continuous irradiation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 935 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Author(s):  
N Kondrateva ◽  
R Bolshin ◽  
M Krasnolutskaya ◽  
A Baturin ◽  
K Baturina ◽  
...  

Abstract The article presents the influence of pulsed and continuous irradiation (400…780 nm) on in vitro growth of the climbing rose variety “Camelot” at the illumination of 80±5 mmol/(m2s), temperature - 24±10C, and the relative air humidity - 73±2%. It was found that the experimental led light (LED) pulsed phytoirradiator contributed to a significant increase in the leaf surface area during cultivation of climbing rose microstems in Gamborg’s nutrient medium, the average growth was 2.94 mm2 compared to 2.80 mm2 in the control. Pulse irradiation increases the reproducibility of climbing roses by 1.7 times, and also increases the rooting rate up to 96% compared to 82% in the control. Experimental LED phytoirradiator of continuous irradiation promoted an increase in the leaf surface area growth at the level of the control luminescent phytoirradiator, but also provided a significant increase in the reproduction factor and rooting rate of rose microstems. In the pulsed mode, phytoinstallations consume only 50% of the electricity compared to the continuous irradiation mode.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Waygen Thor ◽  
Yue Wu ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  
Yonghong Zhang ◽  
Peter A. Tanner ◽  
...  

AbstractEmission from the triplet state of an organo-lanthanide complex is observed only when the energy transfer to the lanthanide ion is absent. The triplet state lifetime under cryogenic conditions for organo-lanthanide compounds usually ranges up to tens of milliseconds. The compound LaL1(TTA)3 reported herein exhibits 77 K phosphorescence observable by the naked eye for up to 30 s. Optical spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT techniques have been applied to investigate the photophysical processes of this compound. In particular, on-off continuous irradiation cycles reveal a charging behaviour of the emission which is associated with triplet-triplet absorption because it shows a shorter rise lifetime than the corresponding decay lifetime and it varies with illumination intensity. The discovery of the behaviour of this compound provides insight into important photophysical processes of the triplet state of organo-lanthanide systems and may open new fields of application such as data encryption, anti-counterfeiting and temperature switching.


2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (7) ◽  
pp. 57-64
Author(s):  
Duc Bach Nguyen ◽  
◽  
Thi Cam Mien Phi ◽  
Anh Tuan Kim ◽  
Thi Hien Nguyen ◽  
...  

Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is cultured in Vietnam mainly as a functional food for humans and supplementary food for aquatic species. In the North, the most suitable time to cultivate Spirulina is from early May to late September. Other times, due to the decrease in light intensity and temperature, the growth of Spirulina significantly reduced and gave low yield, especially in the period from December to the end of February. This study investigated the influence of LEDs light on the growth of Spirulina during the periods from early March to late April (T3-T4), from early October to late November (T10-T11), and from early December to late February (T12-T2) in Hanoi. The results showed that the continuous irradiation of red LEDs increased the yield of Spirulina and pigments, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll in the two stages (T3-T4) and (T10-T11). The irradiation of both red and blue LEDs did not show a significant effect in the period T12-T2. Green LEDs did not significantly affect the growth of Spirulina. The research results provided an initial basis for the application of red LEDs to the extent of the cultivation time of Spirulina in the North of Vietnam


Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 754
Author(s):  
Hiroko Inagaki ◽  
Akatsuki Saito ◽  
Chiho Kaneko ◽  
Hironobu Sugiyama ◽  
Tamaki Okabayashi ◽  
...  

More than 1 year has passed since social activities have been restricted due to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More recently, novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have been spreading around the world, and there is growing concern that they may have higher transmissibility and that the protective efficacy of vaccines may be weaker against them. Immediate measures are needed to reduce human exposure to the virus. In this study, the antiviral efficacy of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) irradiation (280 ± 5 nm, 3.75 mW/cm2) against three SARS-CoV-2 variants was evaluated. For the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 variant strains, irradiation of the virus stocks for 1 s resulted in infectious titer reduction rates of 96.3%, 94.6%, and 91.9%, respectively, and with irradiation for 5 s, the rates increased to 99.9%, 99.9%, and 99.8%, respectively. We also tested the effect of pulsed DUV-LED irradiation (7.5 mW/cm2, duty rate: 50%, frequency: 1 kHz) under the same output conditions as for continuous irradiation and found that the antiviral efficacy of pulsed and continuous irradiation was the same. These findings suggest that by further developing and optimizing the DUV-LED device to increase its output, it may be possible to instantly inactivate SARS-CoV-2 with DUV-LED irradiation.


Molbank ◽  
10.3390/m1226 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (2) ◽  
pp. M1226
Author(s):  
Banu Öngel ◽  
Jörg M. Neudörfl ◽  
Axel G. Griesbeck

