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2022 ◽  
Sergey A. Shteingolts ◽  
Adam I. Stash ◽  
Vladimir G. Tsirelson ◽  
Robert R. Fayzullin

Intricate behavior of one-electron potentials from the Euler equation for electron density and corresponding gradient force fields in crystals was studied. Bosonic and fermionic quantum potentials were utilized in bonding analysis as descriptors of the localization of electrons and electron pairs. Channels of locally enhanced kinetic potential and the corresponding saddle Lagrange points were found between chemically bonded atoms linked by the bond paths. Superposition of electrostatic φ_es (r) and kinetic φ_k (r) potentials and electron density ρ(r) allowed partitioning any molecules and crystals into atomic ρ- and potential-based φ-basins; the φ_k-basins explicitly account for electron exchange effect, which is missed for φ_es-ones. Phenomena of interatomic charge transfer and related electron exchange were explained in terms of space gaps between ρ- and φ-zero-flux surfaces. The gap between φ_es- and ρ-basins represents the charge transfer, while the gap between φ_k- and ρ-basins is proposed to be a real-space manifestation of sharing the transferred electrons. The position of φ_k-boundary between φ_es- and ρ-ones within an electron occupier atom determines the extent of electron sharing. The stronger an H‧‧‧O hydrogen bond is, the deeper hydrogen atom’s φ_k-basin penetrates oxygen atom’s ρ-basin. For covalent bonds, a φ_k-boundary closely approaches a φ_es-one indicating almost complete sharing the transferred electrons, while for ionic bonds, the same region corresponds to electron pairing within the ρ-basin of an electron occupier atom.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Antonio Sanna ◽  
Camilla Pellegrini ◽  
Eva Liebhaber ◽  
Kai Rossnagel ◽  
Katharina J. Franke ◽  

AbstractWe present a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and ab-initio study of the anisotropic superconductivity of 2H-NbSe2 in the charge-density-wave (CDW) phase. Differential-conductance spectra show a clear double-peak structure, which is well reproduced by density functional theory simulations enabling full k- and real-space resolution of the superconducting gap. The hollow-centered (HC) and chalcogen-centered (CC) CDW patterns observed in the experiment are mapped onto separate van der Waals layers with different electronic properties. We identify the CC layer as the high-gap region responsible for the main STM peak. Remarkably, this region belongs to the same Fermi surface sheet that is broken by the CDW gap opening. Simulations reveal a highly anisotropic distribution of the superconducting gap within single Fermi sheets, setting aside the proposed scenario of a two-gap superconductivity. Our results point to a spatially localized competition between superconductivity and CDW involving the HC regions of the crystal.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Ondrej Lerch ◽  
Martina Pařízková ◽  
Martin Vyhnálek ◽  
Zuzana Nedelská ◽  
Jakub Hort ◽  

Background: Cholinergic deficit and medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to early allocentric spatial navigation (aSN) impairment. APOE ɛ4 allele (E4) is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD and contributes to cholinergic dysfunction. Basal forebrain (BF) nuclei, the major source of acetylcholine, project into multiple brain regions and, along with MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC), are involved in aSN processing. Objective: We aimed to determine different contributions of individual BF nuclei atrophy to aSN in E4 positive and E4 negative older adults without dementia and assess whether they operate on aSN through MTL and PFC or independently from these structures. Methods: 120 participants (60 E4 positive, 60 E4 negative) from the Czech Brain Aging Study underwent structural MRI and aSN testing in real-space arena setting. Hippocampal and BF nuclei volumes and entorhinal cortex and PFC thickness were obtained. Associations between brain regions involved in aSN were assessed using MANOVA and complex model of mutual relationships was built using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results: Path analysis based on SEM modeling revealed that BF Ch1-2, Ch4p, and Ch4ai nuclei volumes were indirectly associated with aSN performance through MTL (pch1 - 2 = 0.039; pch4p = 0.042) and PFC (pch4ai = 0.044). In the E4 negative group, aSN was indirectly associated with Ch1-2 nuclei volumes (p = 0.015), while in the E4 positive group, there was indirect effect of Ch4p nucleus (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in older adults without dementia, BF nuclei affect aSN processing indirectly, through MTL and PFC, and that APOE E4 moderates these associations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zi-Lan Deng ◽  
Tan Shi ◽  
Alex Krasnok ◽  
Xiangping Li ◽  
Andrea Alù

AbstractOptical skyrmions have recently been constructed by tailoring vectorial near-field distributions through the interference of multiple surface plasmon polaritons, offering promising features for advanced information processing, transport and storage. Here, we provide experimental demonstration of electromagnetic skyrmions based on magnetic localized spoof plasmons (LSP) showing large topological robustness against continuous deformations, without stringent external interference conditions. By directly measuring the spatial profile of all three vectorial magnetic fields, we reveal multiple π-twist target skyrmion configurations mapped to multi-resonant near-equidistant LSP eigenmodes. The real-space skyrmion topology is robust against deformations of the meta-structure, demonstrating flexible skyrmionic textures for arbitrary shapes. The observed magnetic LSP skyrmions pave the way to ultra-compact and robust plasmonic devices, such as flexible sensors, wearable electronics and ultra-compact antennas.

