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Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Nicolas C. Nicolaides ◽  
Manousos Makridakis ◽  
Rafael Stroggilos ◽  
Vasiliki Lygirou ◽  
Eleni Koniari ◽  

: Significant inter-individual variation in terms of susceptibility to several stress-related disorders, such as myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, and therapeutic response has been observed among healthy subjects. The molecular features responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics, in association with bioinformatics analysis, offer a comprehensive description of molecular phenotypes with clear links to human disease pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative plasma proteomics analysis of glucocorticoid resistant and glucocorticoid sensitive healthy subjects and provide clues of the underlying physiological differences. For this purpose, 101 healthy volunteers were given a very low dose (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone at midnight, and were stratified into the 10% most glucocorticoid sensitive (S) (n = 11) and 10% most glucocorticoid resistant (R) (n = 11) according to the 08:00 h serum cortisol concentrations determined the following morning. One month following the very-low dose dexamethasone suppression test, DNA and plasma samples were collected from the 22 selected individuals. Sequencing analysis did not reveal any genetic defects in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. To investigate the proteomic profile of plasma samples, we used Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and found 110 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated proteins in the S compared to the R group. The majority of the up-regulated proteins in the S group were implicated in platelet activation. To predict response to cortisol prior to administration, a random forest classifier was developed by using the proteomics data in order to distinguish S from R individuals. Apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and gelsolin (GSN) were the most important variables in the classification, and warrant further investigation. Our results indicate that a proteomics signature may differentiate the S from the R healthy subjects, and may be useful in clinical practice. In addition, it may provide clues of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chronic stress-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 308-311
Farah Ahsan ◽  
Naeem Qureshi ◽  
Sumera Samreen ◽  
Sonali Kukreti

We aimed to provide correlation of HbA1c & Microalbumin in urine in patients of metabolic syndrome.: 100 patients coming to OPD of Medicine department in Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital. Plasma samples taken for Hba1c and urine for microalbumin and run on VITROS 5600/7600 and reported for Hba1c & microalbumin. : 51 were males and 49 were females out of 100 total patients. For males age mean & SD was 55.84±13.52 & for females was 57.56±10.08.For raised and unraised HbA1c 10.42±+9.628 & 5.066±.0.216 for raised and unraised microalbumin 412.±1133 & 11.97±7.129.When we compared both HbA1c and microalbumin in both males and females then mean and SD came out to for HbA1C for males 8.56±2.663 and females were 11.62±12.86 with t value 2.327 and p value 0.021 that states it was significant. And for micralbumin for male 391.5±1184 & for females 60.37±116.6 t value was 2.7832 and p value was 0.0059 it also states it was significant. Therefore both the parameters were significant in patients of metabolic syndrome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Whitney Cowman ◽  
Sabrina M. Scroggins ◽  
Wendy S. Hamilton ◽  
Alexandra E. Karras ◽  
Noelle C. Bowdler ◽  

