skin whitening
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yiyuan Luo ◽  
Juan Wang ◽  
Shuo Li ◽  
Yue Wu ◽  
Zhirui Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Bletilla striata is the main medicine of many skin whitening classic formulas in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is widely used in cosmetic industry recently. However, its active ingredients are still unclear and its fibrous roots are not used effectively. The aim of the present study is to discover and identify its potential anti-melanogenic active constituents by zebrafish model and molecular docking. Methods The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The anti-melanogenic activity was assessed by tyrosinase inhibitory activity in vitro and melanin inhibitory in zebrafish. The chemical profiles were performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Meanwhile, the potential anti-melanogenic active constituents were temporary identified by molecular docking. Results The 95% ethanol extract of B. striata fibrous roots (EFB) possessed the strongest DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, with IC50 5.94 mg/L, 11.69 mg/L, 6.92 mmol FeSO4/g, and 58.92 mg/L, respectively. In addition, EFB and 95% ethanol extract of B. striata tuber (ETB) significantly reduced the melanin synthesis of zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. 39 chemical compositions, including 24 stilbenoids were tentatively identified from EFB and ETB. Molecular docking indicated that there were 83 (including 60 stilbenoids) and 85 (including 70 stilbenoids) compounds exhibited stronger binding affinities toward tyrosinase and adenylate cyclase. Conclusion The present findings supported the rationale for the use of EFB and ETB as natural skin-whitening agents in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

2022 ◽  
Reham Abdulrahman Khalil

Abstract Objectives: The knowledge, attitude and practice of skin-whitening products among female undergraduates in the medical campus, University of Khartoum.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the medical campus of University of Khartoum. All consenting female undergraduates were included in the study population. 417 women were chosen through proportional stratified random sampling, and were asked to complete a questionnaire.365 completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 87%. Result: 365 women completed the questionnaire, of whom 52% had average knowledge, 32% had poor knowledge and 16% had excellent knowledge,.32% had a positive attitude, and 38% reported using skin-whitening products.Knowledge, attitude and practice were associated with several factors.Conclusion : Although The overall knowledge about skin-whitening products is average. The knowledge about skin-whitening agents is rather poor. The majority of Sudanese University students have a negative attitude towards skin-whitening, but still the use of skin-whiteners is common amongst them .. Women who feel pressured by society to whiten their skin, are more likely to use skin-whiteners, as well as those who have a family history of skin-whitening. Media and social media play an important role in this matter, being the most important source of information and the most common factor pressuring women to lighten their skin as well. We recommend media and social to be used to promote the acceptance of dark skin and raise awareness about the safe practice of skin whitening. We also recommend that the Ministry of Health and Standards and Metrology Authority mandate the labeling of all products sold in Sudan detailing ingredients and concentrations of ingredients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 639-649
Yun Jeong Kim ◽  
Ye Sol Goh ◽  
Waiting Cheung ◽  
Yong Sam Kim ◽  
Hyunsang Lee

Purpose: This research verified the skin whitening and moisturizing effects of hydrolyzed swiftlet nest extracts (HSNE) in vitro using human keratinocytes and melanoma.Methods: To confirm the antioxidant effect of HSNE, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was measured. To find out the whitening effect of HSNE, the genes related to melanogenesis, mRNA expression of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein (TRP) 1, 2 and microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) were measured. We also measured the melanin contents after treatment of HSNE to confirm the anti-melanogenesis effect. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the genes related to moisturizing such as aquaporin (AQP) 3, hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1, 2, and 3 were determined. The results of the tests were analyzed with student’s t-test and expressed as mean±standard deviation.Results: DPPH radical scavenging effects of HSNE increased in a concentration dependent manner. The expression of melanogenesis-related genes were inhibited by the treatment of HSNE in a concentration-dependent manner (MITF, TYR, TRP1, and 2). Melanin contents also decreased with the treatment of HSNE. The expression of moisturizing-related genes (HAS1, 2, 3, and AQP3) increased in a concentration-dependent manner.Conclusion: It is confirmed that the hydrolyzed swiftlet nest extracts have skin whitening and moisturizing effects and can be used as a functional cosmetic raw material.

Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Qunyan Fan ◽  
Jianmei Lian ◽  
Xuncai Liu ◽  
Fengyang Zou ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an unusual mucin glycoprotein. In China, it is popular among consumers due to its skin whitening activity. However, the relationship between protein, sialic acid, and the whitening activity of EBN after digestion is still unclear. In the present work, the whitening activity (antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity) of digested EBN were studied by HepG2 and B16 cell models. The dissolution rate of protein and sialic acid was 49.59% and 46.45% after the simulated digestion, respectively. The contents of free sialic acid and glycan sialic acid in EBN digesta were 17.82% and 12.24%, respectively. HepG2 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had significant antioxidant activity, with EC50 of 1.84 mg/mL, and had a protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage cells. The results of H2O2-induced oxidative damage showed that the cell survival rate increased from 40% to 57.37% when the concentration of digested EBN was 1 mg/mL. The results of the B16 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the EC50 value of tyrosinase activity was 7.22 mg/mL. Cell experiments showed that free sialic acid had stronger antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than glycan sialic acid. The contribution rate analysis showed that protein component was the main antioxidant component in digestive products, and the contribution rate was 85.87%; free sialic acid was the main component that inhibited tyrosinase activity, accounting for 63.43%. The products of the complete digestion of EBN are suitable for the development of a new generation of whitening health products.

2021 ◽  
pp. 201010582110666
Huzairi Sani ◽  
Nada S Zulkufli ◽  
Yi L Gan ◽  
Ainur F Nadzir ◽  
Sazzli Kasim

Intravenous drug use, central catheters and intracardiac devices are known predispositions to right-sided infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of tricuspid IE caused by Acinetobacter seifertii and Enterobacter bugandensis as a result of intravenous use of skin-whitening products bought online. Clinical implications and pharmaceutical regulations are briefly discussed.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7381
Da-Hye Gam ◽  
Jae-Hyun Park ◽  
Ji-Woo Hong ◽  
Seong-Jin Jeon ◽  
Jun-Hee Kim ◽  

Sargassum thunbergii has been traditionally used as an edible and medicinal material in oriental countries. However, the skin-whitening and anti-wrinkling effects of S. thunbergii have not yet been investigated. This study was conducted to establish optimal extraction conditions for the production of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity as well as skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in S. thunbergii. The extraction time (5.30~18.7 min), extraction temperature (22.4~79.6 °C), and ethanol concentration (0.0~99.5%), which are the main variables of the UAE, were optimized using a central composite design. Quadratic regression equations were derived based on experimental data and showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.85), demonstrating suitability for prediction. The optimal UAE condition for maximizing all dependent variables, including radical scavenging activity (RSA), tyrosinase inhibitory activity (TIA), and collagenase inhibitory activity (CIA), was identified as an extraction time of 12.0 min, an extraction temperature of 65.2 °C, and ethanol of 53.5%. Under these conditions, the RSA, TIA, and CIA of S. thunbergii extract were 86.5%, 88.3%, and 91.4%, respectively. We also confirmed S. thunbergii extract had inhibitory effects on the mRNA expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, which are the main genes of melanin synthesis and collagen hydrolysis. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the main phenolic compounds in S. thunbergii extract, and caffeic acid was identified as a major peak, demonstrating that high value-added ingredients with skin-whitening and anti-wrinkling effects can be produced from S. thunbergii and used for developing cosmetic materials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chien-Yu Ko ◽  
Jung Chao ◽  
Pei-Yu Chen ◽  
Shan-Yu Su ◽  
Tomoji Maeda ◽  

