Agrarian Bulletin of the
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Published By Urals State Agrarian University

2307-0005, 1997-4868
Updated Friday, 31 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 87-97
Author(s):  
N. Guschenskaya ◽  
Marina Sumarokova ◽  
Alina Kovshova

Abstract. The purpose of the research is to comprehensively assess the resource potential of agricultural organizations in the Kurgan region to form the trajectory of their development and determine the contribution to agricultural production in the region. Methods. The study was based on the use of statistical and econometric methods for collecting, processing, modeling data. It is based on the assessment of the use of the following functional components of the resource potential: land, material and technical, personnel, innovation and financial. At the same time, the dynamic assessment for each subspecies of the resource potential gives an idea of the trend in the volume and level of resource use, and the stochastic assessment – to identify the relationship between the indicators of resource investment and their return. Results. The presented assessment of the existing relationships between the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the resource potential and its subspecies indicate, on the one hand, an acute shortage of certain types of resources, and, on the other hand, an increasing intensity of their use without a proportional level of return. The study allows us to conclude that it is necessary to develop levers for managing the resource potential of agricultural organizations based on the symbiosis of the needs of agricultural producers and the territory in which they operate. Scientific novelty. The research methodology allows combining several methods of assessing (dynamic and stochastic) in achieving the final result, as well as assessing the elasticity between the general level of resource productivity of agricultural organizations and indicators of the efficiency of using the main types of resources. This approach makes it possible to form a sequence of actions to ensure an increase in the level of development and use of the resource potential of agricultural organizations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 50-58
Author(s):  
Al'bina Luneva

Abstract. The purpose of the research. Screening of collection strains of microorganisms with enzymatic properties to accelerate the processes of microbial biodegradation of bird droppings. Research methods. The proteolytic activity of the grown cultures was studied according to GOST 20264.2-88, the total microbial number in the chicken droppings (CFU/ml) was analyzed, and the ammonium nitrogen was determined. Research results. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the highest proteolytic activity was demonstrated by the strain Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171), which amounted to 74.6 units/g. When analyzing the effect of the studied collection strains on the decomposition processes of droppings, it was revealed that the largest number of microbial cells in bird droppings was achieved using Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171), which was 104 CFU/ml at the beginning of the researches, and was the maximum and amounted to 1011 CFU/ml by the 15th day. The content of ammonium nitrogen in droppings treated with this culture decreased from 340 mg/l from the beginning of the experiment to 174 (15th day) and 169 mg/l (20th day) and it was the best indicator. When selecting the dose and concentration of the strain-producer Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171) under introduction to bird droppings, it was found that to accelerate the process of biodegradation of bird droppings, the optimal dose for applying the studied culture is 4.0 % of organic waste mass with preliminary dilution by 2 times with water. At the same time, the optimal time of droppings keeping and the studied culture is 15 days. Scientific novelty. It was established for the first time that the treatment of chicken manure with the collection strain Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171) accelerates the process of its microbial transformation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 59-76
Author(s):  
Anna Lyubimova ◽  
Dmitriy Eremin

Abstract. The purpose is to study the varietal characteristics of the photosynthetic efficiency of oats when applying fertilizers in Western Siberia. Methods. The research was carried out on an experimental field located in the northern forest-steppe of the Trans-Urals. Photosynthetic potential and net productivity of photosynthesis were determined by the Nichiporovich’s method. Results. The nature of the formation of the assimilation surface and the accumulation of biomass of oat varieties Otrada, Talisman and Foma at different levels of mineral nutrition was studied. The photosynthetic potential and the net productivity of photosynthesis are calculated. The share of the influence of weather conditions, agrophone and variety on the studied indicators is determined. The Foma variety was characterized by maximum leafiness, compared to the Talisman and Otrada. On a natural agrophone, its assimilation surface in the sweeping phase reached 36.0 ± 5.5 thousand m2, at Otrada and Talisman – 28.1 and 24.0 thousand m2 per 1 ha of sowing. A very strong variability of the leaf surface area in Otrada was revealed (Cv = 24 %). The use of mineral fertilizers enhances the development of the leaf apparatus by 44–50 % and causes competition between oat plants. A close positive correlation was revealed between the leaf area in the sweeping phase and yield (r = 0.72). The area of the assimilation surface of oats is affected by: weather conditions – 37 %; nutrition level – 30 % and variety – 25 %. It was found that the Otrada and Foma varieties have the same accumulation dynamics and form the maximum photosynthetic biomass by the sweeping phase. The nature of biomass accumulation depends on weather conditions by 39 %; on mineral fertilizers by 29 % and on the genotype of the variety by 17 %. The productivity of the studied varieties is formed by increasing the assimilation surface, rather than increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis. Scientific novelty. For the first time, the photosynthetic potential was determined and the efficiency of the net photosynthesis productivity of oat varieties of the Tyumen selection was revealed. The share of the influence of various factors in the formation of the oat crop in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals has been established.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 19-28
Author(s):  
Akylbek Nurgaliev ◽  
Rashit Dzhaparov ◽  
Gul'baram Nurgalieva ◽  
El'mira Akkereeva

