human breast milk
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 219
Eve Wemelle ◽  
Lucie Marousez ◽  
Marie de Lamballerie ◽  
Claude Knauf ◽  
Jean Lesage

Background: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is a non-thermal method proposed as an alternative to Holder pasteurization (HoP) for the sterilization of human breast milk (BM). HHP preserves numerous milk bioactive factors that are degraded by HoP, but no data are available for milk apelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), two hormones implicated in the control of glucose metabolism directly and via the gut–brain axis. This study aims to determine the effects of HoP and HHP processing on apelin and GLP-1 concentrations in BM and to test the effect of oral treatments with HoP- and HHP-BM on intestinal contractions and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Methods: Mice were treated by daily oral gavages with HoP- or HHP-BM during one week before intestinal contractions, and glucose tolerance was assessed. mRNA expression of enteric neuronal enzymes known to control intestinal contraction was measured. Results: HoP-BM displayed a reduced concentration of apelin and GLP-1, whereas HHP processing preserved these hormones close to their initial levels in raw milk. Chronic HHP-BM administration to mice increased ileal mRNA nNos expression level leading to a decrease in gut contraction associated with improved glucose tolerance. Conclusion: In comparison to HoP, HPP processing of BM preserves both apelin and GLP-1 and improves glucose tolerance by acting on gut contractions. This study reinforces previous findings demonstrating that HHP processing provides BM with a higher biological value than BM treated by HoP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Takeshi Chiba ◽  
Aya Kooka ◽  
Kiyoko Kowatari ◽  
Megumi Yoshizawa ◽  
Naoko Chiba ◽  

Abstract Background Milk-derived microRNAs (miRNAs), including hsa-miR-148a-3p (miR-148a) and hsa-miR-125b-5p (miR-125b), have been shown to be beneficial to the gastrointestinal function in infants. Here, we investigated their expression during lactation in humans and determined whether the infant formulae available in Japan contain these miRNAs. Methods Healthy Japanese women (n = 16) who gave birth vaginally or by cesarean section at the Teine Keijinkai Hospital between 1 September 2020, and 31 April 2021 were included in this study. Breast milk was collected by nurses on days 4 or 5 after delivery (hereinafter, transition milk) and on day 30 of postpartum (hereinafter, mature milk). The levels of miR-148a and miR-125b in breastmilk and six commercially available infant formulae were compared and evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results In all participants, the miR-148a level in mature breastmilk was significantly lower than that in the transition milk. The changes in miR-125b expression during lactation showed similar trends to the changes in miR-148a expression. The miR-148a and miR-125b levels in all analyzed infant formulae were lower than 1/500th and 1/100th of those in mature breastmilk, respectively. Conclusions The levels of both miR-148a and miR-125b in human breast milk decreased on day 30 postpartum compared with those in the transition milk. Additionally, the expression of these miRNAs in infant formulae available in Japan was very low. Further studies with larger populations are required to understand precisely the lactational changes in the expression of miR148a and miR-125b in breast milk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-52
Rodney R. Dietert ◽  
Margaret E. Coleman ◽  
D. Warner North ◽  
Michele M. Stephenson

The microbiome revolution brought the realization that diet, health, and safety for humans in reality means diet, health, and safety for the human holobiont/superorganism. Eating healthier means much more than just feeding human cells. Our diet must also nourish the combination of our microbiome and our connected physiological systems (e.g., the microimmunosome). For this reason, there has been an interest in returning to ancestral “complete” unprocessed foods enriched in microbes, including raw milks. To contribute to this inevitable “nourishing the holobiont” trend, we introduce a systematic risk–benefit analysis tool (evidence mapping), which facilitates transdisciplinary state-of-the-science decisions that transcend single scientific disciplines. Our prior paper developed an evidence map (a type of risk–benefit mind map) for raw vs. processed/pasteurized human breast milk. In the present paper, we follow with a comprehensive evidence map and narrative for raw/natural vs. processed/pasteurized cow’s milk. Importantly, the evidence maps incorporate clinical data for both infectious and non-communicable diseases and allow the impact of modern agricultural, food management, and medical and veterinary monitoring outcomes to be captured. Additionally, we focus on the impact of raw milks (as “complete” foods) on the microimmunosome, the microbiome-systems biology unit that significantly determines risk of the world’s number one cause of human death, non-communicable diseases.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1546
Mitesh Patel ◽  
Arif Jamal Siddiqui ◽  
Walid Sabri Hamadou ◽  
Malvi Surti ◽  
Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem ◽  

