Design and Evaluation of a Tunable PUF Architecture for FPGAs

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Franz-Josef Streit ◽  
Paul Krüger ◽  
Andreas Becher ◽  
Stefan Wildermann ◽  
Jürgen Teich

FPGA-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF) have emerged as a viable alternative to permanent key storage by turning effects of inaccuracies during the manufacturing process of a chip into a unique, FPGA-intrinsic secret. However, many fixed PUF designs may suffer from unsatisfactory statistical properties in terms of uniqueness, uniformity, and robustness. Moreover, a PUF signature may alter over time due to aging or changing operating conditions, rendering a PUF insecure in the worst case. As a remedy, we propose CHOICE , a novel class of FPGA-based PUF designs with tunable uniqueness and reliability characteristics. By the use of addressable shift registers available on an FPGA, we show that a wide configuration space for adjusting a device-specific PUF response is obtained without any sacrifice of randomness. In particular, we demonstrate the concept of address-tunable propagation delays, whereby we are able to increase or decrease the probability of obtaining “ 1 ”s in the PUF response. Experimental evaluations on a group of six 28 nm Xilinx Artix-7 FPGAs show that CHOICE PUFs provide a large range of configurations to allow a fine-tuning to an average uniqueness between 49% and 51%, while simultaneously achieving bit error rates below 1.5%, thus outperforming state-of-the-art PUF designs. Moreover, with only a single FPGA slice per PUF bit, CHOICE is one of the smallest PUF designs currently available for FPGAs. It is well-known that signal propagation delays are affected by temperature, as the operating temperature impacts the internal currents of transistors that ultimately make up the circuit. We therefore comprehensively investigate how temperature variations affect the PUF response and demonstrate how the tunability of CHOICE enables us to determine configurations that show a high robustness to such variations. As a case study, we present a cryptographic key generation scheme based on CHOICE PUF responses as device-intrinsic secret and investigate the design objectives resource costs, performance, and temperature robustness to show the practicability of our approach.

M Lecocq ◽  
M Groussin ◽  
M Gouy ◽  
C Brochier-Armanet

Abstract Previous reports have shown that environmental temperature impacts proteome evolution in Bacteria and Archaea. However, it is unknown whether thermoadaptation mainly occurs via the sequential accumulation of substitutions, massive horizontal gene transfers, or both. Measuring the real contribution of amino acid substitution to thermoadaptation is challenging, because of confounding environmental and genetic factors (e.g. pH, salinity, genomic G+C content) that also affect proteome evolution. Here, using Methanococcales, a major archaeal lineage, as a study model, we show that optimal growth temperature is the major factor affecting variations in amino acid frequencies of proteomes. By combining phylogenomic and ancestral sequence reconstruction approaches, we disclose a sequential substitutional scheme in which lysine plays a central role by fine tuning the pool of arginine, serine, threonine, glutamine, and asparagine, whose frequencies are strongly correlated with optimal growth temperature. Finally, we show that colonization to new thermal niches is not associated with high amounts of horizontal gene transfers. Altogether, while the acquisition of a few key proteins through horizontal gene transfer may have favoured thermoadaptation in Methanococcales, our findings support sequential amino acid substitutions as the main factor driving thermoadaptation.

1987 ◽  
Vol 26 (02) ◽  
pp. 73-76 ◽  
Kathryn Rowan ◽  
P. Byass ◽  
R. W. Snow

SummaryThis paper reports on a computerised approach to the management of an epidemiological field trial, which aimed at determining the effects of insecticide-impregnated bed nets on the incidence of malaria in children. The development of a data system satisfying the requirements of the project and its implementation using a database management system are discussed. The advantages of this method of management in terms of rapid processing of and access to data from the study are described, together with the completion rates and error rates observed in data collection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Zhe Yang ◽  
Dejan Gjorgjevikj ◽  
Jianyu Long ◽  
Yanyang Zi ◽  
Shaohui Zhang ◽  

