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2022 ◽  
Raed Toghuj

Recently, forensic linguistics has been an arena of significance in many fields of study especially in judicial systems, legal and forensic matters, investigation, and open-source intelligence across the globe. The term typically refers to legal and professional analysis of recorded or written language by experts (forensic linguists) to provide expert and correct interpretation. It is particularly used in legal matters especially in the court and criminal justice systems. In the court system, forensic linguistics is heavily applied to examine language evidence – either recorded in voice or handwritten in civil matters or crimes. The analysis or examination is carried out for two major reasons. First, the analysis is utilized when relevant investigations are carried out with a focus to help in identifying witnesses or suspects in specific cases or scenes, or the determination of the significance of writing or utterance to a case. Secondly, forensic linguistics plays a pivotal role when written or spoken language samples are presented to a court as evidence. In such contexts, forensic linguists provide expert testimonies of correct interpretation of the samples. As such, language analysis is significant in any judicial matters and systems provided the questionable language constitutes crimes. In most cases, crimes such as threats, hate speech, bribery, hate literature, coercion among others necessitate the use of a linguist expert for correct and most importantly professional interpretation. Evidently, the concept of forensic linguistics is ascribed to provide the truth from recorded speeches or voices and written languages in the face of a crime or relevant legal investigation matters. This paper will posit on the different ways and methods that forensic linguistics is applied to investigate and provide professional interpretation of recorded and written languages in evidentiary and investigative contexts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Rômulo Evandro Brito de Leão ◽  
Francisca Canindé Rosário da Silva Araújo ◽  
Lúcia Natsuko Sakai

Aphasias are considered to be neurological linguistic disorders in which the comprehension and/or expression of oral and/or written language is compromised, thus having a significant potential impact on the quality of life of an individual and his / her family. Although much studied in its neurophysiological mechanism, aphasia is not always discussed in terms of rehabilitation. Therefore, this article aims to discuss the scientific production in speech therapy on the rehabilitation of aphasia. For this purpose, an Integrative Review of Literature was carried out, covering the period from 2000 to 2021 on the Scielo and BVS data platforms of articles available in full and in the Portuguese language, using as a descriptor the unitermo "aphasia", in which the articles found were submitted to the relevance tests I and II, in which the final sample made only those that passed the established criteria. A total of 236 articles were found on the Scielo platform, with only 29 discussing rehabilitation and only 5 on speech therapy. In the BVS platform, 98.901 articles were found, but only 86 were discussing deaf aphasia and were available, none of which addressed speech therapy rehabilitation. The electronic search reached a total of 5 relevant articles that included the theme of speech and hearing rehabilitation to the aphasic patient, all of them being from the Scielo platform. Thus, scientific scarcity on the subject of aphasia becomes evident, and it is necessary to invest in production that encapsulate the therapeutic behavior of the speech-language pathologist.   As afasias são consideradas distúrbios linguísticos de cunho neurológico em que a compreensão e/ou expressão da linguagem oral e/ou escrita encontra-se comprometida, tendo desta maneira um potencial significativo de impacto na qualidade de vida de um indivíduo e sua família. Embora muito estudada em seu mecanismo neurofisiológico, as afasias nem sempre são discutidas sob o aspecto de reabilitação. Diante disso, este artigo objetiva discutir sobre a produção cientifica em fonoaudiologia sobre a reabilitação da afasia. Para tanto, foi realizada uma Revisão Integrativa da Literatura, contemplando o período de 2000 a 2021 nas plataformas de dados Scielo e BVS de artigos disponíveis na íntegra e no idioma em português, utilizando como descritor o unitermo “afasia”, em que os artigos encontrados foram submetidos aos testes de relevância I e II, em que fizeram a amostra final apenas aqueles que passaram pelos critérios estabelecidos. Foram encontrados na plataforma Scielo o total de 236 artigos, sendo que apenas 29 discutiam sobre reabilitação e apenas 5 sobre terapia fonoaudiológica. Na plataforma BVS foram encontrados 98.901 artigos, porém apenas 86 discutiam sobre afasia de fato e estavam disponíveis, sendo que nenhum abordava a reabilitação fonoaudiológica. A busca eletrônica alcançou o total de 5 artigos relevantes que contemplassem a temática de reabilitação fonoaudiológica ao paciente afásico, sendo todos da plataforma Scielo. Assim, torna-se evidente a escassez científica sobre o tema de afasia, sendo necessário investimentos para produção que embase a conduta terapêutica do profissional fonoaudiólogo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 160-168
Ru’a Salim Mahmood ◽  
Hussein Ali Ahmed

