scholarly journals A Meta-analysis of the Uncanny Valley's Independent and Dependent Variables

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Alexander Diel ◽  
Sarah Weigelt ◽  
Karl F. Macdorman

The uncanny valley (UV) effect is a negative affective reaction to human-looking artificial entities. It hinders comfortable, trust-based interactions with android robots and virtual characters. Despite extensive research, a consensus has not formed on its theoretical basis or methodologies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess operationalizations of human likeness (independent variable) and the UV effect (dependent variable). Of 468 studies, 72 met the inclusion criteria. These studies employed 10 different stimulus creation techniques, 39 affect measures, and 14 indirect measures. Based on 247 effect sizes, a three-level meta-analysis model revealed the UV effect had a large effect size, Hedges’ g = 1.01 [0.80, 1.22]. A mixed-effects meta-regression model with creation technique as the moderator variable revealed face distortion produced the largest effect size, g = 1.46 [0.69, 2.24], followed by distinct entities, g = 1.20 [1.02, 1.38], realism render, g = 0.99 [0.62, 1.36], and morphing, g = 0.94 [0.64, 1.24]. Affective indices producing the largest effects were threatening, likable, aesthetics, familiarity , and eeriness , and indirect measures were dislike frequency, categorization reaction time, like frequency, avoidance , and viewing duration . This meta-analysis—the first on the UV effect—provides a methodological foundation and design principles for future research.

Innovar ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 27 (66) ◽  
pp. 57-74 ◽  
Katherina Kuschel

This review presents a synthesis and a critique of the development of the existing workfamily (WF) literature during the last decade in order to highlight gaps and limitations in current research. The study revises 83 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and conference presentations (2004-2014) related to WF in economics, management and psychology disciplines, and classifies the current research into three broad themes for future research paths: i) definitions and theories; ii) background and outcomes of wf conflict, balance and enrichment; and iii) methodological gaps. Advances have been made this decade on meta-analysis and the understanding of the positive side of WF interface. Future research opportunities in this field will include a deeper understanding of how to effectively cope with WF conflict, how to achieve WF enrichment, the use of different methods (qualitative, longitudinal and experimental studies) on samples of new occupations, and how researchers could address methodological problems (causality, endogeneity, simultaneity, effect size, and self-selection bias) to better handle the complexity of WF issues.

2010 ◽  
Vol 104 (11) ◽  
pp. 1577-1585 ◽  
Linda A. W. Jans ◽  
Erik J. Giltay ◽  
A. J. Willem Van der Does

Depressive symptoms are common during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Although essential n-3 PUFA may have beneficial effects on depression, it remains unclear whether they are also effective for perinatal depression. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of n-3 supplementation for perinatal depression, by performing a meta-analysis on currently available data. After a thorough literature search, we included seven randomised controlled trials in the meta-analysis, all with EPA and/or DHA supplementation. Most studies were judged to be of low-to-moderate quality, mainly due to small sample sizes and failure to adhere to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Some studies were not primarily designed to address perinatal depression. A total of 309 women on n-3 fatty acid supplementation were compared with 303 women on placebo treatment. n-3 Supplementation was not found to be significantly more effective than placebo at post-treatment with a pooled effect size (Hedges's g) of − 0·03 (95 % CI − 0·18, 0·13; P = 0·76) using a fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was low-to-moderate (I2 = 30 %). In a subgroup analysis of three small studies of pregnant women with major depression, there was some indication of effectiveness (effect size 0·17; 95 % CI − 0·21, 0·55). In conclusion, the question of whether EPA and DHA administration is effective in the prevention or treatment of perinatal depression cannot be answered yet. Future research should focus on women who are clinically depressed (or at risk). The quality of research in this area needs to improve.

