lead iodide
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 481
Jinyu Wu ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Qiao Kang ◽  
Hongxi Shi ◽  
Long Li ◽  

Carbon-based hole transport material (HTM)-free perovskite solar cells have exhibited a promising commercialization prospect, attributed to their outstanding stability and low manufacturing cost. However, the serious charge recombination at the interface of the carbon counter electrode and titanium dioxide (TiO2) suppresses the improvement in the carbon-based perovskite solar cells’ performance. Here, we propose a modified sequential deposition process in air, which introduces a mixed solvent to improve the morphology of lead iodide (PbI2) film. Combined with ethanol treatment, the preferred crystallization orientation of the PbI2 film is generated. This new deposition strategy can prepare a thick and compact methylammonium lead halide (MAPbI3) film under high-humidity conditions, which acts as a natural active layer that separates the carbon counter electrode and TiO2. Meanwhile, the modified sequential deposition method provides a simple way to facilitate the conversion of the ultrathick PbI2 capping layer to MAPbI3, as the light absorption layer. By adjusting the thickness of the MAPbI3 capping layer, we achieved a power conversation efficiency (PCE) of 12.5% for the carbon-based perovskite solar cells.

ChemSusChem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yajuan Yang ◽  
Jianghu Liang ◽  
Zhanfei Zhang ◽  
Congcong Tian ◽  
Xueyun Wu ◽  

Jiaxun Liu ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Anthony E Phillips ◽  
Peter B Wyatt ◽  
David A Keen ◽  

Abstract We report the results of a neutron powder diffraction study of the phase transitions in deuterated methylammonium lead iodide, with a focus on the system of orientational distortions of the framework of PbI6 octahedra. The results are analysed in terms of symmetry-adapted lattice strains and normal mode distortions. The higher-temperature cubic–tetragonal phase transition at 327 K is weakly discontinuous and nearly tricritical. The variations of rotation angles and spontaneous strains with temperature are consistent with a standard Landau theory treatment. The lower-temperature transition to the orthorhombic phase at 165 K is discontinuous, with two systems of octahedral rotations and internal distortions that together can be described by five order parameters of different symmetry. In this paper we quantify the various symmetry breaking distortions and their variation with temperature, together with their relationship to the spontaneous strains, within the formalism of Landau theory. A number of curious results in the low-temperature phase are identified, particularly regarding distortion amplitudes that decrease rather than increase with lowering temperature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Amal Bouich ◽  
Julia Marí-Guaita ◽  
Asmaa Bouich ◽  
Inmaculada Guaita Pradas ◽  
Bernabé Marí

Herein, we examine the impact of cations on the structural, morphological, optical properties and degradation of lead perovskite APbI3 (where A = MA, FA, Cs). Its structure, surface morphology and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrometer. The structure of perovskite thin films was found to be in the direction of (110) plane. It is seen from the XRD results that this kind of cation assumes a significant part in stabilising and improving the performance of APbI3 based solar cells. Here, the cesium lead iodide thin films show a smooth and homogenous surface and enormous grain size without pinhole perovskite film. An optical investigation uncovered that the band gap is in a range from 1.4 to 1.8 eV for the different cations. Additionally, in ~60% humidity under dark conditions for two weeks, the structural and optical properties of CsPbI3 films remained good. Furthermore, the efficiency of FTO/TIO2/CSPbI3/Spiro-Ometad/Au solar cells was calculated to be 21.48%.

