low molecular weight sugars in the juice decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg). The morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that at low concentrations of MX, the particles agglomerated, while at intermediate and high concentrations, the particles were observed as well separated. Through microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the presence of amorphous state was confirmed in all the samples, which is beneficial for preventing chemical and biochemical reactions, and promoting the conservation of the microencapsulated bioactive compounds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 839 (2) ◽  
pp. 022051
I M Abramova ◽  
A O Soloviev ◽  
M V Turshatov ◽  
V A Krivchenko ◽  
V D Nikitenko

Kurt A. Rosentrater ◽  
Yanhong Zhang ◽  
Brian Wrenn

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increasied in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct feed ingredients generated from this segment of the grain processing industry. These streams are almost exclusively utilized as livestock feed, which partially offsets the need for corn in feed rations, but other value-added applications do exist. Because of its use as an animal feed, considerable research has been conducted into the nutritional properties, but to a lesser extent the physical and flowability properties of commercially-produced distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). There can be occasions when the quality of coproducts is not consistent. Thus questions regarding the influence of processing operations on the resulting coproduct characteristics must be examined. The objective of this research was to conduct extensive physical and flowability property analyses on DDGS samples which were produced under varying conditions in a pilot plant-scale ethanol plant, in order to investigate the effects of various manufacturing operations (specifically ethanol production and drying conditions) on the resulting properties of the DDGS. Using various laboratory methods, a variety of properties, including bulk density and angle of repose, were determined. DDGS fat content was highly correlated with aerated and packed bulk densities, which indicates that fat level plays a key role in flowability behavior. Future studies should examine this potential relationship in more depth, especially as the industry has moved to fat reduction via oil separation processes.

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