diffuse fraction
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Siyuan Chen ◽  
Lichun Sui ◽  
Liangyun Liu ◽  
Xinjie Liu

Accurate estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP) is necessary to better understand the interaction of global terrestrial ecosystems with climate change and human activities. Light use efficiency (LUE)-based GPP models are widely used for retrieving several GPP products with various temporal and spatial resolutions. However, most LUE-based models assume a clear-sky condition, and the influence of diffuse radiation on GPP estimations has not been well considered. In this paper, a diffuse and direct (DDA) absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR)-based method is proposed for better estimation of half-hourly GPP, which partitions APAR under diffuse and direct radiation conditions. Firstly, energy balance residual (EBR) FAPAR, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) (MCD15A2H) and clumping index (CI) products, as well as solar radiation records supplied by FLUXNET2015 were used to calculate diffuse and direct APAR at a half-hourly scale. Then, an eddy covariance-LUE (EC-LUE) model and meteorological observations from FLUXNET2015 data sets were used for obtaining corresponding LUE values. A co-variation relationship between LUE and diffuse fraction was observed, and the LUE was higher under more diffuse radiation conditions. Finally, the DDA-based method was tested using the half-hourly FLUXNET GPP and compared with half-hourly GPP calculated using total APAR (GPP_TA). The results indicated that the half-hourly GPP estimated using the DDA-based method (GPP_DDA) was more accurate, giving higher R2 values, lower RMSE and RMSE* values (R2 varied from 0.565 to 0.682, RMSE ranged from 3.219 to 12.405 and RMSE* were within the range of 2.785 to 8.395) than the GPP_TA (R2 varied from 0.558 to 0.653, RMSE ranged from 3.407 to 13.081 and RMSE* were within the range of 3.321 to 9.625) across FLUXNET sites within different vegetation types. This study explored the effects of partitioning the diffuse and direct APAR on half-hourly GPP estimations, which demonstrates a higher agreement with FLUXNET GPP than total APAR-based GPP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-70

Measurements of the hourly global solar radiation (G) and its diffuse component (D) on a horizontal surface have been carried out in Qena / Upper Egypt in the period from June 1992 to May 1993. The corresponding diffuse fraction (DIG) is calculated. Diurnal variations of the results have been studied. Also the daily totals values and its monthly and seasonal averages as well as their frequency distributions were computed and examined. The seasonal and climatic effects on the fluctuation of the results are discussed. These effects were particularly large during spring and Winter months owing to the high fluctuation of the atmospheric conditions with aspect to amount of clouds, water content, and concentration of aerosol dust particles. The influence of clouds is also considered. It shows small effect on the results (4.5%), reflecting the low degree of cloudiness in the study region. The relation between the diffuse fraction and clearness index (G/Go) shows that most of the points lies in the region of the high availability of the incoming solar radiation. In general the study shows clearly the abundance of solar energy in Qena / Egypt, and the suitability of its climate for using it in different applications.

Climate ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 183
Harry D. Kambezidis

The solar radiation climate of Greece is investigated by using typical meteorological years (TMYs) at 43 locations in Greece based on a period of 10 years (2007–2016). These TMYs include hourly values of global, Hg, and diffuse, Hd, horizontal irradiances from which the direct, Hb, horizontal irradiance is estimated. Use of the diffuse fraction, kd, and the definition of the direct-beam fraction, kb, is made. Solar maps of annual mean Hg, Hd, kd, and kb are prepared over Greece under clear and all skies, which show interesting but explainable patterns. Additionally, the intra-annual and seasonal variabilities of these parameters are presented and regression equations are provided. It is found that Hb has a negative linear relationship with kd; the same applies to Hg with respect to kd or with respect to the latitude of the site. It is shown that kd (kb) can reflect the scattering (absorption) effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation, and, therefore, this parameter can be used as a scattering (absorption) index. An analysis shows that the influence of solar variability (sunspot cycle) on the Hg levels over Athens in the period 1953–2018 was less dominant than the anthropogenic (air-pollution) footprint that caused the global dimming effect.

2021 ◽  
Sung-Ching Lee ◽  
Sara H. Knox ◽  
Ian McKendry ◽  
T. Andrew Black

Abstract. Area burned, number of fires, seasonal fire severity, and fire season length are all expected to increase in Canada, with largely unquantified ecosystem feedbacks. However, there are few observational studies measuring the ecosystem‐scale biogeochemical and biophysical properties during smoke episodes, and hence accessing productivity effects of changes in incident diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, we leverage two long-term eddy covariance measurement sites in forest and wetland to study four smoke episodes, which happened at different times and differed in length, over four different years. We found that the highest decrease of shortwave irradiance due to smoke was about 50 % in July and August but increased to about 90 % when the smoke arrived in September. When the smoke arrived in the later stage of summer, impacts on H and LE were also greatest. Smoke generally increased the diffuse fraction from ~0.30 to ~0.50 and turned both sites into stronger carbon-dioxide (CO2) sinks with increased productivity of ~18 % and ~7 % at the forest and wetland sites, respectively. However, when the diffuse fraction exceeded 0.80 as a result of dense smoke, both ecosystems became CO2 sources as total PAR dropped to low values. The results suggest that this kind of natural experiment is important for validating future predictions of smoke‐productivity feedbacks.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 6005
Armando Castillejo-Cuberos ◽  
John Boland ◽  
Rodrigo Escobar