Abstract Background Obesity in pregnancy is common, with more than 50% of pregnant women being overweight or obese. Obesity has been identified as an independent predictor of dysfunctional labor and is associated with increased risk of failed induction of labor resulting in cesarean section. Leptin, an adipokine, is secreted from adipose tissue under the control of the obesity gene. Concentrations of leptin increase with increasing percent body fat due to elevated leptin production from the adipose tissue of obese individuals. Interestingly, the placenta is also a major source of leptin production during pregnancy. Leptin has regulatory effects on neuronal tissue, vascular smooth muscle, and nonvascular smooth muscle systems. It has also been demonstrated that leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility with both intensity and frequency of contractions decreased. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in dysfunctional labor and be associated with the outcome of induction of labor at term. Our aim is to determine whether maternal plasma leptin concentration is indicative of the outcome of induction of labor at term. We hypothesize that elevated maternal plasma leptin levels are associated with a failed term induction of labor resulting in a cesarean delivery. Methods In this case-control study, leptin was measured in 3rd trimester plasma samples. To analyze labor outcomes, 174 women were selected based on having undergone an induction of labor (IOL), (115 women with successful IOL and 59 women with a failed IOL). Plasma samples and clinical information were obtained from the UI Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank (IRB# 200910784). Maternal plasma leptin and total protein concentrations were measured using commercially available assays. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were constructed using regression identified clinically significant confounding variables. All variables were tested at significance level of 0.05. Results Women with failed IOL had higher maternal plasma leptin values (0.5 vs 0.3 pg, P = 0.01). These women were more likely to have obesity (mean BMI 32 vs 27 kg/m2, P = 0.0002) as well as require multiple induction methods (93% vs 73%, p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed Bishop score (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), BMI (OR 0.92, P < 0.001), preeclampsia (OR 0.12, P = 0.010), use of multiple methods of induction (OR 0.22, P = 0.008) and leptin (OR 0.42, P = 0.017) were significantly associated with IOL outcome. Specifically, after controlling for BMI, Bishop Score, and preeclampsia, leptin was still predictive of a failed IOL with an odds ratio of 0.47 (P = 0.046). Finally, using leptin as a predictor for fetal outcomes, leptin was also associated with of fetal intolerance of labor, with an odds ratio of 2.3 (P = 0.027). This association remained but failed to meet statistical significance when controlling for successful (IOL) (OR 1.5, P = 0.50). Conclusions Maternal plasma leptin may be a useful tool for determining which women are likely to have a failed induction of labor and for counseling women about undertaking an induction of labor versus proceeding with cesarean delivery.

2022 ◽  
Dabin Yeum ◽  
Diane Gilbert-Diamond ◽  
Brett Doherty ◽  
Modupe Coker ◽  
Delisha Stewart ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe metabolomics profiles of maternal plasma during pregnancy and cord plasma at birth might influence fetal growth and birth anthropometry. The objectives of this study are to examine how metabolites measured in maternal plasma samples collected during pregnancy and umbilical cord plasma samples collected at birth are associated with newborn anthropometric measures, a known predictor of future health outcomes.MethodsPregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were recruited from prenatal clinics in New Hampshire as part of a prospective cohort study. Blood samples from 413 women at enrollment and 787 infant cord blood samples were analyzed using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 kit . Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine association of cord and maternal metabolites with infant anthropometry at birth.ResultsIn cord blood samples, several acylcarnitines, a phosphatidylcholine, and a custom metabolite indicator were negatively associated with birth weight Z-score, and lysophosphatidylcholines as well as three custom metabolite indicators were positively associated with birth weight Z-score. Acylcarnitine C5 was negatively associated with birth length Z-score, and several lysophosphatidylcholines and a custom metabolite indicator were positively associated with birth length Z-score. Maternal blood metabolites did not show significant associations with birth weight and length Z scores, however, a custom metabolite indicator, the ratio of kynurenine over tryptophan, was negatively associated with weight-for-length Z-score.ConclusionsSeveral cord blood metabolites associated with newborn weight and length Z-scores; in particular, consistent findings were observed for several acylcarnitines that play a role in utilization of energy sources, and a lysophosphatidylcholine that is part of oxidative stress and inflammatory response pathways. Fewer associations were observed with maternal metabolomic profiles.

Marion Gaudard ◽  
Elodie Boissier ◽  
Laurie Talon ◽  
Jonathan Douxfils ◽  
Anne‐Françoise Sapin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Joan Calvet ◽  
Antoni Berenguer-Llergo ◽  
Marina Gay ◽  
Marta Massanella ◽  
Pere Domingo ◽  