BMJ Open ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. e015444 ◽  
Guy S Wafeu ◽  
Aurel T Tankeu ◽  
Francky Teddy A Endomba ◽  
Jobert Richie Nansseu ◽  
Arnaud D Kaze ◽  

IntroductionTobacco use significantly increases cardiovascular complications in people living with hypertension and/or diabetes. We aim to summarise data on the prevalence and factors associated with active smoking in these conditions in Africa.Method and analysisWe will search PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and African Journals Online for relevant abstracts of studies on active smoking in individuals living with diabetes and/or hypertension published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016, with no language restriction. Additionally, relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will be checked, as well as references of included articles. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in each study. Data will be analysed using Stata software (Stata V.14, Texas, USA). The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence of smoking across studies. Also, we will assess factors associated to smoking. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane’s Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger’s test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors associated to smoking.Ethics and disseminationThis study is based on published data, and therefore ethical approval is not a requirement. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as a basis for designing cost-effective interventions to reduce and prevent smoking in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, and as a guide for future research based on the remaining gaps. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities.

2021 ◽  
Jeff Clements ◽  
Matthew N. George

1. Many bivalve molluscs settle and attach to surfaces using adhesive byssal threads – proteinaceous fibers that together form a network known as the byssus. Since these bivalves rely on byssus for survival, strong byssal attachment promotes a myriad of broad ecological services, including water filtration, nutrient extraction, sediment stabilization, and enhancing biodiversity through habitat creation.2. Numerous studies have documented weakened byssal attachment strength under ocean acidification (OA); however, a comparable number report no effect, even within the same species. Consequently, whether elevated CO2 levels expected under near-future OA will affect byssal attachment strength in nature remains hotly contested.3. We used a systematic literature search and meta-analysis to explore factors that could potentially explain observed effect size variation in byssal attachment strength following OA exposure. 4. A systematic literature search uncovered 20 studies experimentally testing the impact of OA on byssal attachment strength (or some proxy thereof). Meta-analysis revealed that body size (mean shell length) was the strongest predictor of effect size variation, with no significant effect of climate, species, year, study temperature, study location, exposure time, food amount, and pH offset. Functionally, a negative linear relationship was observed between body size and effect size.5. Our finding that the byssal strength of larger bivalves is more susceptible to negative OA effects runs counter to prevailing wisdom that larger, older animals of a given species are more robust to OA than earlier life history stages. 6. This highlights that body size and age may be important factors that determine OA sensitivity in adult calcifiers. In addition to body size, a critical review of each study revealed commonly neglected factors that could influence byssal thread attachment strength which we highlight to provide suggestions for future research in this area.

Bradley W. Weaver ◽  
Patricia R. DeLucia

Objective The aim of this paper was to synthesize the experimental research on factors that affect takeover performance during conditionally automated driving. Background For conditionally automated driving, the automated driving system (ADS) can handle the entire dynamic driving task but only for limited domains. When the system reaches a limit, the driver is responsible for taking over vehicle control, which may be affected by how much time they are provided to take over, what they were doing prior to the takeover, or the type of information provided to them during the takeover. Method Out of 8446 articles identified by a systematic literature search, 48 articles containing 51 experiments were included in the meta-analysis. Coded independent variables were time budget, non-driving related task engagement and resource demands, and information support during the takeover. Coded dependent variables were takeover timing and quality measures. Results Engaging in non-driving related tasks results in degraded takeover performance, particularly if it has overlapping resource demands with the driving task. Weak evidence suggests takeover performance is impaired with shorter time budgets. Current implementations of information support did not affect takeover performance. Conclusion Future research and implementation should focus on providing the driver more time to take over while automation is active and should further explore information support. Application The results of the current paper indicate the need for the development and deployment of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services and driver monitoring.