The increasing interest and demand for skin whitening products globally, particularly in Asia, have necessitated rapid advances in research on skin whitening products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Herein, we investigated 74 skin whitening prescriptions sold in TCM pharmacies in Taiwan. Commonly used medicinal materials were defined as those with a relative frequency of citation (RFC) > 0.2 and their characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analysis of commonly used medicinal materials was carried out to identify the core component of the medicinal materials. Of the purchased 74 skin whitening prescriptions, 36 were oral prescriptions, 37 were external prescriptions, and one prescription could be used as an oral or external prescription. After analysis, 90 traditional Chinese medicinal materials were obtained. The Apiaceae (10%; 13%) and Leguminosae (9%; 11%) were the main sources of oral and external medicinal materials, respectively. Oral skin whitening prescriptions were found to be mostly warm (46%) and sweet (53%), while external skin whitening prescriptions included cold (43%) and bitter (29%) medicinal materials. Additionally, mainly tonifying and replenishing effects of the materials were noted. Pharmacological analysis indicated that these medicinal materials may promote wound healing, treat inflammatory skin diseases, or anti-hyperpigmentation. According to the Spearman correlation analysis on interactions among medicinal materials with an RFC > 0.2 in the oral skin whitening prescriptions, Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (white) and Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. showed the highest correlation (confidence score = 0.93), followed by Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (red) and Astragalus propinquus Schischkin (confidence score = 0.91). Seven medicinal materials in external skin whitening prescriptions with an RFC > 0.2, were classified as Taiwan qī bái sàn (an herbal preparation), including Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav., Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns, Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino, Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (white), and Bombyx mori Linnaeus. Skin whitening prescriptions included multiple traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Despite the long history of use, there is a lack of studies concerning skin whitening products, possibly due to the complex composition of traditional Chinese medicine. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of these traditional Chinese medicinal materials for inclusion in effective, safe, and functional pharmacological products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1233
Quoc Lam Vu ◽  
Chih-Wun Fang ◽  
Muhammad Suhail ◽  
Pao-Chu Wu

Genistein, the most abundant isoflavone of the soy-derived phytoestrogen compounds, is a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, which can inhibit UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice and UVB-induced erythema on human skin. In current study, genistein-loaded microemulsions were developed by using the various compositions of oil, surfactants, and co-surfactants and used as a drug delivery carrier to improve the solubility, peremability, skin whitening, and bioavailbility of genistein. The mean droplet size and polydispersity index of all formulations was less than 100 nm and 0.26 and demonstrated the formation of microemulsions. Similarly, various studies, such as permeation, drug skin deposition, pharmacokinetics, skin whitening test, skin irritation, and stability, were also conducted. The permeability of genistein was significantly affected by the composition of microemulsion formulation, particular surfactnat, and cosurfactant. In-vitro permeation study revealed that both permeation rate and deposition amount in skin were significantly increased from 0.27 μg/cm2·h up to 20.00 μg/cm2·h and 4.90 up to 53.52 μg/cm2, respectively. In in-vivo whitening test, the change in luminosity index (ΔL*), tended to decrease after topical application of genistein-loaded microemulsion. The bioavailability was increased 10-fold by topical administration of drug-loaded microemulsion. Conclusively, the prepared microemulsion has been enhanced the bioavailability of genistein and could be used for clinical purposes.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1430
Klaudia Karkeszová ◽  
Mária Mastihubová ◽  
Vladimír Mastihuba

Kojic acid is a fungal metabolite and one of the strongest tyrosinase inhibitors. Its esters are used as lipid-compatible skin whitening components in cosmetic formulations. In this study, lipase PS, lipase AK, Lipolyve AN and pig pancreatic lipase catalyzed the acetylation of kojic acid under selective formation of the same product, kojic 7-acetate. However, the enzymes differed in their regioselectivity when catalyzing the alcoholysis of kojic acid diacetate. While lipase PS and lipase AK produced mixtures of both monoacetate regioisomers (7-acetate and 5-acetate of kojic acid), the pancreatic lipase almost exclusively produced 5-acetate. The enzyme displayed the same regioselectivity in the palmitoylation of kojic acid and in the alcoholysis of kojic acid dipalmitate. Simple reaction engineering with PPL as a catalyst thus provides the complementary monoesters of kojic acid. Kojic 7-acetate, 5-acetate, 7-palmitate and 5-palmitate were prepared with yields after purification of 57.3%, 38.2%, 31.7% and 31.4%, respectively.

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