AbstractSupervised fault diagnosis typically assumes that all the types of machinery failures are known. However, in practice unknown types of defect, i.e., novelties, may occur, whose detection is a challenging task. In this paper, a novel fault diagnostic method is developed for both diagnostics and detection of novelties. To this end, a sparse autoencoder-based multi-head Deep Neural Network (DNN) is presented to jointly learn a shared encoding representation for both unsupervised reconstruction and supervised classification of the monitoring data. The detection of novelties is based on the reconstruction error. Moreover, the computational burden is reduced by directly training the multi-head DNN with rectified linear unit activation function, instead of performing the pre-training and fine-tuning phases required for classical DNNs. The addressed method is applied to a benchmark bearing case study and to experimental data acquired from a delta 3D printer. The results show that its performance is satisfactory both in detection of novelties and fault diagnosis, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods. This research proposes a novel fault diagnostics method which can not only diagnose the known type of defect, but also detect unknown types of defects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 580
Voicu-Teodor Muica ◽  
Alexandru Ozunu ◽  
Zoltàn Török

(1) Background: The importance of Zinc in today’s world can hardly be exaggerated—from anticorrosion properties, to its durability, aesthetic, and even medicinal uses—zinc is ever-present in our daily lives ever since its discovery in ancient times. The natural, essential, durable, and recyclable features of zinc make it a prized material with uses in many applications across a wide array of fields. The purpose of this study was to compare two life cycle impact assessments of zinc production by using two different main raw materials: (A) zinc concentrates (sulfide ore) and (B) Waelz oxides (obtained through recycling existing imperial smelting process furnace slags). The Waelz oxide scenario was based on a case study regarding the existing slag deposit located in Copsa Mica town, Sibiu county, Romania. (2) Methods: consequential life cycle impact assessment methods were applied to each built system, with real process data obtained from the case study enterprise. (3) Results: Overall, the use of slags in the Waelz kiln to produce zinc oxides for use in the production of zinc metal is beneficial to the environment in some areas (acidification, water, and terrestrial eutrophication), whereas in other areas it has a slightly larger impact (climate change, photochemical ozone formation, and ozone depletion). (4) Conclusions: The use of slags (considered a waste) is encouraged to produce zinc metal, where available. The results are not absolute, suggesting the further need for fine-tuning the input data and other process parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 4617
Daehee Park ◽  
Cheoljun Lee

Because smartphones support various functions, they are carried by users everywhere. Whenever a user believes that a moment is interesting, important, or meaningful to them, they can record a video to preserve such memories. The main problem with video recording an important moment is the fact that the user needs to look at the scene through the mobile phone screen rather than seeing the actual real-world event. This occurs owing to uncertainty the user might feel when recording the video. For example, the user might not be sure if the recording is of high-quality and might worry about missing the target object. To overcome this, we developed a new camera application that utilizes two main algorithms, the minimum output sum of squared error and the histograms of oriented gradient algorithms, to track the target object and recognize the direction of the user’s head. We assumed that the functions of the new camera application can solve the user’s anxiety while recording a video. To test the effectiveness of the proposed application, we conducted a case study and measured the emotional responses of users and the error rates based on a comparison with the use of a regular camera application. The results indicate that the new camera application induces greater feelings of pleasure, excitement, and independence than a regular camera application. Furthermore, it effectively reduces the error rates during video recording.

2018 ◽  
Vol 239 ◽  
pp. 01036 ◽  
Viktor Kharlamov ◽  
Pavel Shkodun ◽  
Andrey Ognevsky

Effective use of fuel and energy resources is one of the main tasks in modern industry and transport. The main directions of increasing the energy efficiency of the electric rolling stock of railways are considered in the paper. For the electric rolling stock of railways, a significant proportion of electric power consumption falls on traction needs. The consumption of electrical energy and its recovery directly depends on the proper operation and fine-tuning of the magnetic system and switching of traction electric motors of the rolling stock. The methods of testing traction electric motors currently used in railway transport do not fully correspond to their operating modes during operation. For more reliable control of their condition, a methodology for estimating the nature of the operation of traction electric motors in conditions close to real ones was proposed. Studies of the influence of transient processes on the quality of switching of traction electric motors taking into account operating conditions are carried out. Based on the results of the study, the analysis of the data obtained is carried out, and a criterion for estimating the switching stability of traction electric motors in transient operation modes is proposed. The proposed criterion allows carrying out quality control of the tuning of the magnetic system and switching of the traction electric motor, and also estimating the nature of its operation in various modes, taking into account the operating conditions.