AbstractCOVID-19 pathophysiology is currently not fully understood, reliable prognostic factors remain elusive, and few specific therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this scenario, availability of biomarkers is a priority. MS-based Proteomics techniques were used to profile the proteome of 81 plasma samples extracted in four consecutive days from 23 hospitalized COVID-19 associated pneumonia patients. Samples from 10 subjects that reached a critical condition during their hospital stay and 10 matched non-severe controls were drawn before the administration of any COVID-19 specific treatment and used to identify potential biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis. Additionally, we compared the proteome of five patients before and after glucocorticoids and tocilizumab treatment, to assess the changes induced by the therapy on our selected candidates. Forty-two proteins were differentially expressed between patients' evolution groups at 10% FDR. Twelve proteins showed lower levels in critical patients (fold-changes 1.20–3.58), of which OAS3 and COG5 found their expression increased after COVID-19 specific therapy. Most of the 30 proteins over-expressed in critical patients (fold-changes 1.17–4.43) were linked to inflammation, coagulation, lipids metabolism, complement or immunoglobulins, and a third of them decreased their expression after treatment. We propose a set of candidate proteins for biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis at the time of hospital admission. The study design employed is distinctive from previous works and aimed to optimize the chances of the candidates to be validated in confirmatory studies and, eventually, to play a useful role in the clinical practice.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Yohann Dabi ◽  
Stéphane Suisse ◽  
Ludmila Jornea ◽  
Delphine Bouteiller ◽  
Cyril Touboul ◽  

The pathophysiology of endometriosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate functions and pathways associated with the various miRNAs differentially expressed in patients with endometriosis. Plasma samples of the 200 patients from the prospective “ENDO-miRNA” study were analyzed and all known human miRNAs were sequenced. For each miRNA, sensitivity, specificity, and ROC AUC values were calculated for the diagnosis of endometriosis. miRNAs with an AUC ≥ 0.6 were selected for further analysis. A comprehensive review of recent articles from the PubMed, Clinical, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was performed to identify functions and pathways associated with the selected miRNAs. In total, 2633 miRNAs were found in the patients with endometriosis. Among the 57 miRNAs with an AUC ≥ 0.6: 20 had never been reported before; one (miR-124-3p) had previously been observed in endometriosis; and the remaining 36 had been reported in benign and malignant disorders. miR-124-3p is involved in ectopic endometrial cell proliferation and invasion and plays a role in the following pathways: mTOR, STAT3, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, ERK, PLGF-ROS, FGF2-FGFR, MAPK, GSK3B/β–catenin. Most of the remaining 36 miRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis through cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. The three main pathways involved are Wnt/β–catenin, PI3K/Akt, and NF–KB. Our results provide evidence of the relation between the miRNA profiles of patients with endometriosis and various signaling pathways implicated in its pathophysiology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Agnieszka W. Jonczyk ◽  
Katarzyna K. Piotrowska-Tomala ◽  
Dariusz J. Skarzynski

We investigated the effects of different doses of dinoprost injected directly into the bovine corpus luteum (CL) on (i) concentrations of progesterone (P4) and oxytocin (OT) in peripheral blood and (ii) mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (P450scc), hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 β- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B), and receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1, RIPK3) in CL tissue. Moreover, we examined the effects of dinoprost, injected intra-CL or administered intramuscularly (IM), on CL secretory function and on indicators of CL vascular network status: luteal tissue area (LTA), CL blood flow (CLBF), and the CLBF:LTA ratio (Adj. CLBF), in cows at the early and mid-luteal phases. In the Experiment 1, cows (day 10 of the cycle) were allocated to (i) an intra-CL injection of saline (control; n = 3); (ii) an intra-CL injection of dinoprost (1.25 mg; 2.5 mg, or 5 mg; n = 3 for each dose); (iii) an IM administration of saline (control; n = 3); or (iv) an IM administration of dinoprost (25 mg; positive control; n = 3). Concentrations of OT and P4 were measured in plasma samples. The mRNA expression of steroidogenesis- or necroptosis-related factors was determined in CL tissue 4 h after treatments. In Experiment 2, cows on day 4 (n = 12) or day 10 (n = 12) were allocated to (i) an intra-CL injection of dinoprost (2.5 mg/0.5 ml; n = 6), or (ii) IM administration of dinoprost (25 mg/5 ml; n = 6). Concentrations of P4 were measured in plasma samples. Luteal tissue area, CLBF, and Adj. CLBF were assessed based on color Doppler ultrasonography. An intra-CL injection of dinoprost increased OT and decreased P4 levels in the jugular vein (JV) in a dose-dependent manner in cows at the mid-luteal phase. Increased CLBF and Adj. CLBF, accompanied by reduced P4 levels, were observed 2 h after intra-CL dinoprost injection in middle-stage CL. Decreased STAR and increased RIPK1 and RIPK3 mRNA levels confirmed that 2.5 mg dinoprost injected directly into CL is the minimum dose that induces luteolytic cascade. Injection of dinoprost directly into the CL (at a dosage lower than recommended for peripheral application) results in a pattern similar to IM dinoprost administration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kyu-Young Sim ◽  
Gwang-Hoon Ko ◽  
So-Eun Bae ◽  
Kyu Yeong Choi ◽  
Jung Sup Lee ◽  

