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Resources ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Oksana Marinina ◽  
Anna Tsvetkova ◽  
Yurii Vasilev ◽  
Nadejda Komendantova ◽  
Anna Parfenova

The relevance of this study is due to the low rate of development of the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies. Against a background of the sale of significant volumes of oil and gas raw materials, Russia lags behind world leaders in the production and consumption of petrochemical and chemical products, with their share in the gross domestic product of the country being only 1.1%. Connected to this is the issue of substantiating strategies of development for the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies, which requires detailed research. In this light, it is necessary to take into account current trends in the worldwide demand on petroleum products and also the opportunities and competitive advantages of Russian oil and gas companies in the creation and development of refineries with a consideration of modern technological, environmental, social and market criteria. The paper tests hypotheses about modernisation as a process of increasing efficiency in the development of the industry as a whole. The results of the study show that the planned pace of development in the industry by means of modernisation proves to be insufficient and requires additional investments in innovative development and new construction. The value of the research lies in the modelling of modernisation strategy options by the example of a large oil company, the estimation of results by the criteria of world average indices of technological efficiency of production and the analysis of these results by state indicators of branch development. The theoretical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using this research approach as an analogue.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (8) ◽  
pp. 805-811
Author(s):  
O. G. Smirnova ◽  
T. A. Pshenichnikova

One of the main ways to fine-tune the adaptive potential of wheat cultivars is to regulate the timing of flowering using the genes of the Vrn-1 locus, which determines the type and rate of development. Recently, with the use of introgression and isogenic lines of bread wheat, it was shown that this locus is involved in the genetic control of root length and weight both under irrigation and drought conditions. It turned out that the VrnA1 gene is associated with a significant decrease in the size of the root system in a winter genotype. The Vrn-A1 gene had the strongest effect on the reduction of the root system in comparison with the homoeoallelic genes Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. The aim of this work was to determine whether the allelic composition of the genes at the Vrn-1 locus affects the root size in seven spring cultivars and in two lines of bread wheat differing in flowering time under conditions of normal watering and drought. The research was carried out in a hydroponic greenhouse; drought was created at the tillering stage. In this work, we have shown that early flowering wheat cultivars with the dominant Vrn-A1а allele have more lightweight and shorter roots under normal watering conditions compared to the late flowering carriers of the dominant homoeoalleles Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. In drought conditions, the root length decreased insignificantly, but the weight of the roots significantly decreased in all genotypes, with the exception of Diamant 2. It has been hypothesized that the level of the transcription factor VRN-1 at the onset of drought may affect the size of the root system. The large variability in root weight may indicate the participation, in addition to the Vrn-1 locus, of other gene networks in the formation of this trait. Breeders working to develop early maturing varieties should consider the possibility of reducing the root size, especially in arid conditions. A significant increase in the root size of line 821 with introgressions into chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 5A from T. timopheevii indicates the possibility of using congeners as a source of increasing the trait in wheat.


Author(s):  
Alexander Viktorovich Zhestkov ◽  
Olga Olegovna Pobezhimova

Particular attention is paid to atopic dermatitis (AD) as one of the earliest and most frequent clinical manifestations of allergy in children. AD is a multifactorial disease, the development of which is closely related to genetic defects in the immune response and adverse environmental influences. It was found that the action of these factors determines the rate of development of AD, especially in young children. One of these factors is a violation of the intestinal microbiota, which plays an essential role in the development of the child's immune system and has a protective effect in the formation of atopy. It has been shown that 80-95% of patients with AD have intestinal dysbiosis, while, along with a deficiency of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, there is an excessive growth of Staphilococcus. The use of modern molecular genetics technologies made it possible to obtain a fairly complete understanding of the number, genetic heterogeneity and complexity of the bacterial components of the intestinal microbiota, while clinical studies have shown the importance of its interactions with the host organism in the formation of various forms of pathology. It has been established that the human intestinal microbiota is an evolutionary set of microorganisms that exists as a balanced microecological system in which the symbiotic microflora is in dynamic equilibrium, forms microbial associations that occupy a certain ecological niche in it, and is one of the most important factors affecting human health. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, which causes immunosuppression, but the exact mechanism of its action is still unclear. It is widely known that probiotics act on the immune system. These are living microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects that stimulate Th1 cytokines and suppress Th2 responses, which are being investigated for the treatment of several diseases. The most commonly used probiotics are part of the intestinal microflora such as lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and enterococci. The purpose of this article: to systematize the information available today on the influence of the composition of the intestinal microflora on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.