2017 ◽  
Vol 46 (3) ◽  
pp. 326-339 ◽  
Christina L. Svec

The purpose of the meta-analysis was to address the varied results within the area of singing ability research by statistically summarizing the data of related studies. Across 34 studies, analyses yielded an overall mean effect size for instruction of g = 0.43. Studies were limited to pretest-posttest or posttest-only quasi-experimental designs. The largest overall study effect size across categorical variables included the effects of same and different discrimination techniques on mean singing score gains. Overall mean effects by primary moderator variable ranged from trivial to moderate. Feedback yielded the largest effect regarding teaching condition, 8-year-old children yielded the largest effect regarding age, the Boardman assessment measure yielded the largest effect regarding measurement instrument, and song accuracy yielded the largest effect regarding measured task. Regarding gender, boys and girls improved similarly from singing interventions across studies. Implications for singing instruction pertain to the importance of intervention, especially between the ages of 5 and 8. Results from the meta-analysis have highlighted a tendency for singing interventions to improve singing ability more than traditional song-singing and more than no music instruction at all. Results from the meta-analysis have also highlighted the importance of self, teacher, and computer feedback in the development of singing.

2013 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 97-109 ◽  
Robert Forbus ◽  
Jason L. Snyder

Successful behavioral change is the Holy Grail for social marketers. Meta-analysis demonstrates that effect sizes of behavioral change in social marketing campaigns is typically low. The present case study uses 4 years of survey data from an Alabama weight loss and behavioral change campaign to develop an explanation for why some people are more successful in lifestyle change efforts than others. Comforting, a communicative form of prosocial behavior, produced the greatest magnitude of change when tested as an independent variable on dependent variables, including pounds lost, amount of dairy products and water consumed, and physical activities undertaken. The case study concludes by discussing implications for social marketing academics and practitioners.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 335-335
Zachary Marcum ◽  
Shangqing Jiang ◽  
Jennifer Bacci ◽  
Todd Ruppar

Abstract As pharmacists work to ensure reimbursement for chronic disease management services on the national (e.g., Medicare) level, summative evidence of their impact on important health metrics, such as medication adherence, is needed. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions on medication adherence in older adults. In April 2020, a comprehensive search was conducted in six databases for publications of randomized clinical trials of pharmacist-led interventions to improve medication adherence in older adults. English-language studies with codable data on medication adherence and diverse adherence-promoting interventions targeting older adults (age 65+) were eligible. A standardized mean difference effect size (intervention vs. control) was calculated for the medication adherence outcome in each study. Study effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Moderator analyses were then conducted to explore for differences in effect size due to intervention, sample, and study characteristics. The primary outcome was medication adherence using any method of measurement. This meta-analysis included 40 unique randomized trials of pharmacist-led interventions with data from 8,822 unique patients (mean age, range: 65 to 85 years). The mean effect size was 0.57 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.38-0.76). When two outlier studies were excluded from the analysis, the mean effect size decreased to 0.41 (95% CI: 0.27-0.54). Moderator analyses showed larger effect sizes for interventions containing medication education and when interventions had components delivered at least partly in patients’ homes. In conclusion, this meta-analysis found a significant improvement in medication adherence among older adults receiving pharmacist-led interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-82
*Zhonggen Yu ◽  
Liheng Yu

Social media applications such as Facebook have received wide attention in their use in education. However, it is still hard to arrive at a conclusion regarding whether a Facebook-assisted approach is effective in education and whether there are any significant gender differences in the learning outcomes. Based on rigid inclusion criteria, this study included 21 peer-reviewed high-quality journal articles. Through a meta-analysis using Reviewer Manager 5.3, the authors concluded that a Facebook-assisted approach could obtain significantly higher learning outcomes than the non-Facebook-assisted one with a medium effect size (d = 0.42) and that females could achieve significantly better learning outcomes than males with a very small effect size (d = -0.21) in the Facebook-assisted education. Future research could examine the effect of educational use of other social media applications, as well as in sociological, psychological, or educational dimensions.

1993 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 857-876 ◽  
J. C. Wofford ◽  
Laurie Z. Liska

Meta-analyses of 120 studies were conducted to test hypotheses of path-goal theories. Chi-square results showed that potential situational and artifactual moderators exist for the relationships of leader behaviors with the dependent variables. Of 16 moderator tests that could be conducted, 7 met the criteria as moderators; however the effect of one moderator was in the opposite direction to that hypothesized. The analyses indicated that much of the research testing path-goal theories has been flawed. Suggestions for future research are made.

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