The α-methylated chalcone 3 with an electron-donor substituted A-aryl ring and an unsubstituted B-phenyl ring was synthesized by base-catalyzed aldehyde/acetophenone condensation. Compound 3 can be photo-switched from E→Z by irradiation with long-wavelength light λ > 350 nm, whereas irradiation with shorter wavelengths leads to photo-stationary states (PSS) with lower amounts of the Z-isomer. The limiting wavelength for fully equilibrated E⮀Z (PSS = 1) can be achieved around 240 nm. The stability of both E- and Z-isomers at the wavelength-dependent PSS under UV-irradiation between 250 and 350 nm is remarkably high as observed from UV and NMR spectroscopy. Compound 3 is fatigue resistant even after more than 10 days continuous irradiation and is also oxygenation-stable under singlet oxygen sensitization conditions. In remarkable contrast to many other α-methylated chalcones, no change in the E/Z-ratio was detected when PSS samples were treated with Broensted acids. The negative photochromic E→Z switch of 3 is accompanied by a conformational switch from the E-form in its preferred s-trans conformation to the Z-form in a distorted s-cis conformation (Es-c→Zs-t).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Cerruti ◽  
Guillaume Crosset-Perrotin ◽  
Mythili Ananth ◽  
Julius Laurens Rombouts ◽  
David Gregory Weissbrodt

Fermentative chemoorganoheterotrophic bacteria (FCB) and purple photoorganoheterotrophic bacteria (PPB) are two interesting microbial guilds to process carbohydrate-rich wastewaters. Their interaction has been studied in axenic pure cultures or co-cultures. Little is known about their metabolic interactions in open cultures. We aimed to harness the competitive and syntrophic interactions between PPB and FCB in mixed cultures. We studied the effect of reactor regimes (batch or continuous, CSTR) and illumination modes (continuous irradiation with infrared light, dark, or light/dark diel cycles) on glucose conversions and the ecology of the process. In batch, FCB outcompeted (>80%) PPB, under both dark and infrared light conditions. In CSTR, three FCB populations of Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae were enriched (>70%), while Rhodobacteraceae relatives of PPB made 30% of the community. Fermentation products generated from glucose were linked to the dominant FCB. Continuous culturing at a dilution rate of 0.04 h-1 helped maintain FCB and PPB in syntrophy: FCB first fermented glucose into volatile fatty acids and alcohols, and PPB grew on fermentation products. Direct supply of carboxylates like acetate under infrared light enriched for PPB (60%) independent of reactor regimes. Ecological engineering of FCB- and PPB-based biorefineries can help treat and valorize carbohydrate-based waste feedstocks.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hiroko Inagaki ◽  
Akatsuki Saito ◽  
Chiho Kaneko ◽  
Hironobu Sugiyama ◽  
Tamaki Okabayashi ◽  
...  

More than 1 year has passed since social activities have been restricted due to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More recently, novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have been spreading around the world, and there is growing concern of higher transmissibility of the variants and weaker protective efficacy of vaccine against the variants. Immediate measures are needed to reduce human exposure to the virus. In this study, the antiviral efficacy of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) irradiation (280 ± 5 nm, 3.75 mW/cm2) against three SARS-CoV-2 variants was evaluated. For the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 strains, the infectious titer reduction rates of 96.3%, 94.6%, and 91.9%, respectively, were already recognized with the irradiation of virus stocks for 1 s, and the rates increased to 99.9%, 99.9%, and 99.8%, respectively, with irradiation for 5 s. We also tested the effect of pulsed DUV-LED irradiation (7.5 mW/cm2, duty rate: 50%, frequency: 1 KHz) under the same output conditions as continuous irradiation, and found that the antiviral efficacy of pulsed and continuous irradiation was the same. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may be instantly inactivated by DUV-LED irradiation if the DUV-LED device is further developed and optimized to increase its output.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Garcia ◽  
B. David ◽  
I. N. Sierra-Garcia ◽  
M. A. F. Faustino ◽  
A. Alves ◽  
...  

The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is one of the main causal agents of trunk canker and dieback of grapevine. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of L. theobromae with synthetic and natural photosensitizers and irradiation with either sunlight or artificial photosynthetically active radiation. Although the growth of the mycelium could not be completely prevented with natural sunlight irradiation, phenothiazine dyes (methylene blue, MB; toluidine blue O, TBO), riboflavin and a cationic porphyrin (Tetra-Py + -Me) caused complete inhibition under continuous irradiation with artificial light. Free radicals were the main cytotoxic agents in the PDI with MB, indicating the predominance of the type I mechanism. PDI with MB or Tetra-Py + -Me may represent a promising approach for the sanitation of vine material in greenhouse nurseries, in order to reduce the risk of infection upon grafting.


Photonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 53
Author(s):  
Chuan Li ◽  
Jang-Hsing Hsieh ◽  
Y. R. Chuang

Metal oxynitrides are compounds between nitrides and oxides with a certain level of photocatalytic functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate an appropriate range of oxygen flow rate during sputtering for depositing tantalum oxynitride films. The sputtering process was carried out under fixed nitrogen but variable oxygen flow rates. Post rapid thermal annealing was conducted at 800 °C for 5 min to transform the as-deposited amorphous films into crystalline phases. The material characterizations of annealed films include X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy for identifying crystal structures; scanning electron microscope for examining surface morphology; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine surface elemental compositions; four-point probe and Hall effect analysis to evaluate electrical resistivity; UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy for quantifying optical properties and optical bandgaps. To assess the photocatalytic function of oxynitride films, the degradation of methyl orange in de-ionized water was examined under continuous irradiation by a simulated solar light source for six hours. Results indicate that crystalline tantalum oxynitride films can be obtained if the O2 flow rate is chosen to be 0.25–1.5 sccm along with 10 sccm of N2 and 20 sccm of Ar. In particular, films deposited between 0.25 and 1.5 sccm O2 flow have higher efficiency in photodegradation on methyl orange due to a more comprehensive formation of oxynitrides.


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