scholarly journals Toggle-like current-induced Bloch point dynamics of 3D skyrmion strings in a room-temperature nanowire

Max Birch ◽  
David Cortés-Ortuño ◽  
Kai Litzius ◽  
Sebastian Wintz ◽  
Frank Schulz ◽  

Abstract Research into practical applications of magnetic skyrmions, nanoscale solitons with interesting topological and transport properties [1,2], has traditionally focused on two dimensional (2D) thin-film systems[3,4]. However, the recent observation of novel three dimensional (3D) skyrmion-like structures, such as hopfions [5], skyrmion strings (SkS) [6-9], skyrmion bundles [11] and skyrmion braids [12], motivates the investigation of new designs, aiming to exploit the third spatial dimension for more compact and higher performance spintronic devices in 3D or curvilinear geometries [13-15]. A crucial requirement of such device schemes is the control of the 3D magnetic structures via charge or spin currents, which has yet to be experimentally observed. In this work, we utilise real-space imaging to investigate the dynamics of a 3D SkS within a nanowire of Co8Zn9Mn3 at room temperature. Utilising single, nanoscale current pulses, we demonstrate current-induced nucleation of a single SkS, and a toggle-like positional switching of an individual Bloch point at the end of a SkS. The observations highlight the possibility to locally manipulate 3D topological spin textures, opening up a range of design concepts for future 3D spintronic devices.

2009 ◽  
Vol 1183 ◽  
Soumia Lardjane ◽  
Ghouti Merad ◽  
Houda Imane Faraoun

AbstractRecent experiments suggest that Ti doped ZnO can be a promising room temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) and a potentially useful material for spintronic devices. Furthermore, the fact that Ti doped ZnO shows ferromagnetic behaviour despite it contains no magnetic element makes this system good candidate for theoretical investigation regarding the controversies about the origin of ferromagnetic ordering in TM-doped ZnO. In this work, the density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the electronic and magnetic structures of Ti-doped ZnO. The obtained results are used to discuss the origin of the ferromagnetism, and the contribution of different atoms in the magnetic moment.

1992 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 2440-2446 ◽  
Vinayak P. Dravid ◽  
Xiwei Lin ◽  
Hong Zhang ◽  
Shengzhong Liu ◽  
Manfred M. Kappes

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have been employed to study the room temperature solid state form of chromatographically purified C70. Tilting and electron diffraction experiments in three-dimensional reciprocal space, on samples prepared by crystallization from several different solvents, show that C70 crystallites adopt hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure with a = 1.01 ± 0.05 nm and c = 1.70 ± 0.08 nm. The extinctions and observed reflections conform to the P63/mmc space group. High resolution TEM images reveal the molecular order and periodicity associated with C70 crystallites in real space. The experimental results are in agreement with the preliminary computations of crystal structure within acceptable error limits.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 11
P. Raval ◽  
D. Kacprzak ◽  
A. Patrick Hu

To date inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) systems have already found many practical applications including battery charging pads. In fact, current charging platforms tend to largely support only one- or two-dimensional planar movement in load. This paper proposes a new concept of extending the aspect ratios of the operating power transfer volume of ICPT systems to support arbitrary three dimensional load movements with respect to the primary coils. This is done by use of modern finite element method analysis software to propose the primary and secondary magnetic structures of such an ICPT system. Firstly, two primary magnetic structures are proposed based on contrasting modes of operation and different field directions. This includes a single-phase and multi-phase current model. Next, a secondary magnetic structure is customized to be compatible with both primary structures. The resulting system is shown to produce a 3D power transfer volume for battery cell charging applications.

2003 ◽  
Vol 792 ◽  
Robert C. Birtcher ◽  
Stephen E. Donnelly ◽  
Ian Morrison ◽  
Charles W. Allen ◽  
Kazuo Furuya ◽  

ABSTRACTReal space, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations of Xe confined in nanometer size faceted cavities in Al yield information on both the inert gas and the matrix in which it is confined. At room temperature, Xe in such cavities can be liquid or an fcc solid. In larger cavities, Xe within can undergo melting and recrystallization. The Al surface energy can be deduced from the largest Xe nanocrystal at 300 K by setting the corresponding calculated Laplace pressure equal to the equilibrium pressure for melting of Xe, obtained from empirical bulk compression data. These surface energy values are 1.05 J m-2 for {111} facets and 1.10 Jm-2 for {200} facets. Because of the weak interactions, these values correspond to the surface tensions for Al at 300 K.At room temperature, fluid Xe confined in small faceted cavities in aluminum has up to three ordered layers of Xe atoms at the Al interface. Conceptually in a three-dimensionally confined system of sufficiently small size, complete three-dimensional ordering of the fluid may occur. Molecular dynamics simulations have revealed that such ordering would result in fluid Xe confined to a small tetragonal volume solidifying as a body-centered cubic phase on compression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Won-Young Choi ◽  
Woosuk Yoo ◽  
Myung-Hwa Jung

AbstractTopological spin textures such as magnetic skyrmions have attracted considerable interest due to their potential application in spintronic devices. However, there still remain several challenges to overcome before their practical application, for instance, achieving high scalability and thermal stability. Recent experiments have proposed a new class of skyrmion materials in the Heusler family, Mn1.4Pt0.9Pd0.1Sn and Mn2Rh0.95Ir0.05Sn, which possess noncollinear magnetic structures. Motivated by these experimental results, we suggest another Heusler compound hosted by Mn3Ga to overcome the above limitations. We fabricate Mn3-xPdxGa thin films, focusing on the magnetic compensation point. In Mn2.3Pd0.7Ga, we find a spin-reorientation transition around TSR = 320 K. Below the TSR, we observe the topological Hall effect and a positive magnetic entropy change, which are the hallmarks of a chiral noncollinear spin texture. By integrating all the data, we determine the magnetic phase diagram, displaying a wide chiral noncollinear spin phase even at room temperature. We believe that this compensated ferrimagnet shows promise for opening a new avenue toward chiral spin-based, high-density, and low-power devices.

