scholarly journals Duration of immunity against COVID-19 after vaccination in Indian subcontinent

Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

2021 ◽  
Ernst J. Schaefer ◽  
Florence Comite ◽  
Latha Dulipsingh ◽  
Maxine Lang ◽  
Jessica Jimison ◽  

AbstractMost deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occur in older subjects. We assessed age effects and clinical utility of serum SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and neutralizing antibodies and serum inflammatory markers. Serum IgG, IgM, and neutralizing antibody levels were measured using chemiluminescence assays from Diazyme (Poway, CA), while serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin were measured with immunoassays obtained from Roche (Indianapolis, IN). In 79,005 subjects, IgG and IgM levels were positive (≥1.0 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) in 5.29% and 3.25% of subjects, respectively. In antibody positive subjects, median IgG levels were 3.93 AU/mL if <45 years of age, 10.18 AU/mL if 45-64 years of age, and 10.85 AU/mL if ≥65 years of age (p<0.0001). In SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive cases, family members and exposed subjects (n=1,111), antibody testing was found to be valuable for case finding, and persistent IgM levels were associated with chronic symptoms. In non-hospitalized and hospitalized subjects assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (n=278), median IgG levels in AU/mL were 0.05 in negative subjects (n=100), 14.83 in positive outpatients (n=129), and 30.61 in positive hospitalized patients (n=49, p<0.0001). Neutralizing antibody levels correlated significantly with IgG (r=0.875; p<0.0001). Two or more of the criteria of IL-6 ≥10 pg/mL, CRP ≥10 mg/L, and/or IgM >1.0 AU/mL occurred in 97.7% of inpatients versus 1.8% of outpatients (>50-fold relative risk, C statistic 0.986, p<0.0001). Our data indicate that: 1) IgG levels are significantly higher in positive older subjects, possibly to compensate for decreased cellular immunity with aging; 2) IgG levels are important for case finding in family clusters; 3) IgG levels are significantly correlated with neutralizing antibody levels; 4) persistently elevated IgM levels are associated with chronic disease; and 5) markedly elevated IL-6, hs-CRP, and/or positive IgM accurately identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive subjects requiring hospitalization.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0246085
Muhammad Riaz ◽  
Ghazala Shah ◽  
Muhammad Asif ◽  
Asma Shah ◽  
Kaustubh Adhikari ◽  

Background High blood pressure is an important public health concern and the leading risk factor for global mortality and morbidity. To assess the implications of this condition, we aimed to review the existing literature and study the factors that are significantly associated with hypertension in the Pakistani population. Methods We conducted several electronic searches in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, Elsevier, and manually searched the citations of published articles on hypertension from May 2019 to August 2019. We included all studies that examined factors associated with hypertension regardless of the study design. To assess the quality of the research, we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. We also conducted meta-analyses using the DerSimonian & Laird random-effects model to collate results from at least three studies. Results We included 30 cross-sectional and 7 case-control studies (99,391 participants country-wide) in this review and found 13 (35.1%) to be high-quality studies. We identified 5 socio-demographic, 3 lifestyle, 3 health-related, and 4 psychological variables that were significantly associated with hypertension. Adults aged between 30–60 years who were married, living in urban areas with high incomes, used tobacco, had a family history of hypertension, and had comorbidities (overweight, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, stress, and anger management issues) were positively associated with hypertension. On the other hand, individuals having high education levels, normal physical activity, and unrestricted salt in their diet were negatively associated with hypertension. Conclusion We found several socio-demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and psychological factors that were significantly (positively and negatively) associated with hypertension. Our findings may help physicians and public health workers to identify high-risk groups and recommend appropriate prevention strategies. Further research is warranted to investigate these factors rigorously and collate global evidence on the same.

1998 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 367-371 ◽  
Avelino Albas ◽  
Paulo Eduardo Pardo ◽  
Albério Antonio Barros Gomes ◽  
Fernanda Bernardi ◽  
Fumio Honma Ito

Humoral immune response using inactivated rabies vaccine was studied in 35 nelore cross-bred bovines of western region of São Paulo state. Ninety days after vaccination, 13 (92.8%) animals presented titers 30.5IU/ml, through mouse neutralization test. After 180 days, 9 (64.3%) sera showed titers 30.5IU/ml, after 270 days, only one (7.1%) showed a titer of 0.51IU/ml, and after 360 days, all animals showed titers < 0.5IU/ml. Group of animals receiving booster dose 30 days after vaccination presented, two months after, all with titers > 0.5IU/ml. At 180 days, 17 (80.9%) sera presented titers > 0.5IU/ml; at 270 days, 15 (71.4%), with titers 30.5IU/ml and at 360 days, 4 (19.0%), with titers 30.5IU/ml. Booster-dose ensured high levels of neutralizing antibodies for at least three months, and 240 days after revaccination, 71.4% of animals were found with titers 30.5IU/ml.