2021 ◽  
pp. 32-45
Author(s):  
V. Yu. Sokolov

The purpose of the article is an attempt to discover and analyze the activity of J. А. Zalewski (1894–?) аs director of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev in 1925–1931, on the background of the development of the main components of its functioning, to characterize the main achievements of his personal contribution as a director of the library in connection with the formation of the book collection as one of the leading library institutions in the city. In his scientific work the author has widely used historical-comparative, historical-genetic, statistical, chronological, biographical methods of research, the method of diachronic analysis, etc. The article analyzes the main socio-cultural factors of the development of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev, the dynamics of the main library components of its work and the main directions and achievements of book collections under the direction of J. А. Zalevsky during the specified period. Against the background of the characteristics of J. А. Zalevsky’s activity as a library director, the growth of book collections, composition and range of library readers, their reading interests, as well as the dynamics of the main library activity indicators of book collections under the direction of J. А. Zalevsky were investigated. The main directions of the work of J. А. Zalevsky as director of book collections and the sphere of the most important tasks of the library during the studied period are identified and characterized. The importance of activity of J. А. Zalevsky as a director of the library through the prism of the main tendencies of its development is analyzed. It was found that the sustainable development and successful activity of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev under of the direction J. А. Zalewski in 1925–1931 were limited by the shortcomings of the material and technical base, lack of funds, lack of systematic acquisition of books in Polish language, insufficient the number of publications published in Polish on the territory of the country, as well as political and socio-cultural factors of the country’s social life in the conditions of strengthening of the state totalitarian regime of the party bureaucracy and the curtailment of gender roots of rooting, ”which began at the turn of the 1920s‑1930s. However, thanks to J. Zalewski’s leadership, despite all the obstacles and objective difficulties, the work of the Central Polish State Library in Kyiv during the second half of the 1920s evolved steadily. Slowly, the bookstore was transformed into a cultural, educational, scientific and organizational-methodical center, which provided not only ordinary readers but also many experts who studied the history and culture of the Polish and Ukrainian peoples with the necessary information sources and bibliographic materials. Under the guidance of J. Zalewski of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev actively carried out cultural-educational,cultural-mass, educational and scientific-bibliographic work, in particular in book collections organized classes with graduate students, held certain measures to improve the skills of library staff of Polish libraries, organized exhibitions, lectures, creative evenings, exchange of library experience and more. Under the pretext of J. Zalewski, employees of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev carried out extensive organizational and methodological work; created Polish mobile libraries serving the Polish population in remote regions of the country; helped to organize new Polish departments at district book collections in many cities of Ukraine. It was at the turn of the 1920s‑1930s, when the institution was headed by J. Zalewski, that the greatest growth rate of development of the Central Polish State Library in Kiev was observed, when a certain network of Polish libraries, reading rooms and clubs was almost formed in the Ukrainian SSR.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 26-36
Author(s):  
B. V. Rigin ◽  
E. V. Zuev ◽  
I. I Matvienko ◽  
A. S. Andreeva