Abstract. The purpose of the research is to conduct the comparative assessment of variable alfalfa varieties and to identify the most productive and adapted varieties to the conditions of the region with a view to their further zoning. The results of research on the study of alfalfa varieties – Karabalykskaya 18, Rambler, Ural’skaya sinyaya, Semirechenskaya mestnaya, Krasnovodopadskaya 8 are presented in this article. Data of the seed germination and plant preservation by years of life, yield and forage capacity of crops are given. Methods: field and calculation (to determine the feed capacity). Results. In the 2011 crops, according to the field germination, the variety of Karabalykskaya 18 (45.8 %) and Semirechenskaya mestnaya (42.8 %) were distinguished. According to 4-year data, the highest percentage of preservation in the variety of Karabalykskaya 18 (14.2 %) and Ural’skaya sinyaya (13.9 %). And the smallest number of preserved plants was noted in the alfalfa variety of Krasnovodopadskaya 8, it is amounted to 10.4 %. The crops produced more mass shoots in next year, due to somewhat high rates of spring precipitation and air temperature. And in terms of the percentage of preservation, the 2012 crops surpassed the previous ones. Thus, in the variety of Karabalykskaya 18 and Rambler, this indicator was equal to 15.1 % and 13.7 %, and in the zoned variety Ural’skaya sinyaya, 15.7 % of the herbage was preserved. The data of green mass yield determination and hay shows that three of the four varieties evaluated were exceed to the standard variety from 1.6 to 8.5 per 1 ha for the collection of green mass and from 0.2 to 2.4 c/ha for the hay harvest. In terms of feed capacity, the highest indicators are in the Karabalykskaya variety 18, and the lowest – in Krasnovodopadskaya 8. So, at the 5th year of life (sowing 2011), 48 cattles can be fed on 10 ha of crops of the first variety for a month, and the second – 41. On the grass stands of the zoned Ural’skaya sinyaya variety, the content of 43 cattles are permissible.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 9-18
Author(s):  
Lidiya Mal'ceva ◽  
Natal'ya Bannikova ◽  
Elena Filippova

Abstract. The purpose of the research is the reaction of spring soft wheat varieties to dry phenomena during the growing season in the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals. Methods. The material was 24 varieties of various biotypes for maturation from the nursery of the competitive variety testing of the Kurgan Research Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Results. The negative effect of the drought reduced the yield in the experiments by 11.9 c/ha, the weight of 1000 grains by 5.7 g, and the nature by 19.7 g/l. The influence of grain size on the yield both in favorable years and in years of drought was noted (r = 0.63…0.98). In arid conditions, vitreous is correlated with yield, 1000 grain weight, in kind, to a lesser extent with gluten content, bread volume, and “flour strength”. The lack of moisture during the grain filling period increased the gluten content by 3.4 %, the quality by 15.1 e. p. IDC, the flour strength by 102.7 e. a., the volume of bread by 106 g/l. In favorable years, the weight of 1000 grains and the vitreous content of the grain correlate with gluten (r = 0.44; r = 0.24–0.84). Indicators of productivity and physical properties of grain increase when sowing at the optimal time, with a certain decrease in the gluten content (by 1.2 %), flour strength (by 5.3 e. a.), bread volume (by 73.2 e. p.). In the early sowing period, moisture deficiency reduces the indicators for all varieties Under these conditions, early-maturing varieties form a larger grain both when sowing at an early time (29.0 g) and when sowing at the optimal (31.3 g). In a drought, the role of the variety is especially high. High drought resistance was shown by the Zauralochka variety of the Kurgan Research Institute of Agriculture, which successfully passed the test in the dry years (2012, 2020) in the GSI system and in the environmental test (KASIB). The yield of the drought-resistant variety Zauralochka on average for the HSU was 20.2 c/ha, exceeding the standard Hercules by 2.2 c/ha. Scientific novelty. The features of the influence of dry phenomena on the yield and the main indicators of the quality of varieties are revealed, the correlation between them is determined. According to drought resistance, a variety of spring soft wheat Zauralochka was selected.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 29-40
Author(s):  
M. Drozd