2020 ◽  
Vol 223 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-55 ◽  
William T Lee ◽  
Roxanne C Girardin ◽  
Alan P Dupuis ◽  
Karen E Kulas ◽  
Anne F Payne ◽  

Abstract Passive transfer of antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent patients is being used as an experimental treatment for eligible patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections. The United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) guidelines for convalescent plasma initially recommended target antibody titers of 160. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in sera from recovered COVID-19 patients using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) at moderate (PRNT50) and high (PRNT90) stringency thresholds. We found that neutralizing activity significantly increased with time post symptom onset (PSO), reaching a peak at 31–35 days PSO. At this point, the number of sera having neutralizing titers of at least 160 was approximately 93% (PRNT50) and approximately 54% (PRNT90). Sera with high SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels (&gt;960 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers) showed maximal activity, but not all high-titer sera contained neutralizing antibody at FDA recommended levels, particularly at high stringency. These results underscore the value of serum characterization for neutralization activity.

2021 ◽  
Annika Fendler ◽  
Lewis Au ◽  
Scott Shepherd ◽  
Fiona Byrne ◽  
Maddalena Cerrone ◽  

Abstract Patients with cancer have higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Here we present the prospective CAPTURE study (NCT03226886) integrating longitudinal immune profiling with clinical annotation. Of 357 patients with cancer, 118 were SARS-CoV-2-positive, 94 were symptomatic and 2 patients died of COVID-19. In this cohort, 83% patients had S1-reactive antibodies, 82% had neutralizing antibodies against WT, whereas neutralizing antibody titers (NAbT) against the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants were substantially reduced. Whereas S1-reactive antibody levels decreased in 13% of patients, NAbT remained stable up to 329 days. Patients also had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and CD4+ responses correlating with S1-reactive antibody levels, although patients with hematological malignancies had impaired immune responses that were disease and treatment-specific, but presented compensatory cellular responses, further supported by clinical. Overall, these findings advance the understanding of the nature and duration of immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer.

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 692-695
Trabucco Aurilio Marco ◽  
I Iannuzzi ◽  
L Di Giampaolo ◽  
A Pietroiusti ◽  
C Ferrari ◽  

Background: Measles is an infectious disease and a major health concern worldwide. Among individuals with a higher risk of exposure to measles, there are the Health Care Workers (HCWs), who may transmit the virus to other people. According to the Italian National Plan for Immunization and Prevention, all HCWs should have presumptive evidence of immunity to measles (documented two doses of MMR vaccination) or serological evidence of protective antibodies. Aim: The study aims to evaluate the immunological status, the vaccine coverage, and the protective IgG antibody titre for measles in medical students of the teaching hospital PoliclinicoTor Vergata (PTV). Methods: IgG measles antibodies titre was evaluated in a sample of 461 medical students undergoing annual health surveillance visits from January 1st to May 31th, 2020. Results: 73.7% of medical students showed protective measles IgG antibody levels. The immunization rate was higher among subjects aged less than 25 years with respect to students aged over 25 years (77.4% vs. 66.4%; P <0,001). Furthermore, average antibody titre showed a statistically significant association with the age group (124,2 AU/ml for the age group 18-25 and 133,2 AU/ml among subjects aged 25 or more; P<0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows a non-protective measles IgG antibody titre, especially among the older students. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the serological levels, to vaccinate those subjects whose antibody level is not adequate, and promote the vaccination even in the general population.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1139
Xiaoguang Li ◽  
Chao Liang ◽  
Xiumei Xiao

This study investigated the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies following inoculation with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine. From June to July 2021, 127 participants who had completed COVID-19 vaccination (inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 64; CoronaVac, 61; CanSino, 2) were recruited and tested using SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody kits. The positive detection rate (inhibition of neutralizing antibodies ≥ 30%) was calculated and stratified according to population characteristics and inoculation time. The positive rate of neutralizing antibody was 47.22% (17/36) in men and 53.85% (49/91) in women, and 54.55% (24/44) in BMI ≥ 24 and 50.60% (42/83) in BMI < 24. Age was stratified as 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, and ≥50; positive detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were observed in 60.00% (24/40), 50.00% (21/42), 48.39% (15/31), and 42.86% (6/14), respectively, but with no significant difference (x2 = 1.724, p = 0.632). Among 127 vaccinated participants, 66 (51.97%) were positive. The positive detection rate was 63.93% (39/61) with CoronaVac and 42.19% (27/64) with the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (significance x2 = 5.927, p = 0.015). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference in vaccination times, with average vaccination weeks in the positive and negative groups of 11.57 ± 6.48 and 17.87 ± 9.17, respectively (t= −4.501, p < 0.001). The positive neutralizing antibody rate was 100.00%, 60.00%, 58.33%, 55.56%, 43.14%, 28.57%, and 0.00% at 2–4, 5–8, 9–12, 13–16,17–20, 21–24, and >24 weeks, respectively (x2 = 18.030, p = 0.006). Neutralizing antibodies were detected after COVID-19 inoculation, with differences relating to inoculation timing. This study provides a reference for vaccine evaluation and follow-up immunization strengthening.