Abstract The terms Spoken Grammar was coined by the two corpus grammarians, Ronald Carter and Mike McCarthy. In the 19th century,  it came under the impact  of a number of local dialects represented by the cockney dialect in London, and the Lothian dialect in Edinburgh. The discussions, debates and studies on Spoken grammar have led to the specification of three main viewpoints concerning the existence of this types of grammar. The viewpoints entail  that (1) grammatical rules do not govern spoken language, which is disorderly and disordered; (2) Speaking English lacks a distinct grammar. It has the same syntax as written English grammar; and (3) spoken language is regulated by a separate grammar with its own set of rules and conventions; i.e. it has its own grammar represented by its own set of rules, regulations, and classifications compared to those of the written language. T validate or refute the implications of the preceding viewpoints, relevant literature concludes that spoken grammar is quite prevalent in everyday conversational spoken English. It is characterized by being more flexible and less strict compared to written grammar. This is so because the informal context of using spoken grammar makes it have a syntax that varies from the traditional written grammar in a number of aspects. This purely theoretical  research aims at shedding light on the definition, meaning, principles and the main characteristics of spoken grammar. The emphasis on the distinctive features of spoken grammar has triggered the researchers to focus on a further point of discussion, namely the differences between spoken and written grammar. To substantiate such differences, examples from closely relevant grammatical literature have also been provided. The research ends with some concluding points drawn upon from the preceding discussed and presented points.

A. E. Dunaev

In the history of the German written language, the XVXVI centuries became a turning point: in the sphere of both administrative writing and informative literature, new genres and types of texts are developing, and relations within the genre system are being rebuilt. Chronicle texts, including town chronicles, become one of the most popular textotypes. According to researchers, their primary function is legitimization of the respective town as a political and legal entity. This legitimation was based primarily on the rights and privileges granted to the town by its former or current lord. Accordingly, the semiotic space of chronicle texts is organized around the concept of freiheit meaning privilege, right, freedom. The purpose of the article is to analyze the nominative field of the concept freiheit and to conclude on the semantics and functioning of lexical units in the text that verbalize this concept. Over hundred text examples extracted from the chronicles of Bern (the first third of the XV century) and Worms (the second half of the XVI century) were used as the research material. The core of the concept freiheit, its nominate is built by the homonymic lexeme, whereby the lexeme recht also belongs to the nuclear part of the field. Based on the analysis of text examples, five components of meaning of freiheit were identified, which form the slots of the corresponding concept. The largest number of concept nominations is concentrated in the slot right, privilege: these are the lexemes gerechtigkeit the right to adjudicate, herrlichkeit with a similar meaning, obrigkeit the right of possession, indult temporary privilege, erlaubung permission. On the periphery of the concept freiheit lie the lexemes herkommen and gewohnheit in the meaning of legal customs. The analysis of material allows us to conclude that in the view of chroniclers, urban legal customs were as important for the legitimization of town as its privileges. It is worth saying that the lexeme freiheit is often used as a collective one, without specifying the content of a specific right or privilege. Obviously, for the chroniclers, the very existence of rights in their totality was of paramount importance, since this determined the status and power of their town.

Stanisław Gajda

An inalienable property of the linguistic reality is the multi-language nature of the world and the multi-variation character of the ethnic-national communication space. As regards Polish pace, one can distinguish a series of axes around which the processes of long lasting concentrate. The author discusses the following five axes: (1) idiolectal (individual languages), (2) one determined by the dichotomy: spoken language – written language (contemporarily it assumes the form: spoken language – media language – written language), (3) one connected with the opposition: dialects – literary language (today in the form: dialects – mixed languages – general language), (4) functional variations (their ‘canonical’ series: colloquial language – scientific language – journalistic language – language of the administration – religious language – artistic language), and (5) one of three styles (high – medium – low).

2021 ◽  
Dragoș Cătălin Jianu ◽  
Tihomir V. Ilic ◽  
Silviana Nina Jianu ◽  
Any Docu Axelerad ◽  
Claudiu Dumitru Bîrdac ◽  

Aphasia denotes an acquired central disorder of language, which alters patient’s ability of understanding and/or producing spoken and written language. The main cause of aphasia is represented by ischemic stroke. The language disturbances are frequently combined into aphasic syndromes, contained in different vascular syndromes, which may suffer evolution/involution in the acute stage of ischemic stroke. The main determining factor of the vascular aphasia’s form is the infarct location. Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia, comprising a wide range of symptoms (articulatory disturbances, paraphasias, agrammatism, anomia, and discrete comprehension disorders of spoken and written language) and is considered the third most common form of acute vascular aphasia, after global and Wernicke’s aphasia. It is caused by a lesion situated in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (the left one in right-handed persons), in those cortical regions vascularized by the superior division of the left middle cerebral artery (Broca’s area, the rolandic operculum, the insular cortex, subjacent white matter, centrum semiovale, the caudate nucleus head, the putamen, and the periventricular areas). The role of this chapter is to present the most important acquirements in the field of language and neurologic examination, diagnosis, and therapy of the patient with Broca’s aphasia secondary to ischemic stroke.

