in ovo
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Akshat Goel ◽  
Chris Major Ncho ◽  
Chae-Mi Jeong ◽  
Yang-Ho Choi

Chickens are exposed to numerous types of stress from hatching to shipping, influencing poultry production. Embryonic manipulation may develop resistance against several stressors. This study investigates the effects of thermoneutral temperature (T0; 37.8°C) with no injection (N0) (T0N0), T0 with 0.6 ml of 10% in ovo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation (N1) at 17.5th embryonic day (ED) (T0N1), thermal manipulation (T1) at 39.6°C from the 10th to 18th ED (6 h/day) with N0 (T1N0), and T1 with N1 (T1N1) on hatchability parameters and hepatic expression of stress-related genes in day-old Arbor Acres chicks. The parameters determined were hatchability, body weight (BW), organ weight, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant-related gene expression. Percent hatchability was calculated on a fertile egg basis. Growth performance was analyzed using each chick as an experimental unit. Eight birds per group were used for organ weight. Two-way ANOVA was used taking temperature and GABA as the main effect for growth performance and gene expression studies. Analysis was performed using an IBM SPSS statistics software package 25.0 (IBM software, Chicago, IL, USA). Hatchability was similar in all the groups and was slightly lower in the T1N1. Higher BW was recorded in both T1 and N1. Intestinal weight and MDA were higher in T0N1 against T0N0 and T1N1, respectively. The expression of HSP70, HSP90, NOX1, and NOX4 genes was higher and SOD and CAT genes were lower in the T1 group. The present results show that T1 and N1 independently improve the BW of broiler chicks at hatch, but T1 strongly regulates stress-related gene expression and suggests that both T1 and N1 during incubation can improve performance and alleviate stress after hatch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Charlotte Andrieux ◽  
Angélique Petit ◽  
Anne Collin ◽  
Marianne Houssier ◽  
Sonia Métayer-Coustard ◽  

Early development is a critical period during which environmental influences can have a significant impact on the health, welfare, robustness and performance of livestock. In oviparous vertebrates, such as birds, embryonic development takes place entirely in the egg. This allows the effects of environmental cues to be studied directly on the developing embryo. Interestingly, beneficial effects have been identified in several studies, leading to innovative procedures to improve the phenotype of the animals in the long term. In this review, we discuss the effects of early temperature and dietary programming strategies that both show promising results, as well as their potential transgenerational effects. The timing, duration and intensity of these procedures are critical to ensure that they produce beneficial effects without affecting animal survival or final product quality. For example, cyclic increases in egg incubation temperature have been shown to improve temperature tolerance and promote muscular growth in chickens or fatty liver production in mule ducks. In ovo feeding has also been successfully used to enhance digestive tract maturation, optimize chick development and growth, and thus obtain higher quality chicks. In addition, changes in the nutritional availability of methyl donors, for example, was shown to influence offspring phenotype. The molecular mechanisms behind early phenotype programming are still under investigation and are probably epigenetic in nature as shown by recent work in chickens.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Mayada R. Farag ◽  
Mahmoud Alagawany ◽  
Attia A. A. Moselhy ◽  
Enas N. Said ◽  
Tamer A. Ismail ◽  

The present experiment was performed to investigate the toxic impact of thiacloprid (TH) on the brain of developing chicken embryos and also to measure its influence on the behavioral responses of hatchlings. The role of chicoric acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) in modulating the resulted effects was also investigated. The chicken eggs were in ovo inoculated with TH at different doses (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ug/egg). TH increased the mortality and abnormality rates and altered the neurochemical parameters of exposed embryos dose-dependently. TH also decreased the brain level of monoamines and amino acid neurotransmitters and decreased the activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and Na+/K+-ATPase. The brain activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was diminished with downregulation of their mRNA expressions in the brain tissue. When TH was co-administered with CA and RA, the toxic impacts of the insecticide were markedly attenuated, and they showed a complementary effect when used in combination. Taken together, these findings suggested that TH is neurotoxic to chicken embryos and is possibly neurotoxic to embryos of other vertebrates. The findings also demonstrated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of CA and RA. Based on the present findings, the CA and RA can be used as invaluable ameliorative of TH-induced toxicity.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
José Martín Ruvalcaba-Gómez ◽  
Zuamí Villagrán ◽  
Juan José Valdez-Alarcón ◽  
Marcelino Martínez-Núñez ◽  
Lorena Jacqueline Gomez-Godínez ◽  