Background. The knowledge of genetic control of vernalization response in the ultra-early accessions can facilitate bread wheat breeding for a high adaptive capacity. Materials and methods. The study involved the ultra-early lines Rico (k-65588) and Rimax (k-67257) as the earliest maturing lines in the VIR bread wheat collection, as well as 10 Rifor lines (k-67120, k-67121, k-67250-67256) with a high rate of development before heading. A late ripening accession ‘Forlani Roberto’ (k-42641) and ‘Leningradskaya 6’ variety (k-64900), regionally adapted to Northwestern Russia, were also studied. The alleles of the Vrn and Ppd genes were identified by the PCR analysis using the allele-specific primers published in literature sources. The response to vernalization (30 days at 3°C) and a short 12-hour day were determined using a methodology accepted at VIR. Results. The ultra-early lines respond to a short 12-hour day and 30-day vernalization very poorly. The genotype of ultra-early wheat lines is mainly represented by three genes, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1a, and Vrn-D1, which ensure insensitivity to vernalization alongside with the expression of Ppd-D1a, which controls the response to photoperiod. The ultra-early lines Rifor 4 and Rifor 5 have a recessive allele vrn-A1a, like the original ‘Forlani Roberto’ accession. The lines Rifor 4 and Rifor 5 are vernalization-insensitive under the long day and have a very weak response under the short day (3.5±0.42 days and 4.0±0.61 days, respectively). However, ‘Forlani Roberto’ with the vrn-A1a gene responds to vernalization in the same way under any photoperiod (12.3±1.58 days and 12.2±0.74 days). Conclusion The ultra-early lines of bread wheat Rifor 4 and Rifor 5 with the vrn-A1a gene can have no response to vernalization or have a low level response. This effect can be a reason for the formation of a complex of modifier genes along with the dominant gene Vrn-D1, which forms during the hybridization of F7-8 Rico × Forlani Roberto. The ultra-early lines of bread wheat Rico, Rimax and Rifor (k-67120, k-67121, k-67250-67256) can serve as effective sources of genes for earliness in common wheat breeding.


Author(s):  
Sergii Skrypnyk

The article researched the importance of using the project method in teaching “Biology and Ecology” in high (senior) school and “Basics of Health” in secondary school, as a method of content integration of the natural education and the conditions of effective student teaching. The relevance of this topic is that there is an observation of multi-vector using the “project method” in school today. New developments for the application of project-based teaching are conducted. The organization of project activities in the teaching process involves a specially organized by the teacher process, which is performed by students independently based on their subjective definition of the goal, while the project focuses on a set of actions that makes students independent. The result of the project activity can be any product of the student’s activity, for example, presentation, essay, and model. The method of projects is based on creativity, the skills of orientating in the information space and independently designing their knowledge. In the process of project activity, there is a metamorphosis of the teacher’s position in the educational process (the teacher organizes the students’ activities). For the organization of teacher's activity, it is necessary to master the methods and techniques of preparing students for the work on the project and its development. Teaching “Biology and Ecology” and “Basics of Health” is successful only if the teacher’s work with students in all its forms is a purposeful system of teaching and education that develops in unity biological concepts, dialectical-materialist worldview, thinking, and independent practical work skills, the project’s method helps in this the most. At the modern stage of development of school education, the problem of student's cognitive activity becomes especially important meaning due to the high rate of development and improvement the science and technology, society need for educated people and free from stereotypes, will be able to quickly orientate in the situation, thinking independently. Implementation of such tasks becomes possible only in the conditions of the project teaching stimulating the mental activity of students. Keywords: method of projects; design activity; integration; biology; ecology; natural science education; natural science competence; creative health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 159-169
Author(s):  
Sri Yusmalinar ◽  
◽  
Tjandra Anggraeni ◽  
Ramadhani Eka Putra ◽  
Ashari Zain ◽  
...  

A previous report has indicated that in many regions of Indonesia, populations of Musca domestica Linnaeus have shown very high resistance to permethrin and low resistance to imidacloprid. In this study, the resistance status to permethrin and imidacloprid was updated using a topical application and feeding bioassay. Six housefly strains originated from six highly populated cities in Indonesia, namely Serang (SRG), Jakarta (JKT), Bandung (BDG), Semarang (SMG), Yogyakarta (JOG), and Surabaya (SBY). A seventh strain (Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory (DPIL)) served as the control. Each strain was tested for resistance to the two insecticides. In addition, the rate of development of resistance to the two insecticides was measured over ten generations. The results indicated that all field strains showed very high resistance to permethrin. The highest resistance level recorded was in the SRG strain (RR50 = 2880), and the lowest was in the JKT strain (RR50 = 520). Repeated application of permethrin over ten generations increased the resistance level by about 2.7–32.73-fold as compared to the level of their respective parental populations. On the other hand, most strains showed low to moderate resistance to imidacloprid, in which the SRG strain had the highest resistance level (RR50 = 15.5) and the SBY strain had the lowest (RR50 = 2.0). Repeated application of imidacloprid over ten generations increased the resistance level by about 3.25–17.41-fold. The findings, which is the second report of housefly resistance in Indonesia since 2016, provide a crucial foundation for developing appropriate housefly integrated pest management strategies in highly populated areas in Indonesia.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (11(75)) ◽  
pp. 22-25
Author(s):  
L. Levchenko ◽  
H. Sargsyan ◽  
K. Nikoghosyan

