Radiochimica Acta
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Published By Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag

2193-3405, 0033-8230

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mai M. El-Zayat ◽  
Maysa A. Mohamed ◽  
Eslam Aboelezz

Abstract This study, uses two polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) namely ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a bifunctional monomer and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) as a trifunctional monomer were used as co-agents in irradiation crosslinking of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber (EPDM). The effect of concentration of each PFM and irradiation dose on the crosslinking density, gel content, swelling behavior in motor and brake oils, in addition to the mechanical and thermal stability properties of EPDM was investigated in detailed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the gel content, crosslinking density and mechanical properties as the concentration of PFMs increased from 1 to 5 phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber). The various blends of EPDM with the trifunctional monomer express the highest gel content and crosslinking density than those with the bifunctional monomer. The addition of 5 phr of TMPTA to EPDM causes a dramatic improvement in tensile strength (TS) of the prepared blend reached to 188% compared to neat EPDM at 50 kGy. At the same time, the maximum TS of the blend containing 5 phr of EGDMA achieved only 41% compared to neat EPDM at an irradiation dose of 100 kGy. The swelling of irradiated samples in brake oil revealed a stronger oil resistance than motor oil. For all irradiated samples, the oil uptake decreased with the irradiation dose up to 100 kGy. The EPDM samples containing 5 phr of TMPTA recorded the highest oil resistance at 100 kGy. The results also showed that the addition of PFMs and irradiation treatment of the various prepared blends improved the thermal stability of EPDM. Finally, neat EPDM and the blends containing 1 and 3 phr of EGDMA can be used as radiation dosimeters in the very high dose range (50–200 kGy).


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenhong Han ◽  
Guilin Wei ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Xirui Lu ◽  
Shunzhang Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract A new glass solidification process aims at radioactive iodine waste was explored in order to reduce the possible harm to environment. Samples with different iodine content in silver-coated silica gel were pretreated by hydration device at 300 °C and then sintered at relatively low temperatures (500, 550 and 600 °C). XRD results show that AgI is mainly chemically fixed in the glass network with some AgI particles being physically wrapped by the glass. Moreover, as the sintering temperature reached to 550 °C, B element crystallized. SEM-EDS results show that Ag and I elements are enriched, while the other elements are evenly distributed. AFM results showed that the sample surface becomes rougher as the iodine content increases in the silver coated silica gel. The FT-IR results show that the structure of the sintered sample is mainly composed of [BiO3], [BiO6] and [BO3]. This study provides a new sintering method by hydration device for the treatment of radioactive iodine waste.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Olivea Abd Al-Azim Elhefnawy ◽  
Amira Abd ElFattah Elabd

Abstract AlBaNi-LDH nanoparticles have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. A series of characterization analyses (Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Transmission Electron Microscope, X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscope, and Infrared spectroscopy) proved that the surface structure of AlBaNi-LDH nano-particles was the key mechanism for UO2 2+ adsorption. The synthesized product showed good performance in UO2 2+ adsorption efficiency in neutral pH with a maximal adsorption capacity of 137 mg/g. The results demonstrated the adsorption process fitted well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models. Also, the effects of coexisting ions and different eluents are briefly described. These results confirm that AlBaNi-LDH is an effective material for the adsorption of UO2 2+ from an aqueous solution with reusable availability.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Soaad M. Elashry ◽  
Shiraz Labib ◽  
Mohamed F. Attallah

Abstract The activated carbon (AC) was modified by molecules of quinoline (Q) and the new prepared AC impregnated by Q was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, surface measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These analytical techniques demonstrated a successful preparation of AC-Q as a new material which was examined for its sorption behavior for natural uranium. The sorption results by batch mode indicated the optimum conditions for 94.5% removal of U(VI) ions at pH 4.7 and an equilibrium contact time of 90 min. The analysis of sorption data revealed that the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir were more fitted than other estimated models. The sorption capacity of U(VI) was ∼63 mg/g onto AC-Q as adsorbent martial. The thermodynamic data demonstrated that the sorption of uranium is endothermic and spontaneous. New mechanism was supposed based on the role of the abrasive material quinoline on the mechanical removal of uranium from aqueous solution.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Götz ◽  
Alexander Yakushev ◽  
Stefan Götz ◽  
Antonio Di Nitto ◽  
Christoph E. Düllmann ◽  
...  

Abstract In 2014 the first synthesis of a transactinide carbonyl complex – seaborgium hexacarbonyl – was reported. This was achieved in gas-phase chemical experiments in a beam-free environment behind the recoil separator GARIS. Extending this work to heavier elements requires more efficient techniques to synthesize carbonyl complexes as production rates of transactinide elements drop with increasing atomic number. A novel approach was thus conceived, which retains the benefit of a beam-free environment but avoids the physical preseparation step. The latter reduces the yields for products of asymmetric reactions such as those used for the synthesis of suitable isotopes of Sg, Bh, Hs and Mt. For this a series of experiments with accelerator-produced radioisotopes of the lighter homologues W, Re and Os was carried out at the tandem accelerator of JAEA Tokai, Japan. A newly developed double-chamber system, which allows for a decoupled recoil ion thermalization and chemical complex formation, was used, which avoids the low-efficiency physical preseparation step. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this newly developed method using accelerator-produced short-lived radioisotopes of the 5d homologues of the early transactinides.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammed S. Hagag ◽  
Shaimaa M. Esmaeel ◽  
Fatma Salem ◽  
Salah A. Zaki ◽  
Amr H. Ali