Solar energy is an economic and clean power source subject to natural variability, while energy storage might attenuate it, ultimately, effective and operationally feasible forecasting techniques for energy management are needed for better grid integration. This work presents a novel deterministic forecast method considering: irradiance pattern classification, Markov chains, fuzzy logic and an operational approach. The method developed was applied in a rolling manner for six years to a target location with no prior data to assess performance and its changes as new local data becomes available. Clearness index, diffuse fraction and irradiance hourly forecasts are analyzed on a yearly basis but also for 20 day types, and compared against smart persistence. Results show the proposed method outperforms smart persistence by ~10% for clearness index and diffuse fraction on the base case, but there are significant differences across the 20 day types analyzed, reaching up to +60% for clear days. Forecast lead time has the greatest impact in forecasting performance, which is important for any practical implementation. Seasonality in data gaps or rejected data can have a definite effect in performance assessment. A novel, comprehensive and detailed analysis framework was shown to present a better assessment of forecasters’ performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8654
Harry D. Kambezidis ◽  
Styliani I. Kampezidou ◽  
Dimitra Kampezidou

A mathematical method for accurately determining the upper and lower diffuse-fraction (kd) limits that divide the sky into clear, intermediate, and overcast is developed. Fourteen sites around the world are selected for demonstrating the methodology. The upper and lower kd values for these sites are determined from scatter plots of direct-normal solar radiation vs. kd pairs over the typical meteorological year of each site. They vary between 0.73 and 0.80 for the upper and between 0.24 and 0.27 for the lower kd limits. Plots of sunshine duration (SSD) vs. kd are prepared for 12 of the 14 sites. These plots show a decreasing trend in SSD with increasing values of kd, as anticipated. According to local climatology, the number of the SSD values in each sky-condition classification varies from site-to-site.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1128
Caleb Mensah ◽  
Ladislav Šigut ◽  
Milan Fischer ◽  
Lenka Foltýnová ◽  
Georg Jocher ◽  

The strong effects of climate change are expected to negatively impact the long-term resilience and function of forest ecosystems, which could lead to changes in forest carbon balance and productivity. However, these forest responses may vary with local conditions and forest types. Accordingly, this study was carried out to determine gross primary productivity (GPP) sensitivity to changes in environmental parameters. Central European beech (at Štítná) and spruce species (at Bílý Kr̆íz̆ and Rájec), growing under contrasting climatic conditions, were studied. The comparative analyses of GPP were based on a five-year-long dataset of eddy covariance fluxes during the main growing season (2012–2016). Results of forest GPP responses with changes in environmental factors from a traditional Stepwise multiple linear regression model (SMLR) were used and compared with Random forest (RF) analyses. To demonstrate how actual GPP trends compare to potential GPP (GPPpot) courses expected under near-optimal environmental conditions, we computed normalized GPP (GPPnorm) with values between 0 and 1 as the ratio of the estimated daily sum of GPP to GPPpot. The study confirmed the well-known effect of total intensity of the photosynthetically active radiation and its diffuse fraction on GPPnorm across all the forest types. However, the study also showed the secondary effects of other environmental variables on forest productivity depending on the species and local climatic conditions. The reduction in forest productivity at the beech forest in Štítná was presumed to be mainly induced by edaphic drought (anisohydric behaviour). In contrast, reduced forest productivity at the spruce forest sites was presumably induced by both meteorological and hydrological drought events, especially at the moderately dry climate in Rájec. Overall, our analyses call for more studies on forest productivity across different forest types and contrasting climatic conditions, as this productivity is strongly dependent on species type and site-specific environmental conditions.

2021 ◽  
Emily Gleeson ◽  
Kristian Pagh Nielsen

<p>Forecasting cloud accurately is still a challenge in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Detailed qualitative evaluation of such forecasts is needed in order to improve the forecasts. Cloud cover is often used for the evaluation but it is not a good metric due to inconsistency in methods for assessing the cloud cover. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI), also referred to as “global radiation”, provides an objective and quantitative measure for evaluating cloud forecasts during daytime.</p><p>Non-dimensional indices for solar energy resource assessment have been developed in recent years and decades that are very useful. One such index<br>is the clear sky index (CSI), which is the GHI divided by the theoretical GHI during clear sky conditions (e.g. [1,2]). We use the theoretical GHI clear sky model of [3,4], which includes coefficients that account for variable integrated atmospheric water vapour, aerosols and ozone. We have used binned CSI data computed using HARMONIE-AROME NWP forecast data and observations to identify model deficiencies in cloud and to evaluate new model physics options and settings. Sample results include the identification of consistent negative GHI biases under the thickest clouds and positive biases under Stratocumulus clouds. Such results help to pin-point deficiencies in the HARMONIE-AROME NWP model.</p><p><br>[1] Perez, R.; Ineichen, P.; Seals, R.; Zelenka, A. Making full use of the clearness index for parameterizing hourly insolation conditions. Sol. Energy 1990, 45, 111–114.</p><p>[2] Skartveit, A.; Olseth, J.A.; Tuft, M.E. An hourly diffuse fraction model with correction for variability and surface albedo. Sol. Energy 1998, 63, 173–183.</p><p>[3] Savijärvi, H. Fast radiation parameterization schemes for mesoscale and short-range forecast models. J. Appl. Meteorol. 1990, 437–447.</p><p>[4] Gleeson, E.; Nielsen, K.P.; Toll, V.; Rontu, L.; Whelan, E. Shortwave Radiation Experiments in HARMONIE. Tests of the cloud inhomogeneity factor and a new cloud liquid optical property scheme compared to observations. ALADIN-HIRLAM Newsl. 2015, 5, 92–106.</p>

Allan R. Starke ◽  
Leonardo F.L. Lemos ◽  
Cristian M. Barni ◽  
Rubinei D. Machado ◽  
José M. Cardemil ◽  

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