Renata Varnaitė ◽  
Marina García ◽  
Hedvig Glans ◽  
Kimia T. Maleki ◽  
John Tyler Sandberg ◽  

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in late 2019 and has since become a global pandemic. Pathogen-specific antibodies are typically a major predictor of protective immunity, yet B cell and antibody responses during COVID-19 are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed antibody-secreting cell (ASC) and antibody responses in twenty hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The patients exhibited typical symptoms of COVID-19, and presented with reduced lymphocyte numbers and increased T cell and B cell activation. Importantly, we detected an expansion of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein-specific ASCs in all twenty COVID-19 patients using a multicolor FluoroSpot assay. Out of the 20 patients, 16 had developed SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies by the time of inclusion in the study. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, IgG and IgM antibody levels positively correlated with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels may reflect the titers of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients during the acute phase of infection. Lastly, we showed that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were higher in serum of patients who were hospitalized for longer, supporting the recent observations that IL-6 and CRP could be used to predict COVID-19 severity. Altogether, this study constitutes a detailed description of clinical and immunological parameters in twenty COVID-19 patients, with a focus on B cell and antibody responses, and provides tools to study immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Simon Jochum ◽  
Imke Kirste ◽  
Sayuri Hortsch ◽  
Veit Peter Grunert ◽  
Holly Legault ◽  

Background The ability to quantify an immune response after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential. This study assessed the clinical utility of the quantitative Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) using samples from the 2019-nCoV vaccine (mRNA-1273) phase 1 trial (NCT04283461). Methods Samples from 30 healthy participants, aged 18-55 years, who received two injections with mRNA-1273 at a dose of 25 μg (n=15) or 100 μg (n=15), were collected at Days 1 (first vaccination), 15, 29 (second vaccination), 43 and 57. ACOV2S results (shown in U/mL - equivalent to BAU/mL per the first WHO international standard) were compared with results from ELISAs specific to antibodies against the Spike protein (S-2P) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) as well as neutralization tests including nanoluciferase (nLUC80), live-virus (PRNT80), and a pseudovirus neutralizing antibody assay (PsVNA50). Results RBD-specific antibodies were already detectable by ACOV2S at the first time point of assessment (d15 after first vaccination), with seroconversion before in all but 2 participants (25 μg dose group); all had seroconverted by Day 29. Across all post-baseline visits, geometric mean concentration of antibody levels were 3.27-7.48-fold higher in the 100 μg compared with the 25 μg dose group. ACOV2S measurements were highly correlated with those from RBD ELISA (Pearson's r=0.938; p<0.0001) and S-2P ELISA (r=0.918; p<0.0001). For both ELISAs, heterogeneous baseline results and smaller increases in antibody levels following the second vs first vaccination compared with ACOV2S were observed. ACOV2S showed absence of any baseline noise indicating high specificity detecting vaccine-induced antibody response. Moderate-strong correlations were observed between ACOV2S and neutralization tests (nLUC80 r=0.933; PsVNA50, r=0.771; PRNT80, r=0.672; all p≤0.0001). Conclusion The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) can be regarded as a highly valuable method to assess and quantify the presence of RBD-directed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following vaccination, and may indicate the presence of neutralizing antibodies. As a fully automated and standardized method, ACOV2S could qualify as the method of choice for consistent quantification of vaccine-induced humoral response.

2021 ◽  
Ramon Roozendaal ◽  
Laura Solforosi ◽  
Daniel Stieh ◽  
Jan Serroyen ◽  
Roel Straetemans ◽  

The first COVID-19 vaccines have recently gained authorization for emergency use.1,2 At this moment, limited knowledge on duration of immunity and efficacy of these vaccines is available. Data on other coronaviruses after natural infection suggest that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 might be short lived,3,4 and preliminary evidence indicates waning antibody titers following SARS-CoV-2 infection.5 Here we model the relationship between immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a series of Ad26 vectors encoding stabilized variants of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein in rhesus macaques6,7,8 and validate the analyses by challenging macaques 6 months after immunization with the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine candidate that has been selected for clinical development. We find that Ad26.COV2.S confers durable protection against replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs that is predicted by the levels of S-binding and neutralizing antibodies. These results suggest that Ad26.COV2.S could confer durable protection in humans and that immunological correlates of protection may enable the prediction of durability of protection.

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