Abstract In this investigation, a synthetic Talc Phosphogypsum ferri-silicate TPFS sorbent was prepared by thermal activation then evaluated the uranium ions removal from sulfate waste solution containing uranium. Generally, the synthetic adsorbents from raw and waste materials have a significant attention from scientists because the environmental concern and economic development, particularly, the uranium elimination from radioactive waste solutions. The uranium removal percentage and loading capacity were determined by optimization the conditions of adsorption such as the pH range, adsorbent/adsorbate ratio, uranium concentration of radioactive waste solutions, equilibrium time and temperature. The resultant adsorption efficiency and loading capacity were 87.2% and 375 mg g−1, respectively. The adsorption isothermally was in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, in addition pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with theoretical capacity of 384.6 and 333 mg g−1, respectively. Uranium (VI) adsorption on TPFS was inhibited at elevated temperatures. The removal of uranium from sulfate waste solution by TPES sorbent according to the thermodynamic functions values was exothermic (∆H of −16.095) and non-spontaneous in nature (∆G of −17.27 at 303 K). In addition, there was a decrease in the randomness at the TPFS/uranium waste solution interface with ∆S value of 3.88.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chuanbo Li ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Taihong Yan ◽  
Weifang Zheng

Abstract A new method is developed to calculate the dilution ratio N of the two reactant solutions during nucleation rate determination. When the initial apparent supersaturation ratio S N  = f(N) in the dilution tank is controlled between 1.66 and 1.67, the counted nuclei is the most, both nuclei dissolving and secondary nucleation avoided satisfactorily. Based on this methoed, Plutonium(IV) oxalate is precipitated by mixing equal volumes of tetravalent plutonium nitrate and oxalic acid solutions. Experiments are carried out by varying the supersaturation ratio from 8.37 to 22.47 and temperature from 25 to 50 °C. The experimental results show that the nucleation rate of plutonium(IV) oxalate in the supersaturation range cited above can be expressed by the equation R N  = A N exp(−E a /RT)exp[−B/(ln S)2], where A N  = 4.8 × 1023 m−3 s−1 , and E a  = 36.2 kJ mol−1, and B = 20.2. The crystal growth rate of plutonium(IV) oxalate is determined by adding seed crystals into a batch crystallizer. The crystal growth rate can be expressed by equation G(t) = k g exp(−E’ a /RT) (c − c eq) g , where k g  = 7.3 × 10−7 (mol/L)−1.1(m/s), E’ a  = 25.7 kJ mol−1, and g = 1.1.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuzhen Sun ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Rong Hua ◽  
Mingbiao Luo ◽  
Chuan-Pin Lee ◽  
...  

Abstract Tamusu area is the primary pre-selection site of clayrock disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in China. However, the research on the migration behavior of nuclides in Tamusu clayrock is still in its infancy. For the first time in laboratory, the diffusion behavior of Re(VII) in Tamusu clayrock core was studied by means of through-diffusion method. The effects of pH, ionic strength and humic acid on the diffusion behavior of Re(VII) in clayrock were studied. The effective diffusion coefficient, apparent diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor value were obtained. All the experimental conditions of Re(VII) diffusion in Tamusu clayrock are compared with other geological samples under the same conditions in literature data. The diffusion mechanism of radionuclide in Tamusu clay is discussed, which can provide experimental data for site selection and safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository in China. The experimental results showed an effective application and reference for the countries disposed HLW in mudrocks or clayrocks, such as France, Belgium etc. in Europe. Moreover, this research can provide the original data support for the metallogenic regularity and prospecting prognosis of rare element rhenium in different geological environments.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amir Doram ◽  
Mohammad Outokesh ◽  
Seyed Javad Ahmadi ◽  
Fazel Zahakifar

Abstract The current study presents a simple and scalable method for the synthesis of (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (AMPA-GO) adsorbent. The chemical structure of the new material was disclosed by different instrumental analyses (e.g. FTIR, Raman, XPS, AFM, TEM, XRD, CHN, and UV), and two pertinent mechanisms namely nucleophilic substitution and condensation were suggested for its formation. Adsorption experiments revealed that both AMPA-GO and plain GO have a high affinity toward Th(IV) ions, but the AMPA-GO is superior in terms of adsorption capacity, rate of adsorption, selectivity, pH effect, etc. Indeed, the AMPA-GO can uptake Th(IV) nearly instantaneously, and coexisting Na+ ions have no effect on its adsorption. Thanks to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacities of the GO and AMPA-GO were obtained 151.06 and 178.67 mg g−1, respectively. Interestingly, GO and AMPA-GO both showed a higher preference for thorium over uranium so that the average “K d (Th)/K d (U)” for them was 52 and 44, respectively. This data suggests that chromatographic separation of thorium and uranium is feasible by these adsorbents.


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