A novel coronavirus designated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged and caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia. Several reports have shown that cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 also exist in people unexposed to this virus. However, the neutralizing activity of cross-reactive antibodies is controversial. Here, we subjected plasma samples from SARS-CoV-2-unexposed elderly Korean people (n = 119) to bead-based IgG antibody analysis. SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit-reactive IgG antibody analysis detected positive signals in some samples (59 of 119, 49.6%). SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-reactive antibody levels were most significantly correlated with human coronavirus-HKU1 S1 subunit-reactive antibody levels. To check the neutralizing activity of plasma samples, the SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotype neutralizing assay was used. However, the levels of cross-reactive antibodies did not correlate with neutralizing activity. Instead, SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection was neutralized by some RBD-reactive plasma samples (n = 9, neutralization ≥ 25%, P ≤ 0.05), but enhanced by other RBD-reactive plasma samples (n = 4, neutralization ≤ -25%, P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, the blood plasma groups with enhancing and neutralizing effects had high levels of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive antibodies than the plasma group that had no effect. These results suggest that some SARS-CoV-2 RBD-reactive antibodies from pre-pandemic elderly people exert two opposing functions during SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. In conclusion, preformed RBD-reactive antibodies may have two opposing functions, namely, protecting against and enhancing viral infection. Analysis of the epitopes of preformed antibodies will be useful to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bernard Laubscher ◽  
Manuel Diezi ◽  
Raffaele Renella ◽  
Edward A. D. Mitchell ◽  
Alexandre Aebi ◽  

Abstract Background Neonicotinoids (NN) are selective neurotoxic pesticides that bind to insect but also mammal nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs). As the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, they are ubiquitously found in the environment, wildlife, and foods, and thus of special concern for their impacts on the environment and human health. nAChRs are vital to proper brain organization during the prenatal period and play important roles in various motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Little is known on children’s contamination by NN. In a pilot study we tested the hypothesis that children’s cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can be contaminated by NN. Methods NN were analysed in leftover CSF, blood, and urine samples from children treated for leukaemias and lymphomas and undergoing therapeutic lumbar punctions. We monitored all neonicotinoids approved on the global market and some of their most common metabolites by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results From August to December 2020, 14 children were consecutively included in the study. Median age was 8 years (range 3–18). All CSF and plasma samples were positive for at least one NN. Nine (64%) CSF samples and 13 (93%) plasma samples contained more than one NN. Thirteen (93%) CSF samples had N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (median concentration 0.0123, range 0.0024–0.1068 ng/mL), the major metabolite of acetamiprid. All but one urine samples were positive for ≥ one NN. A statistically significant linear relationship was found between plasma/urine and CSF N-desmethyl-acetamiprid concentrations. Conclusions We have developed a reliable analytical method that revealed multiple NN and/or their metabolites in children’s CSF, plasma, and urine. Our data suggest that contamination by multiple NN is not only an environmental hazard for non-target insects such as bees but also potentially for children.

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