functional adaptation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Francesca Zummo ◽  
Pietro Esposito ◽  
Huilei Hou ◽  
Cecilia Wetzl ◽  
Gemma Rius ◽  

In recent years, the quest for surface modifications to promote neuronal cell interfacing and modulation has risen. This course is justified by the requirements of emerging technological and medical approaches attempting to effectively interact with central nervous system cells, as in the case of brain-machine interfaces or neuroprosthetic. In that regard, the remarkable cytocompatibility and ease of chemical functionalization characterizing surface-immobilized graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) make them increasingly appealing for these purposes. Here, we compared the (morpho)mechanical and functional adaptation of rat primary hippocampal neurons when interfaced with surfaces covered with pristine single-layer graphene (pSLG) and phenylacetic acid-functionalized single-layer graphene (fSLG). Our results confirmed the intrinsic ability of glass-supported single-layer graphene to boost neuronal activity highlighting, conversely, the downturn inducible by the surface insertion of phenylacetic acid moieties. fSLG-interfaced neurons showed a significant reduction in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (PSCs), coupled to reduced cell stiffness and altered focal adhesion organization compared to control samples. Overall, we have here demonstrated that graphene substrates, both pristine and functionalized, could be alternatively used to intrinsically promote or depress neuronal activity in primary hippocampal cultures.

2021 ◽  
pp. 016402752110637
Antonio V. Martín-García ◽  
Rosa Redolat ◽  
Sacramento Pinazo-Hernandis

The use of digital technology by older adults has improved in recent years in response to the need for their functional adaptation to an increasingly technological social context. Understanding this type of technological adaptation has recently become an important field of inquiry in both social and gerontological studies. Working within this framework, the aim of this study is to identify the main determinants that influence the intention of older people to use digital technology in their daily lives, using the Technological Acceptance Model. A study was carried out with the participation of 1155 people over 65 years of age in Spain. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and structural equation models (SEM) were performed. The results show that the TAM is a useful model to explain the intention of older adults to use Digital Technology, showing a high predictive power, highlighting Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use as the main predictor variables.

Arts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 87
Zbigniew Władysław Paszkowski

Based upon the example of the historic palace and park complex in Maciejewo (Matzdorf), in Western Pomerania, Poland, the issues of the adaptation of historic mansions and palaces to modern functions are discussed. The palace in Maciejewo illustrates the thesis that, in order to survive, historic buildings must be used for purposes corresponding to their structure. Many historic residences in the Western Lands have lost their original function and need a new one to survive. These processes of functional adaptation, in some cases, have to be repeated, when monuments become affected by a loss of their functionality. The concept of “re-adaptation” is introduced, in the sense of the revitalization of a facility, combined with a change in its function. The palace in Maciejewo is an example of a facility that is undergoing another functional metamorphosis—adaptive re-use—after having been an agricultural school, a recreation centre and a hotel, to its current phase of becoming an exclusive nursing home. The article discusses the necessary architectural changes resulting from the introduction of a new function (in the case discussed, that of a nursing home). The re-adaptation was carried out considering conservation guidelines and according to adaptive re-use methodology.

Bo Wang ◽  
Putu Ustriyana ◽  
Caleb. S. Tam ◽  
Jeremy. D. Lin ◽  
Sudarshan Srirangapatanam ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Shuhei Nozaki ◽  
Hideki Amano ◽  
Motoharu Oishi ◽  
Naomichi Ogihara

AbstractInvestigating the morphological differences of the calcaneus in humans and great apes is crucial for reconstructing locomotor repertories of fossil hominins. However, morphological variations in the calcaneus of the great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) have not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to clarify variations in calcaneal morphology among great apes based on three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. A total of 556 landmarks and semilandmarks were placed on the calcaneal surface to calculate the principal components of shape variations among specimens. Clear interspecific differences in calcaneal morphology were extracted, corresponding to the degree of arboreality of the three species. The most arboreal orangutans possessed comparatively more slender calcaneal tuberosity and deeper pivot region of the cuboid articular surface than chimpanzees and gorillas. However, the most terrestrial gorillas exhibited longer lever arm of the triceps surae muscle, larger peroneal trochlea, more concave plantar surface, more inverted calcaneal tuberosity, more everted cuboid articular surface, and more prominent plantar process than the orangutans and chimpanzees. These interspecific differences possibly reflect the functional adaptation of the calcaneus to locomotor behavior in great apes. Such information might be useful for inferring foot functions and reconstructing the locomotion of fossil hominoids and hominids.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jens Christoph Türp ◽  
Michelle Simonek ◽  
Dorothea Dagassan

