environmental friendliness
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hui Yao ◽  
Yiran Wang ◽  
Junfu Liu ◽  
Mei Xu ◽  
Pengrui Ma ◽  

Lignin is the second-largest plant polymer on Earth after cellulose. About 98% of lignin produced in the papermaking and pulping industry is used for combustion heating or power generation. Less than 2% of lignin is used in more valuable fields, mainly in the formulation of dispersants, adhesives, and surfactants. Asphalt is one of the most important materials in pavement engineering. It is a dark brown complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons with different molecular weights and their non-metallic derivatives. Because the chemical structure of lignin is similar to that of asphalt, it is a carbon-based hydrocarbon material. More researchers studied the application of lignin in pavement engineering. In this paper, the structure, application, and extraction technology of lignin were summarized. This is a review article describing the different applications of lignin in pavement engineering and exploring the prospects of the application. There are three main types of pavement materials that can be used for lignin in pavement engineering, which are asphalt, asphalt mixture, and roadbed soil. In asphalt, lignin can be used as a modifier, extender, emulsifier, antioxidant, and coupling agent. In asphalt mixtures, lignin can be used as an additive. In road base soils, lignin can be used as a soil stabilizer. Furthermore, the article analyzed the application effects of lignin from the life cycle assessment. The conclusions suggest that lignin-modified asphalt exhibits more viscosity and hardness, and its high-temperature resistance and rutting resistance can be significantly improved compared with conventional asphalt. In addition, some lignin-modified asphalt binders exhibit reduced low-temperature crack resistance and fatigue resistance, which can be adjusted and selected according to the climate change in different regions. The performance of lignin as an asphalt mixture additive and asphalt extender has been proved to be feasible. Lignin can also produce good mechanical properties as well as environmental benefits as a soil stabilizer. In summary, lignin plays an important role in asphalt pavement and roadbed soil, and it is likely to be a development trend in the future due to its environmental friendliness and low cost. More research is needed to generalize the application of lignin in pavement engineering.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 102-109
M. M. Zheleznov ◽  
O. I. Karasev ◽  
D. A. Rakov ◽  
E. A. Shitov

Reduction in travel time is one of the eloquent trends in transport developments. It is consistent with the desire of leading transport companies to create conditions to increase traffic speeds.The objective of the article is to analyse prospects and drivers for development of high-speed rail transportation as of a priority transport segment characterised by best safety rates and environmental friendliness as compared to other types of transportation.The review of core parameters of HSR is suggested to show features of its global development.Ecological friendliness, encouragement of labour and other mobility of people, of innovative technology development of railways and interconnected industries are most relevant as universal drivers of HSR development.Constraints due to substantial investment needs, long payback period, necessity to implement additional side projects to develop interrelated transport infrastructure to obtain more tangible economic and social effects, to provide for sufficient passenger flow at the initial or further stages of HSR operation were considered as main deterrents.The factors, their parameters, assessment of their priority ranking when making decisions on construction or development of HSR are determined in each country by transport development strategies, current economic conditions, and a set of other factors. 

Катерина Ю. Корсунова

The article seeks to provide insights on the current structural trends in international marketing. It is observed that in recent decades, marketing as a business concept has undergone internal qualitative changes which have been primarily underpinned by new technological advancements and globalization opportunities. The rapid pace of globalization has fuelled the emergence of a large number of new customers and new competitors in the global market, as well as spurred revolutionary changes in communication technology. In modern realia of intensified competition, marketing remains an exceptional tool to win and protect market share for most companies. Further on, the study explores the etymology of the word "trend" and substantiates its significance to business development perspectives along with providing the most popular trend classification groupings: by the generational theory and according to the Internet marketing concept. The findings reveal the key latest trends in various industries that have gained a positive response from consumers, thus verifying a growing interest in marketing trends. In addition, the study presents an overview of the latest trends that will help companies enhance their market position. It is argued that to be competitive, each company should monitor trends, follow trends and actively implement them in their marketing activities, especially in the international market. It is resumed that for these trends in international marketing to be effective, a special emphasis should be placed to targeted communication with consumers, in particular, marketing strategies should focus on the following principles: the need to adapt the content of messages and channels to the target audience demands by age groups and generations; narrow market segmentation – hyperpersonalization; creating interactive advertising content and format and using games; trend towards individuality, environmental friendliness and consumer involvement in the process of developing goods, products and services; flexibility in obtaining data; collaboration with international brands; active implementation of new functions on social platforms (such as Shops on Instagram / Facebook) in company marketing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Gaosheng Zhang ◽  
Jinglin Luo ◽  
Hanlin Cao ◽  
Shengping Hu ◽  
Huosheng Li ◽  