2022 ◽  
Bo-Han Li ◽  
Huang Li ◽  
Zhipeng Xuan ◽  
Wen Zeng ◽  
Jia-Cheng Wang ◽  

Abstract Understanding the nature of photogenerated carriers and their subsequent dynamics in perovskites is important for the development of related materials and devices. Most ultrafast dynamic measurements on the perovskite materials were conducted under high carrier densities, which likely obscures the genuine dynamics at low carrier densities under solar illumination conditions. In this study, we presented a detailed experimental study of the carrier density-dependent dynamics in hybrid lead iodide perovskites using a highly sensitive transient absorption spectrometer. We found that the carrier lifetime was about a hundred nanosecond in the linear response range, representing sunlight excitation, which was much longer than under high carrier densities. We also elucidated that the fast carrier decay (<1 ps) and the medium decay processes (tens of ps) occurred via the defect state trapping, and we determined its effects on the utilization percentage of photogenerated carriers through quantitative analysis. Furthermore, we obtained the Shockley-Queisser limit that took into account the carrier trapping effect, which directly reflected the material performance.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Anthony Ruth ◽  
Michael Holland ◽  
Angus Rockett ◽  
Erin Sanehira ◽  
Michael Irwin ◽  

Metal halide perovskite materials (MHPs) are a family of next-generation semiconductors that are enabling low-cost, high-performance solar cells and optoelectronic devices. The most-used halogen in MHPs, iodine, can supplement its octet by covalent bonding resulting in atomic charges intermediate to I− and I0. Here, we examine theoretically stabilized defects of iodine using density functional theory (DFT); defect formation enthalpies and iodine Bader charges which illustrate how MHPs adapt to stoichiometry changes. Experimentally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to identify perovskite defects and their relative binding energies, and validate the predicted chemical environments of iodine defects. Examining MHP samples with excess iodine compared with near stoichiometric samples, we discern additional spectral intensity in the I 3d5/2 XPS data arising from defects, and support the presence of iodine trimers. I 3d5/2 defect peak areas reveal a ratio of 2:1, matching the number of atoms at the ends and middle of the trimer, whereas their binding energies agree with calculated Bader charges. Results suggest the iodine trimer is the preferred structural motif for incorporation of excess iodine into the perovskite lattice. Understanding these easily formed photoactive defects and how to identify their presence is essential for stabilizing MHPs against photodecomposition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jinming Wu ◽  
Yongqiang Zhang ◽  
Shuang Yang ◽  
Zhaolai Chen ◽  
Wei Zhu

Metal halide perovskite single-crystal detectors have attracted increasing attention due to the advantages of low noise, high sensitivity, and fast response. However, the narrow photoresponse range of widely investigated lead-based perovskite single crystals limit their application in near-infrared (NIR) detection. In this work, tin (Sn) is incorporated into methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) single crystals to extend the absorption range to around 950 nm. Using a space-confined strategy, MAPb0.5Sn0.5I3 single-crystal thin films with a thickness of 15 μm is obtained, which is applied for sensitive NIR detection. The as-fabricated detectors show a responsivity of 0.514 A/W and a specific detectivity of 1.4974×1011 cmHz1/2/W under 905 nm light illumination and –1V. Moreover, the NIR detectors exhibit good operational stability (∼30000 s), which can be attributed to the low trap density and good stability of perovskite single crystals. This work demonstrates an effective way for sensitive NIR detection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Muhammad Adnan ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Saqib Ali ◽  
Sofia Javed ◽  
Mohammad Islam ◽  

Rapid improvement in efficiency and stabilities of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is an indication of its prime role for future energy demands. Various research has been carried out to improve efficiency including reducing the exciton recombination and enhancement of electron mobilities within cells by using electron transport material (ETM). In the present research, electrical, optical, and depletion width reduction properties of low temperature processed ZnO electron transport layer-based perovskite solar cells are studied. The ZnO thin films vary with the concentration of Al doping, and improvement of optical transmission percentage up to 80% for doped samples is confirmed by optical analysis. Reduction in electrical resistance for 1% Al concentration and maximum conductivity 11,697.41 (1/Ω-cm) among the prepared samples and carrier concentration 1.06×1022 cm−3 were corroborated by Hall effect measurements. Systematic impedance spectroscopy of perovskite devices with synthesized ETM is presented in the study, while the depletion width reduction is observed by Mott Schottky curves. IV measurements of the device and the interfacial charge transfer between the absorber layer of methylammonium lead iodide and ETM have also been elaborated on interface electronic characteristics.

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