This article focuses on the incidence of intrauterine pneumonia among newborns, with an emphasis on premature babies. So, at the beginning of the 21st century, there is a clear trend in all countries to an increase in the number of births of premature patients. Among the variety of intrauterine infections in premature infants, intrauterine pneumonia deserves close attention. The article presents the main risk factors for preterm birth. The modern views on the etiology of intrauterine pneumonia in newborn infants are presented in detail. The main causative agents of this pathological process are given. The causes of lung lesions in newborns, especially premature babies, are indicated. Clear parallels are drawn between low gestational age and newborn’s body weight with the consequences of previous hypoxia (acute and / or chronic), as well as with the emergence and rate of development of intrauterine infection and its influence on the formation and development of the fetal immune system. The combined effect of unfavorable factors subsequently leads to the manifestation of pronounced immunosuppression in the newborn and creates the preconditions for the generalization of the pathological process.


Author(s):  
Kuo-Wei Tseng ◽  
Jyun-Ru Chen ◽  
Jun-Jie Chow ◽  
Wei-Chin Tseng ◽  
Giancarlo Condello ◽  
...  

The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefit of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) after accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) compared to traditional resistance loading (TR). Sixteen male volleyball athletes were divided in AEL and TR group. AEL group performed 3 sets of 4 repetitions (eccentric: 105% of concentric 1RM, concentric: 80% of concentric 1RM) of half squat, and TR group performed 3 sets of 5 repetitions (eccentric & concentric: 85% of 1RM). Countermovement jump (CMJ), spike jump (SPJ), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and muscle soreness test were administered before (Pre) exercise, and 10 min (10-min), 24 h (24-h), and 48 h (48-h) after exercise. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Peak force and rate of development (RFD) of IMTP in AEL group were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than TR group. The height, peak velocity, and RFD of CMJ, height of SPJ, and muscle soreness showed no interaction effects (p > 0.05) groups x time. AEL seemed capable to maintain force production in IMTP, but not in CMJ and SPJ. It is recommended the use of accentuated eccentric loading protocols to overcome the fatigue.


2021 ◽  
Vol 928 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Author(s):  
A V Kravets ◽  
N N Tereshchenko ◽  
O M Minaeva

Abstract The possibility of using peat as a solid base for a microbial preparation was investigated. The basis of the microbial consortium of the drug was made up of Pseudomonas extremorientalis and Aeromonas media isolated from coprolites of the earthworms Eisenia fetida, Savigny. Among the studied peat species, eutrophic woody peat (pH = 5.7, degree of decomposition 48%) was chosen, which stimulated the increase in the aboveground mass (+ 11%) of wheat seedlings in preliminary tests. We assessed the viability of bacteria within 2 months after their adsorption on peat. On the 56th day of the experiment, the number of A. media in the variant with a peat carrier remained at the highest possible level - 107 CFU / ml. In a vegetation experiment, it was found that the use of two microbial cultures (in liquid form and in solid after adsorption of bacteria on peat) for presowing seed treatment led to an increase in wheat germination by 9% (83% for the liquid form and 92% for the solid form). Plant biomass increased in variants using bacteria on peat compared to using bacteria in liquid form. The presence of peat and P. extremorientalis increased the aboveground weight of wheat by 5%, while peat with a mixture of bacteria increased this figure by 15%. In variants with the use of P. extremorientalis on peat, the rate of development of plant diseases decreased in comparison with the liquid form by more than 3 times. With the combined use of bacteria, peat provides high rates of germination of seeds and aboveground mass. The research results indicate a greater efficiency of using a solid preparative form of a microbial preparation in comparison with a liquid one.


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