Carly R. Dinnes ◽  
Karen Hux

Purpose: Written expression challenges following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults have received little clinical attention but can substantially affect quality of life and the success of reintegration efforts. Assessment tools and procedures are lacking despite the likelihood of post-TBI problems with microstructure (e.g., productivity, spelling accuracy) and macrostructure (e.g., topic adherence, organization) aspects of written language. The lack of standardized procedures forces reliance on informal methods to determine writing strengths and challenges. Method: A combination of assessment procedures allowed for evaluation of the productivity and efficiency, adherence to writing conventions (e.g., spelling, sentence structure, punctuation), and macrostructure organization (e.g., story grammar, topic adherence) of written narratives collected from five adults with TBI. Results: Use of multiple assessment methods revealed disparate writing challenges across the five case examples. The differing writing profiles underscore the necessity of evaluating multiple aspects of written narratives. Conclusions: The described analysis methods can help clinicians determine areas of strength and challenge in written work generated by adults with TBI. Examination of multiple aspects of writing is key to garnering a comprehensive appraisal of post-TBI writing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
Pavol Odaloš

Language Landscape of Banská Bystric (Continuity of Texts and Intersection of Ethnic Groups)The language landscape of Banská Bystrica is made up of visible language, which means written language in the form of contextually fixed words, sentences and complex sentences of a commercial and non-commercial nature. Non-commercial language fulfills a communicative function in terms of presenting basic orientation information in and around Banská Bystrica town, and about the town’s activities, the church and cemetery buildings, and monuments. Commercial language has a business function because it becomes part of the process of business transactions: first in the form of advertising texts offering commercial products; later in the form of information concerning goods offered directly by business facilities. The language landscape of Banská Bystrica is a collection of texts in Slovak, German and Hungarian and is a manifestation of the ethnolinguistic activities of Slovaks, Germans and Hungarians. Some texts in English, German, Latin, Russian and Romanian are evidence of the vitality of these languages in presenting facts about the present day and the history of this town. Krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy (kontinuum tekstów a krzyżowanie się grup etnicznych)Na krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy składają się teksty o charakterze komercyjnym i niekomercyjnym, dostępne w wersji wizualnej, powstałe w języku pisanym, w formie kontekstowo uwarunkowanych słów, zdań prostych i zdań złożonych. Język o charakterze niekomercyjnym pełni funkcję komunikacyjną w zakresie przekazywania podstawowych informacji orientacyjnych w mieście Bańska Bystrzyca i w jego okolicach, a także informacji o działalności związanej z miastem, o budynkach kościelnych i cmentarnych oraz o zabytkach. Język o charakterze komercyjnym pełni funkcję biznesową, ponieważ staje się częścią procesu obrotu gospodarczego: najpierw w postaci tekstów reklamowych oferujących produkty handlowe, później w formie informacji o produktach oferowanych bezpośrednio przez placówki handlowe i usługowe. Krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy tworzą teksty w językach słowackim, niemieckim i węgierskim, będące przejawem działalności etnolingwistycznej Słowaków, Niemców i Węgrów. Teksty w językach angielskim, niemieckim, rosyjskim, rumuńskim i po łacinie świadczą o istotnej roli tych języków w przedstawianiu faktów dotyczących współczesności i historii tego miasta.

Hikma ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 437-441
Irene Hermosa Ramírez

The Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and Media Accessibility fields have found an ongoing interest in corpus research both for descriptive purposes (Matamala, 2008; Baños, 2013; Reviers, 2017) and for teaching purposes (Rica Peromingo, 2019; Baños, 2021). In an interdisciplinary fashion, Blanca Arias-Badia’s book Subtitling Television Series. A Corpus-Driven Study of Police Procedurals specifically takes on the task of describing the principal linguistic features of crime fiction television scripts and their corresponding Spanish subtitles. Its interdisciplinary nature lies on the combination of Television Studies, Linguistics and Translation Studies (TS). Notably, the author explores the notion of norms and patterns through the lens of these three disciplines, all by situating the source text and the target text in the spoken word to written language continuum. The book follows a clear structure of nine chapters including a theoretical and methodological contextualisation of the (quantitative and qualitative) morphosyntactic and lexical analysis of the Corpus of Police Procedurals [...]

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