AbstractIn this study, amorphous hydrous titanium dioxide was synthesized by a facile precipitation method at room temperature, aiming to effectively remove thallium(I) from water. The titanium dioxide prepared using ammonia as precipitant (TiO2I) is more effective for thallium(I) uptake than the one synthesized with sodium hydroxide (TiO2II). The TiO2 obtained particles are amorphous, aggregates of many nanoparticles and irregular in shape. The thallium(I) uptake increases with the rise of solution pH value. Under neutral pH conditions, the maximal thallium(I) adsorption capacities of TiO2I and TiO2II are 302.6 and 230.3 mg/g, respectively, outperforming most of the reported adsorbents. The amorphous TiO2 has high selectivity towards thallium(I) in the presence of multiple cations such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+. Moreover, the TiO2I is efficient in removing thallium(I) from real river water and mining wastewater. Additionally, the spent TiO2I can be regenerated using hydrochloric acid solution and reused. The Tl(I) adsorption is achieved via replacing the H+ in hydroxyl group on the surface of TiO2 and forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Owing to its high efficiency, facile synthesis and environmental friendliness, the TiO2I has the potential to be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove Tl(I) from water.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Yang Gu ◽  
Yingying Hu ◽  
Caoxing Huang ◽  
Chenhuan Lai ◽  
Zhe Ling ◽  

Abstract Background Autohydrolysis is an extensively investigated pretreatment method due to its environmental friendliness. During autohydrolysis, most xylan from hemicellulose can be converted into xylooligosaccharides (XOS), and cellulose in the autohydrolyzed residues can be transformed into glucose after enzymatic hydrolysis. Both of these are value-added biochemicals in the biorefining process. In this work, paper mulberry (PM), which contains abundant protein, was utilized as a raw material to coproduce XOS and single-cell protein (SCP) through autohydrolysis and fermentation technologies. Results The results showed that 8.3 g of XOS and 1.8 g of amino acids could be recovered in the autohydrolysate (based on 100 g raw material) after autohydrolysis (170 °C, 1 h). Moreover, 5.7 g of low-DP XOS along with 1.8 g of amino acids could be further obtained from the autohydrolysate after hydrolysis with endo-β-1-4-xylanase. In addition, 20.1 g of fermentable monosaccharides was recovered after hydrolyzing the autohydrolyzed PM with cellulase, which can be used to produce 4.8 g of SCP after fermentation with Candida utilis. Conclusion As a valuable application of PM, a novel process is proposed to coproduce amino acid-rich XOS and SCP through autohydrolysis. The carbohydrate of PM is effectively converted to high value-added products.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261896
Wen Jiang ◽  
Xian Qi

Prefabricated construction has attracted worldwide concern and promotion due to its environmental friendliness, high quality, and high efficiency. In China, the application of prefabricated construction still lags due to its high cost. To improve prefabricated construction development, the Chinese government and provinces have launched subsidy policies for different objects that offer subsidies to the assembler, the manufacturer, or consumers. Subsidy policies for different subsidy objects have different impacts on the manufacturer wholesale price and assembler retail price and assembly rate and make their decisions more complicated. Therefore, this study uses game theory and builds three models to analyze the effects of government subsidies on manufacturer pricing, assembler pricing, assembly rate decisions, and profit. We find that government subsidy policies can bring more profit to prefabricated construction enterprises, reduce their costs, and benefit the promotion of prefabricated construction. Through comparison and numerical analysis, we also find that when the government subsidizes enterprises more, it is better to subsidize the assembler, because it is good for all three parties. First, consumers can obtain a lower retail price. Second, enterprises can obtain more profits. Finally, for the government, this approach can increase the demand for prefabricated construction and increase the assembly rate, which is conducive to the promotion of prefabricated construction. When the government subsidizes customers more, it is better for the assembler and the manufacturer to subsidize customers, because they can obtain more profits. It is better for the government and customers to subsidize the assembler or the manufacture, because consumers can get the lower retail price. Although the assembly rate and enterprises’ profits are not optimal, they have also been improved. In addition, when the government directly subsidizes enterprises, the enterprises will actively cooperate with the subsidy policy and are more willing to adopt prefabricated construction. This approach will benefit the promotion of prefabricated construction.

