cellular homeostasis
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Yifan Ren ◽  
Wuming Liu ◽  
Jia Zhang ◽  
Jianbin Bi ◽  
Meng Fan ◽  

Excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of exocrine acinar damage in acute pancreatitis. Our previous study found that milk fat globule EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), a lipophilic glycoprotein, alleviates acinar cell damage during AP via binding to αvβ3/5 integrins. Ligand-dependent integrin-FAK activation of STAT3 was reported to be of great importance for maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, MFG-E8’s role in ER stress in pancreatic exocrine acinar cells has not been evaluated. To study this, thapsigargin, brefeldin A, tunicamycin and cerulein + LPS were used to induce ER stress in rat pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. L-arginine- and cerulein + LPS-induced acute pancreatitis in mice were used to study ER stress in vivo. The results showed that MFG-E8 dose-dependently inhibited ER stress under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. MFG-E8 knockout mice suffered more severe ER stress and greater inflammatory response after L-arginine administration. Mechanistically, MFG-E8 increased phosphorylation of FAK and STAT3 in cerulein + LPS-treated pancreatic acinar cells. The presence of specific inhibitors of αvβ3/5 integrin, FAK or STAT3 abolished MFG-E8’s effect on cerulein + LPS-induced ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, MFG-E8 maintains cellular homeostasis by alleviating ER stress in pancreatic exocrine acinar cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 787
Giada Mondanelli ◽  
Claudia Volpi ◽  
Ciriana Orabona

Among the 20 amino acids needed for protein synthesis, Tryptophan (Trp) is an aromatic amino acid fundamental not only for the synthesis of the major components of living cells (namely, the proteins), but also for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis [...]

Archna Ravi ◽  
Lavinia Palamiuc ◽  
Brooke M. Emerling

While organelles are individual compartments with specialized functions, it is becoming clear that organellar communication is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. This cooperation is carried out by various interactions taking place on the membranes of organelles. The membranes themselves contain a multitude of proteins and lipids that mediate these connections and one such class of molecules facilitating these relations are the phospholipids. There are several phospholipids, but the focus of this perspective is on a minor group called the phosphoinositides and specifically, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2). This phosphoinositide, on intracellular membranes, is largely generated by the non-canonical Type II PIPKs, namely, Phosphotidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinases (PI5P4Ks). These evolutionarily conserved enzymes are emerging as key stress response players in cells. Further, PI5P4Ks have been shown to modulate pathways by regulating organelle crosstalk, revealing roles in preserving metabolic homeostasis. Here we will attempt to summarize the functions of the PI5P4Ks and their product PI-4,5-P2 in facilitating inter-organelle communication and how they impact cellular health as well as their relevance to human diseases.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 324
Igor Y. Iskusnykh ◽  
Anastasia A. Zakharova ◽  
Dhruba Pathak

Glutathione is a remarkably functional molecule with diverse features, which include being an antioxidant, a regulator of DNA synthesis and repair, a protector of thiol groups in proteins, a stabilizer of cell membranes, and a detoxifier of xenobiotics. Glutathione exists in two states—oxidized and reduced. Under normal physiological conditions of cellular homeostasis, glutathione remains primarily in its reduced form. However, many metabolic pathways involve oxidization of glutathione, resulting in an imbalance in cellular homeostasis. Impairment of glutathione function in the brain is linked to loss of neurons during the aging process or as the result of neurological diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. The exact mechanisms through which glutathione regulates brain metabolism are not well understood. In this review, we will highlight the common signaling cascades that regulate glutathione in neurons and glia, its functions as a neuronal regulator in homeostasis and metabolism, and finally a mechanistic recapitulation of glutathione signaling. Together, these will put glutathione’s role in normal aging and neurological disorders development into perspective.

Dhriti Kapoor ◽  
Priyanka Sharma ◽  
Upma Arora ◽  
Vandana Gautam ◽  
Savita Bhardwaj ◽  

2022 ◽  
Shahi Imam Reja ◽  
Yuichiro Hori ◽  
Takuya Kamikawa ◽  
Kohei Yamasaki ◽  
Miyako Nishiura ◽  

The ability to monitor proteolytic pathways that remove unwanted and damaged proteins from cells is essential for understanding the multiple processes used to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study, we...

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 95-101
Chan Rong ◽  
Xin Xu

Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipocytokine produced predominantly by adipocytes, with potent antiinflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, and cytoprotective properties. Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent self-degradative process that mediates the degradation of damaged organelles, invading pathogens and protein aggregates, thus maintaining cellular homeostasis. Adiponectin performs different biological functions by regulating autophagy. This review attempts to elucidate the biological responses and potential mechanisms underlying adiponectin-induced autophagy, with an aim to guide the identification of new therapeutic targets of related diseases. Keywords: Adiponectin, adiponectin receptors, autophagy

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Nana Ma ◽  
Guozhen Wei ◽  
Hongzhu Zhang ◽  
Hongyu Dai ◽  
Animesh Chandra Roy ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the dominating endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, which can cause mastitis. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs), as major components of the mammary gland, usually suffer LPS challenge. Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory characteristics, while its anti-oxidative ability to maintain cellular homeostasis in BMECs under LPS challenge is limited. Therefore, we studied whether cis-9, trans-11 CLA can restore the disturbance of cellular homeostasis indicated by the redox status and autophagy level caused by LPS and have an effect on cellular function- milk fat metabolism. For oxidative stress, LPS challenge promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased the concentration of glutathione. Anti-oxidative signaling regulated by transcription factor nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) was also depressed by LPS at the mRNA and protein level. However, cis-9, trans-11 CLA pretreatment downregulated the formation of ROS and TBARS and upregulated the expression of antioxidative enzymes. As a part of innate immunity, autophagy was also motivated by LPS challenge, while CLA decreased the autophagy level. LPS and H2O2 inhibited milk fat synthesis-related transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and their downstream enzymes. Furthermore, 50 uM cis-9, trans-11 CLA promoted the mRNA and protein abundance of milk fat synthesis-related genes and lipid droplet formation in BMECs. In conclusion, LPS challenge disturbed the cellular homeostasis and depressed milk fat synthesis in BMECs; while cis-9, trans-11 CLA alleviated oxidative stress and decreased autophagy level, thus promoting milk fat synthesis, which offers a natural therapeutic strategy for mastitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Wanqi Huang ◽  
Tianchu Huang ◽  
Yusi Liu ◽  
Jialin Fu ◽  
Xiaowei Wei ◽  

AbstractImpaired autophagy and excessive apoptosis disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to neural tube defects (NTDs), which are a group of fatal and disabling birth defects caused by the failure of neural tube closure during early embryonic development. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying NTDs and outcomes remain elusive. Here, we report the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor I-C (NFIC) in maintaining cellular homeostasis in NTDs. We demonstrated that abnormally elevated levels of NFIC in a mouse model of NTDs can interact with the miR-200b promoter, leading to the activation of the transcription of miR-200b, which plays a critical role in NTD formation, as reported in our previous study. Furthermore, miR-200b represses autophagy and triggers apoptosis by directly targeting the autophagy-related gene Ambra1 (Autophagy/Beclin1 regulator 1). Notably, miR-200b inhibitors mitigate the unexpected effects of NFIC on autophagy and apoptosis. Collectively, these results indicate that the NFIC-miR-200b-Ambra1 axis, which integrates transcription- and epigenome-regulated miRNAs and an autophagy regulator, disrupts cellular homeostasis during the closure of the neural tube, and may provide new insight into NTD pathogenesis.

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