2002 ◽  
Vol 09 (02) ◽  
pp. 681-686 ◽  
S. OHNO ◽  

We have studied the electronic structure of Ag thin films of monoatomic height grown on a Ge(001) surface at 95 K by using photoelectron spectroscopy. All the surface states on the clean Ge surface vanished and Ag 5s derived state appeared in the bulk band gap just below the Fermi level. These suggest a strong interaction with the substrate. On the other hand, on three-dimensional (3D) islands formed on a room temperature substrate, small changes were found in Ge 3d spectrum from the clean surface. Each of the Ag 3D islands already had bulklike feature in the valence band structure. The results are consistent with recent observation by scanning tunneling microscopy.

Crystals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 193
Thi Huyen Do ◽  
Ho-Joong Kim ◽  
Manh Linh Nguyen ◽  
Byoung-Ki Cho

A bicontinuous cubic (Cubbi) liquid crystalline (LC) phase consisting of three dimensional (3D) conducting networks is a promising structural platform for ion-conductors. For practical applications using this fascinating LC structure, it is necessary to suppress crystallization at room temperature (RT). Herein, we report the Cubbi structure at RT and the morphology–dependent conduction behavior in ionic samples of a non-crystallizable dendritic amphiphile. In the molecular design, branched alkyl chains were used as an ionophobic part instead of crystallizable linear alkyl chains. Two ionic samples with Cubbi and hexagonal columnar (Colhex) LC phases at RT were prepared by adding different amounts of lithium salt to the amphiphile. Impedance analysis demonstrated that the Cubbi phase contributed to the faster ion-conduction to a larger extent than the Colhex phase due to the 3D ionic networks of the Cubbi phase. In addition, the temperature–dependent impedance and electric modulus data provided information regarding the phase transition from microphase-separated phase to molecularly mixed liquid phase.

D. E. Johnson

Increased specimen penetration; the principle advantage of high voltage microscopy, is accompanied by an increased need to utilize information on three dimensional specimen structure available in the form of two dimensional projections (i.e. micrographs). We are engaged in a program to develop methods which allow the maximum use of information contained in a through tilt series of micrographs to determine three dimensional speciman structure.In general, we are dealing with structures lacking in symmetry and with projections available from only a limited span of angles (±60°). For these reasons, we must make maximum use of any prior information available about the specimen. To do this in the most efficient manner, we have concentrated on iterative, real space methods rather than Fourier methods of reconstruction. The particular iterative algorithm we have developed is given in detail in ref. 3. A block diagram of the complete reconstruction system is shown in fig. 1.

Bradley L. Thiel ◽  
Chan Han R. P. ◽  
Kurosky L. C. Hutter ◽  
I. A. Aksay ◽  
Mehmet Sarikaya

The identification of extraneous phases is important in understanding of high Tc superconducting oxides. The spectroscopic techniques commonly used in determining the origin of superconductivity (such as RAMAN, XPS, AES, and EXAFS) are surface-sensitive. Hence a grain boundary phase several nanometers thick could produce irrelevant spectroscopic results and cause erroneous conclusions. The intergranular phases present a major technological consideration for practical applications. In this communication we report the identification of a Cu2O grain boundary phase which forms during the sintering of YBa2Cu3O7-x (1:2:3 compound).Samples are prepared using a mixture of Y2O3. CuO, and BaO2 powders dispersed in ethanol for complete mixing. The pellets pressed at 20,000 psi are heated to 950°C at a rate of 5°C per min, held for 1 hr, and cooled at 1°C per min to room temperature. The samples show a Tc of 91K with a transition width of 2K. In order to prevent damage, a low temperature stage is used in milling to prepare thin foils which are then observed, using a liquid nitrogen holder, in a Philips 430T at 300 kV.

Ian M. Anderson

B2-ordered iron aluminide intermetallic alloys exhibit a combination of attractive properties such as low density and good corrosion resistance. However, the practical applications of these alloys are limited by their poor fracture toughness and low room temperature ductility. One current strategy for overcoming these undesirable properties is to attempt to modify the basic chemistry of the materials with alloying additions. These changes in the chemistry of the material cannot be fully understood without a knowledge of the site-distribution of the alloying elements. In this paper, the site-distributions of a series of 3d-transition metal alloying additions in B2-ordered iron aluminides are studied with ALCHEMI.A series of seven alloys of stoichiometry Fe50AL45Me5, with Me = {Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu}, were prepared with identical heating cycles. Microalloying additions of 0.2% B and 0.1% Zr were also incorporated to strengthen the grain boundaries, but these alloying additions have little influence on the matrix chemistry and are incidental to this study.

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