Abstract Background The main objective of this investigation was to determine on panoramic radiographs the prevalence of macroscopically visible alterations (bone apposition in combination with directional change) in the mandibular angle region in bruxism patients. Another aim was to describe and detect different morphological characteristics of the jaw angles. Methods Two hundred panoramic radiographs were studied: 100 images of adults with clinically diagnosed bruxism (73 women, 27 men, age range 21–83 years), 100 images of a comparison group consisting of adolescents (66 girls, 34 boys, age range 12–18 years). Results The morphological changes of the 400 jaw angles could be classified into four degrees. In the adult group, almost half of mandibular angles showed bone apposition. Conversely, the prevalence in the control group was zero. The localization of the appositions corresponds to the insertions of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles at the mandibular angle. Conclusions The bone apposition at the mandibular angles should be interpreted as a functional adaptation to the long-term increased loads that occur during the contraction of the jaw closing muscles due to bruxism. Hence, radiologically diagnosed bone apposition may serve as an indication or confirmation of bruxism.

Elena Surkova ◽  
Attila Kovács ◽  
Márton Tokodi ◽  
Bálint Károly Lakatos ◽  
Béla Merkely ◽  

Background: The functional adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to the different degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remains to be clarified. We sought to (1) assess the changes in RV contraction pattern associated with the reduction of LV ejection fraction (EF) and (2) analyze whether the assessment of RV longitudinal, radial, and anteroposterior motion components of total RVEF adds prognostic value. Methods: Consecutive patients with left-sided heart disease who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography were enrolled in a single-center prospective observational study. Adverse outcome was defined as heart failure hospitalization or cardiac death. Cross-sectional analysis using the baseline 3-dimensional echocardiography studies was performed to quantify the relative contribution of the longitudinal, radial, and anteroposterior motion components to total RVEF. Results: We studied 292 patients and followed them for 6.7±2.2 years. In patients with mildly and moderately reduced LVEF, the longitudinal and the anteroposterior components of RVEF decreased significantly, while the radial component increased resulting in preserved total RVEF (RVEF: 50% [46%–54%] versus 47% [44%–52%] versus 46% [42%–49%] in patients with no, mild, or moderate LV dysfunction, respectively; data presented as median and interquartile range). In patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction (n=34), a reduction in all 3 RV motion components led to a significant drop in RVEF (30% [25%-39%], P <0.001). In patients with normal RVEF (>45%), the anteroposterior component of total RVEF was a significant and independent predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 0.960 [CI, 0.925–0.997], P <0.001). Conclusions: In patients with left-sided heart disease, there is a significant remodeling of the RV associated with preservation of the RVEF in patients with mild or moderate LV dysfunction. In patients with normal RVEF, the measurement of the anteroposterior component of RV motion provided independent prognostic value.

2021 ◽  
Susana Bandarra ◽  
Eri Miyagi ◽  
Ana Clara Ribeiro ◽  
João Gonçalves ◽  
Klaus Strebel ◽  

Vif is a lentiviral accessory protein that counteracts the antiviral activity of cellular APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in infected cells. The exact contribution of each member of the A3 family for the restriction of HIV-2 is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify the A3s with anti-HIV-2 activity and compare their restriction potential for HIV-2 and HIV-1. We found that A3G is a strong restriction factor of both types of viruses and A3C restricts neither HIV-1 nor HIV-2. Importantly, A3B exhibited potent antiviral activity against HIV-2 but its effect was negligible against HIV-1. Whereas A3B is packaged with similar efficiency into both viruses in the absence of Vif, HIV-2 and HIV-1 differ in their sensitivity to A3B. HIV-2 Vif targets A3B by reducing its cellular levels and inhibiting its packaging into virions whereas HIV-1 Vif did not evolve to antagonize A3B. Our observations support the hypothesis that during wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, both viruses are able to replicate in host cells expressing A3B but using different mechanisms, probably resulting from a Vif functional adaptation over evolutionary time. Our findings provide new insights into the differences between Vif protein and their cellular partner’s in the two human viruses. Of note, A3B is highly expressed in some cancer cells and may cause deamination-induced mutations in these cancers. Thus, A3B may represent an important therapeutic target. As such, the ability of HIV-2 Vif to induce A3B degradation could be an effective tool for cancer therapy. IMPORTANCE Primate lentiviruses encode a series of accessory genes that facilitate virus adaptation to its host. Among those, the vif -encoded protein functions primarily by targeting the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases. All lentiviral Vif proteins have the ability to antagonize A3G; however, antagonizing other members of the A3 family is variable. Here we report that HIV-2 Vif, unlike HIV-1 Vif, can induce degradation of A3B. Consequently, HIV-2 Vif but not HIV-1 Vif can inhibit the packaging of A3B. Interestingly, while A3B is packaged efficiently into the core of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 virions in the absence of Vif, it only affects the infectivity of HIV-2 particles. Thus, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have evolved two distinct mechanisms to antagonize the antiviral activity of A3B. Aside from its antiviral activity, A3B has been associated with mutations in some cancers. Degradation of A3B by HIV-2 Vif may be useful for cancer therapies.

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