diversity indices
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
S. Gul ◽  
D. Bibi ◽  
A. Andaleeb ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher’s Index (2.269) and Margalef’s Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 251
Subhomita Ghosh Ghosh Roy ◽  
Charles F. Wimpee ◽  
S. Andrew McGuire ◽  
Timothy J. Ehlinger

Urbanization results in higher stormwater loadings of pollutants such as metals and nutrients into surface waters. This directly impacts organisms in aquatic ecosystems, including microbes. Sediment microbes are known for pollution reduction in the face of contamination, making bacterial communities an important area for bioindicator research. This study explores the pattern of bacterial responses to metal and nutrient pollution loading and seeks to evaluate whether bacterial indicators can be effective as a biomonitoring risk assessment tool for wetland ecosystems. Microcosms were built containing sediments collected from wetlands in the urbanizing Pike River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin, USA, with metals and nutrients added at 7 day intervals. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the microcosm sediments, and taxonomical profiles of bacterial communities were identified up to the genera level by sequencing 16S bacterial rRNA gene (V3–V4 region). Reduction of metals (example: 90% for Pb) and nutrients (example: 98% for NO3−) added in water were observed. The study found correlations between diversity indices of genera with metal and nutrient pollution as well as identified specific genera (including Fusibacter, Aeromonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Bdellovibrio, and Chlorobium) as predictive bioindicators for ecological risk assessment for metal pollution.

2022 ◽  
Brenda Martínez-González ◽  
María Eugenia Soria ◽  
Lucia Vazquez-Sirvent ◽  
Cristina Ferrer-Orta ◽  
Rebeca Lobo-Vega ◽  

Mutant spectra of RNA viruses are important to understand viral pathogenesis, and response to selective pressures. There is a need to characterize the complexity of mutant spectra in coronaviruses sampled from infected patients. In particular, the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2 mutant spectrum complexity and disease associations has not been established. In the present study, we report an ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) analysis of the mutant spectrum of amplicons from the nsp12 (polymerase)- and spike (S)-coding regions of thirty nasopharyngeal isolates (diagnostic samples) of SARS-CoV-2 of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave (Madrid, Spain, April 2020) classified according to the severity of ensuing COVID-19. Low frequency mutations and deletions, counted relative to the consensus sequence of the corresponding isolate, were overwhelmingly abundant. We show that the average number of different point mutations, mutations per haplotype and several diversity indices was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 isolated from patients who developed mild disease than in those associated with moderate or severe disease (exitus). No such bias was observed with RNA deletions. Location of amino acid substitutions in the three dimensional structures of nsp12 (polymerase) and S suggest significant structural or functional effects. Thus, patients who develop mild symptoms may be a richer source of genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 than patients with moderate or severe COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Yanxian Li ◽  
Karina Gajardo ◽  
Alexander Jaramillo-Torres ◽  
Trond M. Kortner ◽  
Åshild Krogdahl

Abstract Background Being part of fish's natural diets, insects have become a practical alternative feed ingredient for aquaculture. While nutritional values of insects have been extensively studied in various fish species, their impact on the fish microbiota remains to be fully explored. In an 8-week freshwater feeding trial, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed either a commercially relevant reference diet or an insect meal diet wherein black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal comprised 60% of total ingredients. Microbiota of digesta and mucosa origin from the proximal and distal intestine were collected and profiled along with feed and water samples. Results The insect meal diet markedly modulated the salmon intestinal microbiota. Salmon fed the insect meal diet showed similar or lower alpha-diversity indices in the digesta but higher alpha-diversity indices in the mucosa. A group of bacterial genera, dominated by members of the Bacillaceae family, was enriched in salmon fed the insect meal diet, which confirms our previous findings in a seawater feeding trial. We also found that microbiota in the intestine closely resembled that of the feeds but was distinct from the water microbiota. Notably, bacterial genera associated with the diet effects were also present in the feeds. Conclusions We conclude that salmon fed the insect meal diets show consistent changes in the intestinal microbiota. The next challenge is to evaluate the extent to which these alterations are attributable to feed microbiota and dietary nutrients, and what these changes mean for fish physiology and health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Lili Nan ◽  
Quanen Guo ◽  
Shiyu Cao ◽  
Zongbing Zhan