Elizabeth Passano ◽  
Carl M. Larsen

The paper deals with the challenge of predicting the extreme response of catenary risers, a topic of both industry and academic interest. Large heave motions introduced at the upper end of a catenary riser can lead to compression and large bending moments in the region immediately above the touch down area. In the worst case, dynamic beam buckling may occur. The focus of the paper will be on understanding the riser behaviour in extreme, low-tension response and in establishing suitable analysis strategies to predict the extreme response. Results from long nonlinear stochastic simulations of many sea states with varying environmental and operating conditions may be combined to describe the long-term response of a nonlinear structure such as a catenary riser. However, this theoretically straight-forward approach is very demanding computationally and ways to limit the extent of nonlinear stochastic simulations are therefore sought. The usefulness of simpler methods such as regular wave analysis to improve understanding of the physical behaviour and to aid in concentrating the nonlinear simulations to where they are most useful, will be demonstrated.

2021 ◽  
Luca Spogli ◽  
Hossein Ghobadi ◽  
Antonio Cicone ◽  
Lucilla Alfonsi ◽  
Claudio Cesaroni ◽  

<p>We investigate the reliability of the phase scintillation index determined by receiving Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals at ground in the high-latitudes. To the scope, we report about the capabilities of recently introduced detrending scheme based on the signal decomposition provided by the Fast Iterative Filtering (FIF) technique. This detrending scheme enables a fine tuning of the cutoff frequency for phase detrending used in the phase scintillation index definition, aimed at disentangling diffraction and refraction effects. On a single case study based on GPS and Galileo data taken by a GNSS Ionospheric Scintillation Monitor Receiver (ISMR) in Concordia Station (Antarctica), we show how the FIF-based detrending allows deriving adaptive cutoff frequencies, whose value changes minute-by-minute. They are found to range between 0.4 Hz and 1.2 Hz. This allows better accounting for diffractive effects in phase scintillation index calculation and also showing the limitations on the use of such index, being still widely used in the community, both to characterize the features of ionospheric irregularities and to adopt mitigation solutions.</p>

2021 ◽  
Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed ◽  
Ahmed Mahmoud El-Menoufi ◽  
Eman Abed Ezz El-Regal ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Ali ◽  
Khaled Mohamed Mansour ◽  

Abstract Field development planning of gas condensate fields using numerical simulation has many aspects to consider that may lead to a significant impact on production optimization. An important aspect is to account for the effects of network constraints and process plant operating conditions through an integrated asset model. This model should honor proper representation of the fluid within the reservoir, through the wells and up to the network and facility. Obaiyed is one of the biggest onshore gas field in Egypt, it is a highly heterogeneous gas condensate field located in the western desert of Egypt with more than 100 wells. Three initial condensate gas ratios are existing based on early PVT samples and production testing. The initial CGRs as follows;160, 115 and 42 STB/MMSCF. With continuous pressure depletion, the produced hydrocarbon composition stream changes, causing a deviation between the design parameters and the operating parameters of the equipment within the process plant, resulting in a decrease in the recovery of liquid condensate. Therefore, the facility engineers demand a dynamic update of a detailed composition stream to optimize the system and achieve greater economic value. The best way to obtain this compositional stream is by using a fully compositional integrated asset model. Utilizing a fully compositional model in Obaiyed is challenging, computationally expensive, and impractical, especially during the history match of the reservoir numerical model. In this paper, a case study for Obaiyed field is presented in which we used an alternative integrated asset modeling approach comprising a modified black-oil (MBO) that results in significant timesaving in the full-field reservoir simulation model. We then used a proper de-lumping scheme to convert the modified black oil tables into as many components as required by the surface network and process plant facility. The results of proposed approach are compared with a fully compositional approach for validity check. The results clearly identified the system bottlenecks. The model can be used to propose the best tie-in location of future wells in addition to providing first-pass flow assurance indications throughout the field's life and under different network configurations. The model enabled the facility engineers to keep the conditions of the surface facility within the optimized operating envelope throughout the field's lifetime.

2017 ◽  
Vol 17 (9) ◽  
pp. 1559-1571 ◽  
Yann Krien ◽  
Bernard Dudon ◽  
Jean Roger ◽  
Gael Arnaud ◽  
Narcisse Zahibo

Abstract. In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave–current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge – up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

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