Abstract. Modern conditions of animal husbandry and poultry farming dictate a continuous search for effective means that increase the natural resistance of the organism of farm animals and poultry. The purpose of the study. In this regard, an experimental study was conducted on laboratory animals using a mineral adaptogen of domestic production in order to determine its effectiveness in conditions of artificially induced immunosuppression. The objectives of the study were to determine the immunobiochemical status, subcellular and intra-organ changes in the organs of the immune system at all levels. Research methods. Experimental studies were carried out using generally accepted zootechnical, pathomorphological, histological, immunobiochemical and statistical research methods. Results. Immunobiochemical changes in the body of experimental animals are described. Microscopic changes at the level of tissues and cells in the organs of the immune system at all levels are described. Changes in the organs of the immune system during immunosuppression and against the background of feeding mineral adaptogen are described. Morphological examination of the immune system organs in experimental animals revealed prolonged immunosuppressive changes for 14 days. At the same time, after induced immunosuppression, significant structural changes remain in the central and peripheral organs of the immune system in the form of lymphoid tissue atrophy (in the thymus, both in the organ of central immunogenesis and in the organs of the peripheral immune system – the spleen and lymph nodes and intra-organ lymph formations). During histological studies, the structure of cells and tissues, when using a mineral adaptogen, was more morphologically mature and was in a functionally active state, and dystrophic and necrotic processes were observed in the control group. The conducted studies convincingly prove the effect of mineral adaptogen on increasing natural resistance and its immunoprotective properties. Scientific novelty. For the first time in experimental conditions, a simultaneous assessment of the immunobiochemical parameters of the blood of laboratory animals and a microscopic examination of the organs of the immune system at all levels with morphometric analysis of the data obtained were given. As a result of the conducted studies, the immuno- and organoprotective effect of feeding the mineral adaptogen was proved and the immunomodulatory effect was morphometrically confirmed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 2-8
Author(s):  
N. Velizhanov

Abstract. The aim of the work is to separate from hybrid generations (F3-F4) the promising material of high-temperature stress resistance. Scientific novelty. Testing the growth of the germ root at 35, 38 and especially 43 °C is an effective method of differentiating tomato genotypes and identifying their resistance to heat. As a result of our studies of inter-grade and remote hybridization, tomato lines have been obtained, combining heat-resistantness with high productivity and valuable biochemical indicators of fruit quality. Methods. The material for research served 11 promising varieties and lines of tomato. Dedicated genetic sources of heat resistance were included in inter-grade crossings. The selection of genotypes for heat-resistantness in the field was carried out taking into account the complex of morphological and agrochemical features (type and strength of plant growth, bush foliage, phenology, shape and size of the fruit, general productivity of commodity fruits, the mass of the fetus). Results. It has been established that in varieties and lines of tomato, created as a result of inter-grade and interspecies interbreeding, heat-resistant sporophyte varied to large limits depending on the genotype and temperature level. The fruit's product ranged depending on the genotype and the year of cultivation (71.8–98.3 %). All forms turned out to be large-fruited – the weight of the fruit was from 87.8–124.6 g. L132, L204, L112 lines stood out as early forms. The dry matter content of all the genotypes studied is high, as it is above 5.0 %, except for the lines L122, L211 dry matter content of which was 4.74 and 4.58 %, respectively. Vitamin C was highest in L143 (63.32), L141 (62.65), L112 (63.38).


