high glucose condition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 873-877
Dongqian Xie ◽  
Zhicheng Gao ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  
Defeng Wang

Metformin is shown to have hypoglycemic effects. However, the relationship between metformin’s intervention in FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated insulin resistance (IR) and insulin β-cell apoptosis under high-glucose condition remains unclear. Our study intends to assess their relationship. Human pancreatic β-cells were treated with metformin and cell proliferation and IR were detected by MTT assay along with detection of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by RT-PCR, cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Metformin inhibited β cell proliferation which was mediated by FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner as well as induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In addition, metformin inhibited β-catenin signaling activation and decreased the expression of c-myc, Dvl-2, survivin, Dvl-3, GSK-3β (p-ser9) and promoted GSK-3 (p-tyr216) and Axin-2 expression. In conclusion, metformin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes FFA to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby mediating pancreatic β-cells behaviors.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1997
Mónika Valdenegro ◽  
Maricarmen Bernales ◽  
Marcela Knox ◽  
Raúl Vinet ◽  
Eduardo Caballero ◽  

The peumo (Cryptocarya alba) is a native fruit from central Chile that belongs to the Lauraceae family. To characterize the development and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during three clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. The most distinguishable attributes of ripe fruit were the change in size and color. Low CO2 production and no detectable ethylene levels suggested non-climacteric behavior of the peumo fruit. Peumo demonstrate a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity per 1 g of fresh weight (FW) of the sample, from small to ripe fruit. Higher values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 37.1–38.3 µmol FeSO4/gFW, TEAC: 7.9–8.1 mmol TE/gFW, DPPH: 8.4-8.7 IC50 μg/mL, and ORAC: = 0.19–0.20 mmol TE/gFW) were observed than those in blueberry fruit (FRAP: 4.95 µmol FeSO4/gFW, TEAC: 1.25 mmol TE/gFW, DPPH: 11.3 IC50 μg/mL, and ORAC: 0.032 mmol TE/ gFW). The methanol extracts of ripe fruit displayed the presence of polyphenol acids and quercetin, an ORAC value of 0.637 ± 0.061 mmol TE per g dried weight (DW), and a high cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, the latter exceeding the effect of quercetin and indomethacin used as standard molecules. Also, the assay of isolated rat aorta with endothelium-dependent relaxation damage demonstrated that the peumo extract induced vascular protection, depending on its concentration under a high glucose condition. These results demonstrate that these endemic fruits have a good chance as ingredients or foods with functional properties.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Miao Chen ◽  
Dian Jing ◽  
Rui Ye ◽  
Jianru Yi ◽  
Zhihe Zhao

Abstract Background Diabetic patients are more vulnerable to skeletal complications. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ has a positive regulatory effect on bone turnover under physiologic glucose concentration; however, the regulatory effect in diabetes mellitus has not been investigated yet. Herein, we explored the effects of PPARβ/δ agonist on the regeneration of diabetic bone defects and the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) under a pathological high-glucose condition. Methods We detected the effect of PPARβ/δ agonist on osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in vitro and investigated the bone healing process in diabetic rats after PPARβ/δ agonist treatment in vivo. RNA sequencing was performed to detect the differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways. Western blot was performed to detect the autophagy-related protein level. Laser confocal microscope (LSCM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to observe the formation of autophagosomes. Results Our results demonstrated that the activation of PPARβ/δ can improve the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in high-glucose condition and promote the bone regeneration of calvarial defects in diabetic rats, while the inhibition of PPARβ/δ alleviated the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Mechanistically, the activation of PPARβ/δ up-regulates AMPK phosphorylation, yielding mTOR suppression and resulting in enhanced autophagy activity, which further promotes the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in high-glucose condition. The addition of AMPK inhibitor Compound C or autophagy inhibitor 3-MA inhibited the osteogenesis of rBMSCs in high-glucose condition, suggesting that PPARβ/δ agonist promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs through AMPK/mTOR-regulated autophagy. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrates the potential role of PPARβ/δ as a molecular target for the treatment of impaired bone quality and delayed bone healing in diabetic patients for the first time.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6577
Yi-Ju Chen ◽  
Ching-Fang Chang ◽  
Jayaraman Angayarkanni ◽  
Wan-Teng Lin