2022 ◽  
Max Birch ◽  
David Cortés-Ortuño ◽  
Kai Litzius ◽  
Sebastian Wintz ◽  
Frank Schulz ◽  

Abstract Research into practical applications of magnetic skyrmions, nanoscale solitons with interesting topological and transport properties [1,2], has traditionally focused on two dimensional (2D) thin-film systems[3,4]. However, the recent observation of novel three dimensional (3D) skyrmion-like structures, such as hopfions [5], skyrmion strings (SkS) [6-9], skyrmion bundles [11] and skyrmion braids [12], motivates the investigation of new designs, aiming to exploit the third spatial dimension for more compact and higher performance spintronic devices in 3D or curvilinear geometries [13-15]. A crucial requirement of such device schemes is the control of the 3D magnetic structures via charge or spin currents, which has yet to be experimentally observed. In this work, we utilise real-space imaging to investigate the dynamics of a 3D SkS within a nanowire of Co8Zn9Mn3 at room temperature. Utilising single, nanoscale current pulses, we demonstrate current-induced nucleation of a single SkS, and a toggle-like positional switching of an individual Bloch point at the end of a SkS. The observations highlight the possibility to locally manipulate 3D topological spin textures, opening up a range of design concepts for future 3D spintronic devices.

Qian Zhang ◽  
Xiaoying Guo ◽  
Maojun Sun ◽  
R. Dinesh Jackson Samuel ◽  
Priyan Malarvizhi Kumar

Virtual reality (VR) has advanced as a collaborative, realistic, and creative computation technique in recent decades. With organizations becoming digitally more focused and employees’ experience changed by technology, manager’s face and continue to confront several obstacles in the digital transformation process. Recent advances in information integration have been made possible by implementing the improved digital twin (DT) paradigm and its use in the workspace. To solve these problems, simulated convergence, realistic dynamic computational decision-making, and other tools are effective. This helps to complete activities with physical models and records. Thereby, this paper presents a Visually Improved Digital Media Communication Framework (VIDMCF) using VR technology and DT. Incorporating all information, displaying the whole procedure, avoiding challenges, closing loops, optimizing repetitive processes, and making complex decisions in real-time can be aided by reproducing physical systems in the virtual design and adding VR and digital mirror twin to the output of digital media. The proposed model can achieve connectivity and convergence among the realistic atmosphere and the digital environment’s virtual system in cyber-real-space harmony over the life cycle.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yuri Minoguchi ◽  
Peter Rabl ◽  
Michael Buchhold

Hybrid evolution protocols, composed of unitary dynamics and repeated, weak or projective measurements, give rise to new, intriguing quantum phenomena, including entanglement phase transitions and unconventional conformal invariance. Defying the complications imposed by the non-linear and stochastic nature of the measurement process, we introduce a scenario of measurement-induced many body evolution, which possesses an exact analytical solution: bosonic Gaussian measurements. The evolution features a competition between the continuous observation of linear boson operators and a free Hamiltonian, and it is characterized by a unique and exactly solvable covariance matrix. Within this framework, we then consider an elementary model for quantum criticality, the free boson conformal field theory, and investigate in which way criticality is modified under measurements. Depending on the measurement protocol, we distinguish three fundamental scenarios (a) enriched quantum criticality, characterized by a logarithmic entanglement growth with a floating prefactor, or the loss of criticality, indicated by an entanglement growth with either (b) an area-law or (c) a volume-law. For each scenario, we discuss the impact of imperfect measurements, which reduce the purity of the wavefunction and are equivalent to Markovian decoherence, and present a set of observables, e.g., real-space correlations, the relaxation time, and the entanglement structure, to classify the measurement-induced dynamics for both pure and mixed states. Finally, we present an experimental tomography scheme, which grants access to the density operator of the system by using the continuous measurement record only.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Cheng Hu ◽  
Tongyao Wu ◽  
Xinyue Huang ◽  
Yulong Dong ◽  
Jiajun Chen ◽  

AbstractThe electrical and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) depend sensitively on the twist angle. To study the angle dependent properties of the tBLG, currently it is required fabrication of a large number of samples with systematically varied twist angles. Here, we demonstrate the construction of in-situ twistable bilayer graphene, in which the twist angle of the two graphene monolayers can be in-situ tuned continuously in a large range with high precision. The controlled tuning of the twist angle is confirmed by a combination of real-space and spectroscopic characterizations, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) identification of crystal lattice orientation, scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) imaging of superlattice domain walls, and resonant Raman spectroscopy of the largely enhanced G-mode. The developed in-situ twistable homostructure devices enable systematic investigation of the twist angle effects in a single device, thus could largely advance the research of twistronics.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2102237
Bo Xiang ◽  
Zimo Yang ◽  
Yi‐Zhuang You ◽  
Wei Xiong

С.А. Богданов ◽  
А.А. Борисов ◽  
С.Н. Карпов ◽  
М.В. Кулиев ◽  
А.Б. Пашковский ◽  

The nonlocal electrons heating in transistor heterostructures based on gallium nitride and arsenide is compared. It is shown that if, in comparison with a pure bulk material, in the case of GaAs double doped pseudomorphic heterostructures, the real space transfer of electrons significantly reduces their drift velocity overshot in the region of a strong field, then for GaN-based heterostructures, the decrease of the drift velocity overshot in the studied cases does not exceed 30%.

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