Abstract Background The saline-alkali soil area accounts for over 1/4-1/5 of the land area in Gansu Province of China, which are mainly distributed in the north of Hexi corridor and Jingtai basin. The unique ecological environment contains unique and diverse microbial resources. The investigation of microbial diversity in saline environment is vital to comprehend the biological mechanisms of saline adaption, develop and utilize microbial resources. Results The Illumina MiSeq sequencing method was practiced to investigate the bacterial diversity and composition in the 5 subtypes and 13 genera of saline-alkali soil in Gansu Province, China. The results from this study show that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Gemmatimonadetes were the dominant bacterial groups in 13 saline soil. Proteobacteria had the greatest abundance in sulfate-type meadow solonchaks and orthic solonchaks, chloride-type orthic solonchaks and bog solonchaks, sulfate-chloride-type, chloride-sulfate-type, and sulfate-type dry solonchaks. Halobacteria was the dominant bacterial class in soil samples except for sulfate-type meadow solonchaks and orthic solonchaks, chloride-type orthic solonchaks and bog solonchaks. The richness estimators of Ace and Chao 1 and the diversity indices of Shannon and Simpson revealed the least diversity in bacterial community in sulfate-chloride-type orthic solonchaks. Conclusions The sulfate anion was the most important driving force for bacterial composition (17.7%), and the second most influencing factor was pH value (11.7%).

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Kenneth Otieno Onditi ◽  
Wen-Yu Song ◽  
Xue-You Li ◽  
Zhong-Zheng Chen ◽  
Quan Li ◽  

Mountains of the Afrotropics are global biodiversity hotspots and centers of speciation and endemism; however, very few studies have focused on the phylogenetic and functional dimensions of Afromontane small mammals. We investigated the patterns and mechanisms of small mammal phylogenetic and functional diversity and assembly along elevational gradients in Mount Kenya, the second highest mountain in Africa, and a contrasting low mountain range, Chyulu Hills. We sampled 24 200-m interval transects in both sites; 18 in Mt. Kenya (9 each in the windward side, Chogoria, and the leeward side, Sirimon) and 6 in Chyulu. We extracted the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene to reconstruct a time-calibrated species tree for estimating phylogenetic diversity indices [phylogenetic richness (PD), mean nearest taxon distance (PDMNTD), and nearest taxon index (PDNTI)]. A functional trait data set was compiled from the field-recorded measurements and published data sets for estimating functional diversity indices [functional richness (FD), mean nearest taxon distance (FDMNTD), and nearest taxon index (FDNTI)]. Several environmental variables representing water-energy availability, primary habitat productivity, and topographic heterogeneity were used to estimate the predictive power of abiotic conditions on diversity variances using generalized linear and generalized additive regression models. The PD and FD peaked around mid-elevations in Mt. Kenya, unimodally increased or decreased in Chogoria and Sirimon, and monotonically increased in Chyulu. The divergence and community structure indices—PDMNTD, FDMNTD, and PDNTI and FDNTI—were relatively weakly associated with elevation. Overall, the tendency of assemblages to be phylogenetically and functionally closely related than expected by chance decreased with elevation in Mt. Kenya but increased in Chyulu. Across the indices, the annual precipitation and topographic ruggedness were the strongest predictors in Mt. Kenya, evapotranspiration and temperature seasonality were the strongest predictors in Chyulu, while temperature seasonality and terrain ruggedness overlapped as the strongest predictors in Chogoria and Sirimon in addition to annual precipitation in the latter and normalized difference vegetation index in the former. The observed contrasting trends in diversity distribution and the strongest predictors between elevational gradients are integral to the sustainable management of the high faunal biodiversity in tropical Afromontane ecosystems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura J. Myhill ◽  
Sophie Stolzenbach ◽  
Helena Mejer ◽  
Lukasz Krych ◽  
Simon R. Jakobsen ◽  

Dietary probiotics may enhance gut health by directly competing with pathogenic agents and through immunostimulatory effects. These properties are recognized in the context of bacterial and viral pathogens, but less is known about interactions with eukaryotic pathogens such as parasitic worms (helminths). In this study we investigated whether two probiotic mixtures (comprised of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and Enterococcus faecium [BBE], or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies Lactis Bb12 [LB]) could modulate helminth infection kinetics as well as the gut microbiome and intestinal immune responses in pigs infected with the nodular worm Oesophagostomum dentatum. We observed that neither probiotic mixture influenced helminth infection levels. BBE, and to a lesser extent LB, changed the alpha- and beta-diversity indices of the colon and fecal microbiota, notably including an enrichment of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. by BBE. However, these effects were muted by concurrent O. dentatum infection. BBE (but not LB) significantly attenuated the O. dentatum-induced upregulation of genes involved in type-2 inflammation and restored normal lymphocyte ratios in the ileo-caecal lymph nodes that were altered by infection. Moreover, inflammatory cytokine release from blood mononuclear cells and intestinal lymphocytes was diminished by BBE. Collectively, our data suggest that selected probiotic mixtures can play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis during type 2-biased inflammation. In addition, potentially beneficial changes in the microbiome induced by dietary probiotics may be counteracted by helminths, highlighting the complex inter-relationships that potentially exist between probiotic bacteria and intestinal parasites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mengyu Wang ◽  
Nan Lu ◽  
Nannan An ◽  
Bojie Fu