Sarcopenia is an aging associated disorder involving skeletal muscle atrophy and a reduction in muscle strength, and there are no pharmaceutical interventions available thus far. Moreover, conditions such as hyperglycaemia are known to further intensify muscle degradation. Therefore, novel strategies to attenuate skeletal muscle loss are essential to enhance muscle function and thereby improve the quality of life in diabetic individuals. In this study, we have investigated the efficiency of a potato peptide hydrolysate PPH902 for its cytoprotective effects in skeletal muscle cells. PPH902 treatment in C2C12 cells showed the dose-dependent activation of the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway that is involved in skeletal myogenesis. According to Western blotting analysis, PPH902 induced the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR proteins and induced the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in a differentiation medium. The phosphorylation myogenic transcription factor Foxo3A was also found to be increased in the cells treated with PPH902. In addition, treatment with PPH902 ameliorated the high glucose induced reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the number of myotubes in a differentiation medium reduced upon high glucose challenge, but treatment with PPH902 increased the number of differentiated myotubes. Further, the phosphorylations of AMPK and mitochondrial-related transcription factors such as PGC-1α were suppressed upon high glucose challenge but PPH902 treatment restored the protein levels. We demonstrate, for the first time, that a specific potato peptide has a therapeutic effect against sarcopenia. In addition, PPH902 improved the myogenic differentiation and their mitochondrial biogenesis and further improved myogenic protein and inhibited muscle protein degradation in C2C12 cells challenged under a high glucose condition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Vivek Kumar Soni ◽  
Arundhati Mehta ◽  
Yashwant Kumar Ratre ◽  
Vikas Chandra ◽  
Dhananjay Shukla ◽  

Along with direct anticancer activity, curcumin hinders the onset of chemoresistance. Among many, high glucose condition is a key driving factor for chemoresistance. However, the ability of curcumin remains unexplored against high glucose-induced chemoresistance. Moreover, chemoresistance is major hindrance in effective clinical management of liver cancer. Using hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells, the present investigation demonstrates that high glucose induces chemoresistance, which is averted by the simultaneous presence of curcumin. Curcumin obviated the hyperglycemia-induced modulations like elevated glucose consumption, lactate production, and extracellular acidification, and diminished nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Modulated molecular regulators are suggested to play a crucial role as curcumin pretreatment also prevented the onset of chemoresistance by high glucose. High glucose instigated suppression in the intracellular accumulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin and drug-induced chromatin compactness along with declined expression of drug efflux pump MDR-1 and transcription factors and signal transducers governing the survival, aggressiveness, and apoptotic cell death (p53, HIF-1α, mTOR, MYC, STAT3). Curcumin alleviated the suppression of drug retention and nuclear condensation along with hindering the high glucose-induced alterations in transcription factors and signal transducers. High glucose-driven resistance in cancer cells was associated with elevated expression of metabolic enzymes HKII, PFK1, GAPDH, PKM2, LDH-A, IDH3A, and FASN. Metabolite transporters and receptors (GLUT-1, MCT-1, MCT-4, and HCAR-1) were also found upregulated in high glucose exposed HepG2 cells. Curcumin inhibited the elevated expression of these enzymes, transporters, and receptors in cancer cells. Curcumin also uplifted the SDH expression, which was inhibited in high glucose condition. Taken together, the findings of the present investigation first time demonstrate the ability of curcumin against high glucose-induced chemoresistance, along with its molecular mechanism. This will have implication in therapeutic management of malignancies in diabetic conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e001898
Xindan Xing ◽  
Hanying Wang ◽  
Tian Niu ◽  
Yan Jiang ◽  
Xin Shi ◽  