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 77-86
Author(s):  
A Fedotova

Abstract. The article provides an adapted methodology of absorbed dose calculation for the cattle from the territories with long-term man-made contamination. The methodology was developed according to existing regulatory documents in the RF: veterinarian rules VR 13.73.13/12-00, VR 13.5.13/03-00, methodical instructions MI 13.5.13-00, regulation for the state veterinarian control system in radioactive contamination of veterinary surveillance objects in the Russian Federation. The aim of the work is the development of calculation methodology of absorbed radiation doses for the cattle on the territory with long-term man-made isotopes contamination, taking to the account the radionuclide composition of the soil. Methods. The regulatory documents governing absorbed doses calculation has been analyzed; the contribution of external and internal radiation into total annual absorbed dose has been determined. Results. It has been established, that the calculation of external radiation dose needs to be done considering doses in stable and pasture periods. Pasture period dose is a sum of day and night doses considering day length. According to the data of radio ecological situation in Krasnoyarsk krai the internal radiation dose should be calculated as a sum of 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, taking to the account different concentration of these radionuclides in green and coarse fodder. Scientific novelty. The methodology of dose calculation for the cattle according to the radio ecological situation in Krasnoyarsk krai has been introduced for the first time. Practical significance. This methodology is recommended for the specialists of radiological departments of veterinarian laboratories and science officers in the field of agricultural radiobiology.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 98-102
Author(s):  
O Rushickaya ◽  
A. Zagurskiy

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to study the problems of identification of state development institutions in the agricultural and industrial complex, as an element of the institutional environment, as an integral part of the system of development of the national economy through state regulation of strategic development processes in the agro-industrial complex. Methods of abstraction, analysis and synthesis were used in the course of the study. Results and practical significance. The author’s research of the state regulation of the development of the national agro-industrial complex is presented in the context of the study of state programs as a form of state development institution that ensures the effective functioning of the institutional environment. The scientific novelty of the research is presented by the author's non-standard approach to the identification of state development institutions in the agro-industrial complex, the author's vision of the structure of the institutional environment for the development of the agro-industrial complex is presented, based on traditional approaches of institutionalism, two main systems of the development of the agro-industrial complex are derived, formed by the institutional environment, which in interaction form a system of strategic regulation of the national agro-industrial complex.


2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 41-49
Author(s):  
Anatoliy Katyuk

Abstract. The experiments were conducted at Samara Research Institute of Agriculture, a branch of the SamSC RAS in 2018–2020. The purpose of the research. Evaluation of promising lines of peas from the competitive variety trial nursery for the nutritional quality of seeds to create new varieties for the Middle Volga region. Methodology and methods of research. The material for the study was 6 promising lines of peas. The nutritional quality of the lines were evaluated according to the following characteristics: the protein content and composition in the seeds, the boiling time of the seeds, the seed cooking coefficient, and the taste of the boiled seeds. The peas grew and developed in dry (2018–2019) and moderate (2020) weather conditions. Results. The protein content in the seeds of the lines was determined by external environmental factors, especially the weather conditions during the bean filling phase. The seeds accumulated more protein when the weather was dry during the bean filling. The protein content of seeds had a positive correlation (r = 0.944) with the average daily air temperature, and a negative correlation (r = 0.986) with precipitation during the bean filling phase. On average, the lines had the same protein content as the Samarius standard but corresponded to the standard value of high-quality varieties (not less than 24.0 %). The following lines had the same seed protein content as the standard (25.6 %): B3737/2-2 (25.2 %), Kt6575 (25.8 %), Kt6358 (24.9 %). These lines contained a large amount of water-soluble protein fraction in comparison with the standard: Kt6575 (16.9 %), Kt6358 (16.6 %), and B3737/2-2 (16.9 %). B3737/2-2 and Kt6575 showed high cooking quality (seed boiling time 110–122 minutes, seed cooking coefficient 2.5–2.6). All lines had a good taste of boiled seeds equal to 4–5 points. Scientific novelty. B3737/2-2, Kt6575, Kt6358 have been suggested to be used as sources of new varieties for their high cooking quality.


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