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) is crucial for understanding the processes of ecological restoration in semi-arid regions. However, partitioning the relative influence of various biodiversity attributes, namely taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity, on EMF during secondary succession is still unclear. This study aimed to bridge the gap by employing field measurements and the chronosequence approach at 21 plots with different stand ages and precipitation conditions on the Loess Plateau of China. For diversity indices, we calculated the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, Simpson’s dominance index, Pielou evenness index, community weighted mean (CWM), functional variance (FDvar), and Faith’s phylogenetic diversity (PD) based on the empirically measured composition and traits of plant species. The EMF was expressed as the averaged value of eight function variables (including aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil total carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus content, soil organic carbon, available nitrogen and available phosphorus content). The results showed that species evenness and CWM of leaf dry matter content (LDMC) significantly increased yet the CWM of specific leaf area (SLA) decreased with stand age, indicating the resource-use strategy of the plants became more conservative through succession into its later stages. The EMF increased with both stand age and mean annual precipitation. The structural equation model revealed that stand age, soil water content (SWC), and the multiple diversity indices altogether accounted for 56.0% of the variation in the EMF. PD and the CWMs of plant height and LDMC had positive effects on the EMF, and the FDvar of leaf nitrogen had negative effects on EMF. However, the Shannon Wiener diversity had no significant effect on the EMF. Our results suggest that functional and phylogenetic diversity are more important than taxonomic diversity in predicting EMF, and that multidimensional biodiversity indices should be jointly considered to better predict EMF during the succession of semiarid grasslands.

Lei Huang ◽  
Haipeng Guo ◽  
Zidan Liu ◽  
Chen Chen ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  

AbstractSupplementing exogenous carbon sources is a practical approach to improving shrimp health by manipulating the microbial communities of aquaculture systems. However, little is known about the microbiological processes and mechanisms of these systems. Here, the effects of glucose addition on shrimp growth performance and bacterial communities of the rearing water and the shrimp gut were investigated to address this knowledge gap. The results showed that glucose addition significantly improved the growth and survival of shrimp. Although the α-diversity indices of both bacterioplankton communities and gut microbiota were significantly decreased by adding glucose, both bacterial communities exhibited divergent response patterns to glucose addition. Glucose addition induced a dispersive bacterioplankton community but a more stable gut bacterial community. Bacterial taxa belonging to Ruegeria were significantly enriched by glucose in the guts, especially the operational taxonomic unit 2575 (OTU2575), which showed the highest relative importance to the survival rate and individual weight of shrimp, with the values of 43.8 and 40.6%, respectively. In addition, glucose addition increased the complexity of interspecies interactions within gut bacterial communities and the network nodes from Rhodobacteraceae accounted for higher proportions and linked more with the nodes from other taxa in the glucose addition group than that in control. These findings suggest that glucose addition may provide a more stable gut microbiota for shrimp by increasing the abundance of certain bacterial taxa, such as Ruegeria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 279-284
S. Barathy ◽  
T. Sivaruban ◽  
Srinivasan Pandiarajan ◽  
Isack Rajasekaran ◽  
M. Bernath Rosi

In the study on the diversity and community structure of Ephemeroptera in the freshwater stream of Chinnasuruli falls on Megamalai hills, a total of 523 specimens belonging to thirteen genera and five families were collected in six month periods. Of the five families, Teloganodidae and Leptophlebiidae exhibited high diversity and Caenidae showed low diversity. Choroterpes alagarensis (Leptophlebiidae) is the most dominant species. Diversity indices such as Shannon and Simpson indices showed that diversity was maximum in November and December and it was minimum in August and January. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that rainfall, water flow, turbidity, and air temperature were the major stressors in affecting the Ephemeropteran community structure.

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