IntroductionThis study aims to determine whether high glucose condition and dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification can promote the proliferation and migration of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and whether Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) could mediate the glucose and O-GlcNAc-driven proliferation and migration of HRMECs.Research design and methodsWestern blot analysis was used to detect the O-GlcNAc modification level and RUNX1 level in cells and retina tissues, cell growth was studied by cell counting kit-8 assay, cell proliferation was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Then, cell migration and tube formation were investigated by scratch-wound assay, Transwell assay, and tube-forming assay. The changes of retinal structure were detected by H&E staining. The O-GlcNAc modification of RUNX1 was detected by immunoprecipitation.ResultsHigh glucose increases pan-cellular O-GlcNAc modification and the proliferation and migration of HRMECs. Hence, O-GlcNAc modification is critical for the proliferation and migration of HRMECs. RUNX1 mediates the glucose and O-GlcNAc-driven proliferation and migration in HRMECs. RUNX1 can be modified by O-GlcNAc, and that the modification is enhanced in a high glucose environment.ConclusionsThe present study reveals that high glucose condition directly affects retinal endothelial cells (EC) function, and O-GlcNAc modification is critical for the proliferation and migration of HRMECs, RUNX1 may take part in this mechanism, and maybe the function of RUNX1 is related to its O-GlcNAc modification level, which provides a new perspective for studying the mechanism of RUNX1 in diabetic retinopathy.

2021 ◽  
Wu Luo ◽  
Gaojun Wu ◽  
Xiaojun Chen ◽  
Qiuyan Zhang ◽  
Chunpeng Zou ◽  

Abstract Background: Hyperglycemia-associated inflammation contributes to adverse remodeling and fibrosis in diabetic heart. MyD88 is an adapter protein of many Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is recruited to TLRs to initiate inflammatory signalling pathway in endotoxin-activated innate immunity. However, the role of MyD88 in diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. Methods: For genetic deficiency, cardiomyocyte-specific MyD88 knockout and littermate control mice were induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg/day streptozotocin for five days consecutive and then fed for 4 moths. For pharmacological inhibition, MyD88 inhibitor LM8 were administered daily for 8 weeks by oral gavage in T1D and T2D (db/db) mice. The effect of genetic and pharmacological inhibition MyD88 to myocardial injure which were induced by 33 mM glucose in vivo.Results: In this study, we first found that MyD88 expression was increased in cardiomyocytes of diabetic mouse hearts. Cardiomyocyte-specific MyD88 knockout protected mice against hyperglycemia-induced cardiac inflammation, injury, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in T1D model. In cultured cardiomyocytes, MyD88 inhibition either by siRNA or by small-molecular inhibitor LM8 markedly blocked TLR4-MyD88 complex formation, reduced pro-inflammatory MAPKs/NF-κB cascade activation and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression under high glucose condition. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of MyD88 by LM8 showed significantly anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic effects in the hearts of both T1D and T2D mice. These beneficial effects of MyD88 inhibition were correlated to the reduced activation of TLR4-MyD88-MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathways in the hearts.Conclusion: Taken together, MyD88 in cardiomyocytes mediates diabetes-induced cardiac inflammatory injuries and genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of MyD88 shows significantly cardioprotective effects, indicating MyD88 as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic cardiomyopathy.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11817
Yang Yang ◽  
Jing Zhou ◽  
Wei hong Li ◽  
Zhi xiong Zhou ◽  
Xiao bo Xia

Aim Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is the key of the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and lncRNA NEAT1 could accelerate EMT in diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile, as a diabetes susceptibility gene, whether sex-determining region Y-related (SRY) high-mobility group box 4 (SOX4) has relationship with lncRNA NEAT1 in DR remains unclear. Methods Firstly, NEAT1, SOX4 and miR-204 were evaluated by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR) under high glucose condition. Then, cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion were respectively detected by MTT, BrdU staining, wound healing and transwell assay after NEAT1 knockdown or miR-204 overexpression. Also, the EMT-related proteins were examined by western blot and cell immunofluorescence assay. In order to confirm the relationship between miR-204 and NEAT1 or SOX4, dual luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted. At the same time, the protein levels of SOX4 and EMT-related proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry in vivo. Results High glucose upregulated NEAT1 and SOX4 and downregulated miR-204 in ARPE19 cells. NEAT1 knockdown or miR-204 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and EMT progression of ARPE19 cells induced by high glucose. NEAT1 was identified as a molecular sponge of miR-204 to increase the level of SOX4. The effect of NEAT1 knockdown on the progression of EMT under high glucose condition in ARPE19 cells could be reversed by miR-204 inhibitor. Also, NEAT1 knockdown inhibited retinal EMT in diabetic mice. Conclusion NEAT1 regulated the development of EMT in DR through miR-204/SOX4 pathway, which could provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment.

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