Biosurfactants derived from different microbes are an alternative to chemical surfactants, which have broad applications in food, oil, biodegradation, cosmetic, agriculture, pesticide and medicine/pharmaceutical industries. This is due to their environmentally friendly, biocompatible, biodegradable, effectiveness to work under various environmental conditions and non-toxic nature. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-derived glycolipid biosurfactants can play a major role in preventing bacterial attachment, biofilm eradication and related infections in various clinical settings and industries. Hence, it is important to explore and identify the novel molecule/method for the treatment of biofilms of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) strain was isolated from human breast milk. Firstly, its ability to produce biosurfactants, and its physicochemical and functional properties (critical micelle concentration (CMC), reduction in surface tension, emulsification index (% EI24), etc.) were evaluated. Secondly, inhibition of bacterial adhesion and biofilm eradication by cell-bound biosurfactants from L. rhamnosus was performed against various biofilm-forming pathogens (B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli). Finally, bacterial cell damage, viability of cells within the biofilm, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and identification of the structural analogues of the crude biosurfactant via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis were also evaluated. As a result, L. rhamnosus was found to produce 4.32 ± 0.19 g/L biosurfactant that displayed a CMC of 3.0 g/L and reduced the surface tension from 71.12 ± 0.73 mN/m to 41.76 ± 0.60 mN/m. L. rhamnosus cell-bound crude biosurfactant was found to be effective against all the tested bacterial pathogens. It displayed potent anti-adhesion and antibiofilm ability by inhibiting the bacterial attachment to surfaces, leading to the disruption of biofilm formation by altering the integrity and viability of bacterial cells within biofilms. Our results also confirm the ability of the L. rhamnosus cell-bound-derived biosurfactant to damage the architecture of the biofilm matrix, as a result of the reduced total EPS content. Our findings may be further explored as a green alternative/approach to chemically synthesized toxic antibiofilm agents for controlling bacterial adhesion and biofilm eradication.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kantapich Srikham ◽  
Wichittra Daengprok ◽  
Piyanuch Niamsup ◽  
Mongkol Thirabunyanon

Breast milk is well known as the abundant source of beneficial bacteria. A new alternative source of human probiotic origin from breast milk is in demand and currently of interest for both the functional food industry and biopharmaceuticals. The aim in this study was to investigate the anticancer and antioxidant efficacies of the new potential probiotics isolated from human breast milk. Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown their potential probiotic criteria including antimicrobial activity, non-hemolytic property, and survival in acid and bile salt conditions. These strains showed high abilities on cell surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, and co-aggregation. The genera identification by 16S rRNA sequencing and comparison revealed that they were Streptococcus salivarius BP8, S. salivarius BP156, and S. salivarius BP160. The inhibition of liver cancer cells (HepG2) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) proliferation by these probiotic strains using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was 44.83–59.65 and 29.85–37.16%, respectively. The probiotic action mode was inducted via apoptotic mechanisms since they stimulate the liver and breast cancer cell death through DNA fragmentation and positive morphological changes by acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) staining. The antioxidant activity of these probiotics in the form of intact cells, cell free supernatant (CFS), and heat-killed cells was evaluated by a 2,2–diphenyl–1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, resulting in the scavenging activity rates of 16.93–25.43, 15.47–28.03, and 13.67–23.0%, respectively. These S. salivarius probiotic strains protected the L929 mouse fibroblasts against oxidative stress with very high survival rates at 94.04–97.77%, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than L-ascorbic acid at 75.89–78.67% in the control groups. The results indicated that S. salivarius BP8 and S. salivarius BP160 probiotic strains could be applied as functional foods or new alternative bioprophylactics for treating liver and breast cancers.

Diorgu Faith ◽  
Kalaotaji Glory Biambo ◽  
Jonathan Nyebuchi ◽  
Chikadibia Fyneface Amadi ◽  
Felix Eedee Konne

Breast milk is one fluid that could contain heavy metals and this can be dangerous to the health of breastfeeding baby. The increase in urbanization and industrialization often comes with the increased level of heavy metals in the environment especially in developing countries where environmental protection is poorly managed. The study aimed to compare the heavy metal composition in breast milk in postpartum women in urban and sub-urban areas in Rivers State. The study was conducted among 59 postpartum subjects between 0 and 10days of child delivery in each group. Sampling was done through a simple randomized system. Human breast milk was collected using a manual breast pump. Heavy metals; Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg) and Mercury (Hg) were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer with their corresponding cathode lambs. Results revealed that the mean differences of the heavy metals assayed between both groups were not significant (p>0.05). This work has shown that heavy metal composition in the breast milk of postpartum women may not vary based on urban and sub-urban settlements.

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