Salmonella spp. is a facultative intracellular pathogen causing localized or systemic infections, involving economic and public health significance, and remains the leading pathogen of food safety concern worldwide, with poultry being the primary transmission vector. Antibiotics have been the main strategy for Salmonella control for many years, which has allowed producers to improve the growth and health of food-producing animals. However, the utilization of antibiotics has been reconsidered since bacterial pathogens have established and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can quickly increase within microbial communities. The use of alternatives to antibiotics has been recommended and successfully applied in many countries, leading to the core aim of this review, focused on (1) describing the importance of Salmonella infection in poultry and the effects associated with the use of antibiotics for disease control; (2) discussing the use of feeding-based (prebiotics, probiotics, bacterial subproducts, phytobiotics) and non-feeding-based (bacteriophages, in ovo injection, vaccines) strategies in poultry production for Salmonella control; and (3) exploring the use of complementary strategies, highlighting those based on -omics tools, to assess the effects of using the available antibiotic-free alternatives and their role in lowering dependency on the existing antimicrobial substances to manage bacterial infections in poultry effectively.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101717
Mohammadali Alizadeh ◽  
Jake Astill ◽  
Nadiyah Alqazlan ◽  
Bahram Shojadoost ◽  
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz ◽  

Berceste Babaeker ◽  
Çiğdem Şeremet Tuğalay ◽  
Özer Hakan Bayraktar ◽  

M. Saravanakumar ◽  
A.V. Elangovan ◽  
V.B. Awachat ◽  
A.K. Pattanaik ◽  
A. Dhali ◽  

Background: In ovo supplementation of nutrients either amino acids or minerals in broiler chicken has been common more often individually or few nutrients with positive results. In view of the above, in ovo supplementation with combination of amino acids and minerals as a complete nutrient capsule for the gut and immune system development was tested for hatchability since the modern commercial broilers are very fragile to any changes in the internal environment. Methods: Four trials were conducted to study the response of in ovo supplementation of combinations of Lys, Met, Arg, Thr, Glu, Zn, Se and Cu on hatchability of broiler eggs. In trial I, the fertile eggs on day 18 were divided into five groups of 32 eggs in each group. Group I served as control without any amino acids and mineral supplementation. Group II, III, IV and V supplemented with Lys, Met, Arg, Thr, Glu, Zn, Se and Cu @ 2.2, 1, 2.5, 1.6, 2.5 mg, 80, 0.3, 16 µg; 4.4, 2, 5, 3.2, 5 mg, 80, 0.3, 16 µg; 11, 5, 12.5, 8, 12.5 mg, 80, 0.3, 16 µg and 22, 10, 25, 16, 25 mg, 80, 0.3, 18 µg respectively. In trial II, seventy fertile eggs were divided into seven groups, Group I served as control. Group II, III, IV, V, VI and VII were supplemented with graded levels (1x to 6x) of amino acids. The 1x consisted of Lys, Met, Arg, Thr and Glu @ 2.2, 1, 2.5, 1.6 and 2.5 mg, respectively. On day 18, 10 eggs per group were supplemented with graded levels of AA combination into the amniotic fluid. In trail III and IV it was similar to trial II but was without Lys and Met, respectively. Result: Results indicated that hatchability (Trial 1) in Group V, IV, III, II and I were 0, 18, 21.8, 71 and 90.6%, respectively. The Combination of five amino acids (Trial II) (Lys, Met, Thr, Arg, Glu) for in ovo supplementation reduced the hatchability, whereas, combination of four amino acids (Trial III) (Met, Thr, Arg, Glu) without Lys at lower doses resulted in good hatchability (86.6%). In ovo supplementation of amino acid or mineral-amino acid combinations in commercial broiler eggs should be restricted to few amino acids.

Maria de Fátima de Souza Andrade ◽  
Alexandre Lemos de Barros Moreira Filho ◽  
Eudes Fernando Alves da Silva ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto ◽  

2021 ◽  
Filipa Rombo Matias ◽  
Ian Groves ◽  
Mari Herigstad

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that can be lethal in large doses and may also cause physiological damage in lower doses. Epidemiological studies suggest that CO in lower doses over time may impact on embryo development, in particular cardiac development, however other studies have not observed this association. Here, we exposed chick embryos in ovo to CO at three different concentrations (1ppm, 8ppm, 25ppm) plus air control (4 protocols in total) for the first nine days of development, at which point we assessed egg and embryo weight, ankle length, developmental stage, heart weight and ventricular wall thickness. We found that heart weight was reduced for the low and moderate exposures compared to air, and that ventricular wall thickness was increased for the moderate and high exposures compared to air. Ventricular wall thickness was also significantly positively correlated with absolute CO exposures across all protocols. This intervention study thus suggests that CO even at very low levels may have a significant impact on cardiac development.

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