2022 ◽  
Hüseyin Emre Ilgın ◽  
Markku Karjalainen ◽  
Olli-Paavo Koponen

Adhesives and metal fasteners have an important place in the content of engineered wood products (EWPs). However, adhesives may cause toxic gas emissions due to their petroleum-based nature, while metal fasteners may adversely affect the reusability of these products. These issues also raise important questions about the sustainability and environmental friendliness of EWPs. Thus, there is still room for a solution that is solid and completely pure wood, adhesive- and metal-connectors-free dovetail wood board elements (DWBEs). There are many studies on the technological, ecological, and economic aspects of these products in the literature, but no studies have been conducted to assess the technical performance of DWBEs. This chapter focuses on DWBEs by proposing various geometric configurations for horizontal structural members in multistory building construction through architectural modeling programs. In this architectural design phase, which is one of the first but most important stages, the proposed configurations are based on a theoretical approach, considering contemporary construction practices rather than structural analysis or mechanical simulation. Further research, including technical performance tests, will be undertaken after this critical phase. It is believed that this chapter will contribute to the dissemination of DWBEs for innovative architectural and structural applications, especially in multistory wooden structures construction.

Zahid Ali Zafar ◽  
Ghulam Abbas ◽  
Karel Knizek ◽  
Martin Šilhavík ◽  
Prabhat Kumar ◽  

Aqueous Zn-based batteries are promising candidates for grid energy storage due to their low cost, intrinsic safety, and environmental friendliness. Nevertheless, they suffer from limited energy density due to the...

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 44-63
Suresh Sagadevan ◽  
Shahla Imteyaz ◽  
Baranya Murugan ◽  
Jayasingh Anita Lett ◽  
Nanthini Sridewi ◽  

Abstract Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have found a variety of applications in numerous industrial, medical, and environmental fields s, attributable to recent advances in the nanotechnology field. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have gained importance as metal oxide NPs due to their potential in various fields, particularly nanomedicine and other biomedicine fields. Several studies have confirmed that NPs produced via the biosynthesis route using natural resources have significant advantages such as fewer toxic contaminants, less subsequent complex chemical synthesis, environmental friendliness, cost-effectiveness, and stability when compared to NPs produced by conventional methods, and its production with controlled shapes and sizes. Therefore, considerable effort is being expended to implement biological synthesis methods with these proven advantages. TiO2-NPs can be made using a variety of biological, chemical, and physical methods. Physicochemical methods are costly, emit high levels of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere, and consume a lot of energy. On the other hand, the biological approach is an environmentally safe, cost-effective, dependable, convenient, and easy way to synthesize TiO2-NPs. In this review, the bio-mediated synthesis, as well as various biomedical applications of TiO2-NPs, were discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1211 (1) ◽  
pp. 012013
A N Kachanov ◽  
V A Chernyshov ◽  
A Yu Burova ◽  
R P Belikov ◽  
M Sh Garifullin

Abstract The necessity of constant monitoring and maintenance of the environmental component in the organization of electric energy transit is substantiated. An original technique aimed at improving the efficiency of the functioning of the air electric network, based on the laws of environmental cybernetics and the basics of automatic control, is considered. The proposed scientific tools allow you to automatically monitor and control all processes that affect the efficiency of electric energy transit from the point of view of its environmental friendliness, and also allows you to form optimal regulatory influences aimed at stabilizing negative processes and disturbing factors arising inside the artificial electrobiological organism “Electric Line - Nature - Man”, which violate the stability of its ecological state.

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